To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The extent of intertidal flats in the Yellow Sea region has declined significantly in the past few decades, resulting in severe population declines in several waterbird species. The Yellow Sea region holds the primary stopover sites for many shorebirds during their migration to and from northern breeding grounds. However, the functional roles of these sites in shorebirds’ stopover ecology remain poorly understood. Through field surveys between July and November 2015, we investigated the stopover and moult schedules of migratory shorebirds along the southern Jiangsu coast, eastern China during their southbound migration, with a focus on the ‘Critically Endangered’ Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmaea and ‘Endangered’ Nordmann’s Greenshank Tringa guttifer. Long-term count data indicate that both species regularly occur in globally important number in southern Jiangsu coast, constituting 16.67–49.34% and 64.0–80.67% of their global population estimates respectively, and it is highly likely that most adults undergo their primary moult during this southbound migration stopover. Our results show that Spoon-billed Sandpiper and Nordmann’s Greenshank staged for an extended period of time (66 and 84 days, respectively) to complete their primary moult. On average, Spoon-billed Sandpipers and Nordmann’s Greenshanks started moulting primary feathers on 8 August ± 4.52 and 27 July ± 1.56 days respectively, and their moult durations were 72.58 ± 9.08 and 65.09 ± 2.40 days. In addition, some individuals of several other shorebird species including the ‘Endangered’ Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris, ‘Near Threatened’ Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica, ‘Near Threatened’ Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata and Greater Sand Plover Charadrius leschenaultii also underwent primary moult. Our work highlights the importance of the southern Jiangsu region as the primary moulting ground for these species, reinforcing that conservation of shorebird habitat including both intertidal flats and supratidal roosting sites in this region is critical to safeguard the future of some highly threatened shorebird species.
Chlamydia spp. are a group of obligate intracellular pathogens causing a number of diseases in animals and humans. Avian chlamydiosis (AC), caused by Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) as well as new emerging C. avium, C. gallinacea and C. ibidis, have been described in nearly 500 avian species worldwidely. The Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon) is a world endangered avian species with limited population and vulnerable for various infections. To get a better understanding of the prevalence of Chlamydia spp. in the endangered Crested Ibis, faecal samples were collected and analysed. The results confirmed that 20.20% (20/99) of the faecal samples were positive for Chlamydiaceae and were identified as C. ibidis with co-existence of C. psittaci in one of the 20 positive samples. In addition, ompA sequence of C. psittaci obtained in this study was classified into the provisional genotype Matt116, while that of C. ibidis showed high genetic diversity, sharing only 77% identity with C. ibidis reference strain 10-1398/6. We report for the first time the presence of C. ibidis and C. psittaci in the Crested Ibis, which may indicate a potential threat to the endangered birds and should be aware of the future protection practice.
Richtmyer–Meshkov instability of the SF6 gas layer surrounded by air is experimentally investigated. Using the soap film technique, five kinds of gas layer with two sharp interfaces are generated such that the development of each individual interface is highlighted. The flow patterns are determined by the amplitudes and phases of two corrugated interfaces. For a layer with both interfaces planar, the interface velocity shows that the reflected rarefaction waves from the second interface accelerate the first interface motion. For a layer with the second interface corrugated but the first interface planar, the reflected rarefaction waves make the first interface develop with the same phase as the second interface. For a layer with the first interface corrugated but the second interface planar, the rippled shock seeded from the first interface makes the second interface develop with the same phase as the first interface and the layer evolves into an ‘upstream mushroom’ shape. For two interfaces corrugated with opposite (the same) phase but a larger amplitude for the first interface, the layer evolves into ‘sinuous’ shape (‘bow and arrow’ shape, which has never been observed previously). For the interface amplitude growth in the linear stage, the waves’ effects are considered in the model to give a better prediction. In the nonlinear stage, the effect of the rarefaction waves on the first interface evolution is quantitatively evaluated, and the nonlinear growth is well predicted. It is the first time in experiments to quantify the interfacial instability induced by the rarefaction waves inside the heavy gas layer.
The interaction of a shock wave and a water droplet embedded with a vapour cavity is experimentally investigated in a shock tube for the first time. The vapour cavity inside the droplet is generated by decreasing the surrounding pressure to the saturation pressure, and an equilibrium between the liquid phase and the gas phase is obtained inside the droplet. Direct high-speed photography is adopted to capture the evolution of both the droplet and the vapour cavity. The formation of a transverse jet inside the droplet during the cavity-collapse stage is clearly observed. Soon afterwards, at the downstream pole of the droplet, a water jet penetrating into the surrounding air is observed during the cavity-expansion stage. The evolution of the droplet is strongly influenced by the evolution of the vapour cavity. The phase change process plays an important role in vapour cavity evolution. The effects of the relative size and eccentricity of the cavity on the movement and deformation of the droplet are presented quantitatively.
