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Intestate succession statutes should reflect the distributive preferences of intestate decedents. To date, these distributive preferences could only be inferred from distributive patterns found in wills. This telephone survey of 750 persons living in Alabama, California, Massachusetts, Ohio, and Texas supplements prior will studies and provides new insights concerning public attitudes about property distribution at death. The distributive preferences of the respondents revealed few significant differences that could be attributed to age, education, income, wealth, or occupational status. Two other important findings of this study suggest that a modern intestacy statute should provide that (1) the surviving spouse inherit the entire estate in preference to the decedent's issue or family of orientation and (2) issue who are in the same generation share equally in the estate.
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
We describe the development of a new deposition method for thin oriented films of GaN on basal plane sapphire using an exclusively inorganic single-source precursor free of carbon and hydrogen, Cl2GaN3. The films have been characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for composition morphology and structure. RBS analysis confirmed stoichiometric GaN and TEM observations of the highly conformal films revealed heteroepitaxial columnar growth of crystalline wurrtzite material on sapphire. Auger and RBS oxygen and carbon resonance profiles indicated that the films were pure and highly homogeneous. We also report the reactions of Cl2GaN3 with organometallic nitriles to yield a crystalline, novel gallium carbon nitride of composition GaC3N3. Quantitative X-ray powder diffraction has been used to refine the cubic structure of this material which consists of Ga atoms octahedrally surrounded by on the average three C and three N atoms. The structurally analogous LiGaC4N4 phase has also been prepared and characterized.
Transient ionizing radiation fields have been observed to cause substantial optical loss in undoped LiNbO3 crystals operating at 1.06 microns. This loss is slow to recover and makes the selection of this material for Q-switch applications in radiation environments unfeasible. We have studied the effects of Mg doping on the radiation response of LiNbO3 crystals and have investigated the optical luminescence of doped and undoped samples. Our results indicate a strong correlation between crystal defects, formed primarily during crystal growth, and the radiation-induced optical loss exhibited by these materials. These findings have enabled us to produce radiation-hard LiNbO3 crystals for use in high gamma-field environments.
The cognitive profile of early onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD) has not been clearly defined. Mutations in the parkin gene are the most common genetic risk factor for EOPD and may offer information about the neuropsychological pattern of performance in both symptomatic and asymptomatic mutation carriers. EOPD probands and their first-degree relatives who did not have Parkinson’s disease (PD) were genotyped for mutations in the parkin gene and administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Performance was compared between EOPD probands with (N = 43) and without (N = 52) parkin mutations. The same neuropsychological battery was administered to 217 first-degree relatives to assess neuropsychological function in individuals who carry parkin mutations but do not have PD. No significant differences in neuropsychological test performance were found between parkin carrier and noncarrier probands. Performance also did not differ between EOPD noncarriers and carrier subgroups (i.e., heterozygotes, compound heterozygotes/homozygotes). Similarly, no differences were found among unaffected family members across genotypes. Mean neuropsychological test performance was within normal range in all probands and relatives. Carriers of parkin mutations, whether or not they have PD, do not perform differently on neuropsychological measures as compared to noncarriers. The cognitive functioning of parkin carriers over time warrants further study. (JINS, 2011, 17, 1–10)
Modern principles of morality are inadequate for solving the structural problems faced by contemporary societies. Early in the modern epoch the normative, social concept of nature that had supported Greek, Roman, and medieval ethical theories, became transformed into a purely empirical, private one. Thus for Hobbes, Locke, and most eighteenth-century political theorists, the “state of nature” referred to the opposite of a social state, ruled by lawful custom, it had meant before. The idea of “natural right” which gradually emerged as a substitute principle was denned in individualist terms. With the notion of “general will” Rousseau attempted to establish a more genuinely social basis for the State.
To determine whether the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System risk index adequately stratified a population of pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery according to the risk of developing surgical site infection (SSI).
A retrospective, case-control study.
An urban tertiary care children's hospital.
Patients who had a median sternotomy performed between January 1,1995, and December 31, 2003, were eligible for inclusion in the study. For all case patients, medical records were reviewed to verify that all patients met the case definition for SSI. Control subjects were chosen randomly from among all patients who underwent median sternotomy during the study period who did not develop SSI.
Thirty-eight patients with SSI and 172 patients without SSI were included. One hundred six patients (50%) were male. The median patient age was 4 months. The sensitivity of the NNIS risk index with cutoff scores of 0 to 1 and 2 to 3 was 20%. The distribution of patients with SSI for an NNIS risk index score of 0 was 0%; for a score of 1, 80%; for a score of 2, 20%; and for a score of 3, 0%. The distribution of patients without SSI for a scores of 0 was 4%; for a score of 1, 87%; for a score of 2, 9%; and for a score of 3, 0%. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the original NNIS risk index was 0.57. The modified risk indices did not perform significantly better, with an AUC range of 0.58 to 0.73.
The NNIS risk index did not adequately stratify pediatric patients undergoing median sternotomy according to their risk of developing an SSI. Various modifications to the risk index yielded only slightly higher AUC values.
Subjects underwent longitudinal neuropsychological assessment
in order to retrospectively determine which measures of cognitive
function best predicted later development of dementia of the
Alzheimer type (DAT). Three groups of subjects were studied:
normal controls, patients with early DAT, and questionable dementia
subjects (QD). All subjects were assessed using a battery of
standard neuropsychological measures and two subtests from the
Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB),
paired associate learning and delayed matching to sample. A
structured interview was also used to elicit a profile of the
subject's daily functioning. Subjects were assessed every
6 months for 2 years. At the 6 month assessment, almost half
of the QD group exhibited significant deterioration in scores
on the computerized paired associate learning subtest, while
maintaining their scores on standard measures. At the conclusion
of the study, all of this QD subgroup fulfilled the
NINCDS–ADRDA criteria for probable DAT pertaining to
significant cognitive and functional deterioration. Performance
on the CANTAB paired associate learning subtest identified the
onset of progressive memory deterioration in a subgroup of QD
subjects. In almost all cases this was well before significant
deterioration was noted on standard neuropsychological measures.
Paired associate learning performance may therefore be a valuable
tool for the early, preclinical detection and assessment of
DAT. (JINS, 2002, 8, 58–71.)