Many shorebird populations are in decline along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. The rapid loss of coastal wetlands in the Yellow Sea, which provide critical stop-over sites during migration, is believed to be the cause of the alarming trends. The Yalu Jiang coastal wetland, a protected area in the north Yellow Sea, supports the largest known migratory staging populations of Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica (menzbieri and baueri subspecies) and Great Knots Calidris tenuirostris. Monitoring of the macrozoobenthos food for these shorebirds from 2011 to 2016 showed declines of over 99% in the densities of the bivalve Potamocorbula laevis, the major food here for both Bar-tailed Godwits and Great Knots. The loss of the bivalve might be caused by any combination of, but not limited to: (1) change in hydrological conditions and sediment composition due to nearby port construction, (2) run-off of agrochemicals from the extensive shoreline sea cucumber farms, and (3) parasitic infection. Surprisingly, the numbers of birds using the Yalu Jiang coastal wetland remained stable during the study period, except for the subspecies of Bar-tailed Godwit L. l. menzbieri, which exhibited a 91% decline in peak numbers. The lack of an overall decline in the number of bird days in Great Knots and in the peak numbers of L. l. baueri, also given the published simultaneous decreases in their annual survival, implies a lack of alternative habitats that birds could relocate to. This study highlights that food declines at staging sites could be an overlooked but important factor causing population declines of shorebirds along the Flyway. Maintaining the quality of protected staging sites is as important in shorebird conservation as is the safeguarding of staging sites from land claim. Meanwhile, it calls for immediate action to restore the food base for these beleaguered migrant shorebirds at Yalu Jiang coastal wetland.
A new lithium ion hybrid supercapacitor is reported, in which the negative electrode was made from ZnO nano-crystals coated with a nitrogen doped carbon, and a positive electrode composed of activated carbon. The ZnO nano-crystals were highly dispersed in a nitrogen doped carbon matrix through a bio-inspired route. Dopamine, used as the nitrogen and carbon source, self-polymerized and deposited onto the surface of ZnO nano-crystal. After pyrolysis, a nitrogen doped amorphous carbon coated ZnO nano-crystal materials were obtained. The characteristics of the synthesized carbon coated ZnO nano-crystal electrode as well as the electrochemical performance of the hybrid device were investigated. The ZnO nano-crystal structure was preserved in the course of the carbon coating. The lithium ion supercapacitor demonstrated a high capacity and good cycling stability. Such good performance can be attributed to improved conductivity, the prevention of ZnO nano particles from pulverization and the high degree of crystallinity of the ZnO material.
This paper presents a Chinese adaption of the Formal Characteristics of the Behavior-Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI), a self-report instrument that evaluates six temperamental scales, based on Strelau’s concept of temperament. A first sample of 626 undergraduates completed the Chinese version of the Regulative Theory of Temperament Questionnaire (RTTQ), which is an initial pool of 381 items. Internal consistency suggests adequate reliability (.66 to .82), and an exploratory factor analysis revealed a six-factor solution consistent with the original instrument. A follow-up confirmatory factor analysis revealed good support for the temperament structure with a second sample of students (N = 2.980). Internal consistency and factorial structure were re-examined (Cronbach’s alpha ranged .64 to .85), and test-retest correlations over a two-week period ranged from .82 to .96 with a third sample of adults (N = 2.265). Convergent and discriminant validity was explored in relation to the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revision Short Scale for Chinese (EPQ-RSC) model dimensions. Results indicate that the Chinese version of the FCB-TI has similar psychometric properties and generally satisfactory reliability and validity.
Self-assembled vertical heteroepitaxial nanostructures (VHN) in the complex oxide field have fascinated scientists for decades because they provide degrees of freedom to explore in condensed matter physics and design-coupled multifunctionlities. Recently, of particular interest is the perovskite-spinel-based VHN, covering a wide spectrum of promising applications. In this review, fabrication of VHN, their growth mechanism, control, and resulting novel multifunctionalities are discussed thoroughly, providing researchers a comprehensive blueprint to construct promising VHN. Following the fabrication section, the state-of-the-art design concepts for multifunctionalities are proposed and reviewed by suitable examples. By summarizing the outlook of this field, we are excitedly expecting this field to rise with significant contributions ranging from scientific value to practical applications in the foreseeable future.
The strategies of repair of tetralogy of Fallot change with the age of patients. In children older than 4 years and adults, the optimal strategy may be to use different method of reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract from those followed in younger children, so as to avoid, or reduce, the pulmonary insufficiency that is increasingly known to compromise right ventricular function.
From April, 2001, through May, 2008, we undertook complete repair in 312 patients, 180 male and 132 female, with a mean age of 11.3 years ±0.4 years, and a range from 4 to 48 years, with typical clinical and morphological features of tetralogy of Fallot, including 42 patients with the ventriculo-arterial connection of double outlet right ventricle. The operation was performed under moderate hypothermia using blood cardioplegia. The ventricular septal defect was closed with a Dacron patch. When it was considered necessary to resect the musculature within the right ventricular outflow tract, or perform pulmonary valvotomy, we sought to preserve the function of the pulmonary valve by protecting as far as possible the native leaflets, or creating a folded monocusp of autologous pericardium.
The repair was achieved completely through right atrium in 192, through the right ventricular outflow tract in 83, and through the right atrium, the outflow tract, and the pulmonary trunk in 36 patients. A transjunctional patch was inserted in 169 patients, non-valved in all but 9. There were no differences regarding the periods of aortic cross-clamping or cardiopulmonary bypass. Of the patients, 5 died (1.6%), with no influence noted for the transjunctional patch. Of those having a non-valved patch inserted, three-tenths had pulmonary regurgitation of various degree, while those having a valved patch had minimal pulmonary insufficiency and good right ventricular function postoperatively, this being maintained after follow-up of 8 to 24-months.
Based on our experience, we suggest that the current strategy of repair of tetralogy of Fallot in older children and adults should be based on minimizing the insertion of transjunctional patches, this being indicated only in those with very small ventriculo-pulmonary junctions. If such a patch is necessary, then steps should be taken to preserve the function of the pulmonary valve.
The distribution of genetic diversity between Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica and O. sativa L. ssp. japonica covering different ecological zones in Yunnan was studied, and specific markers of indica/japonica subspecies, paddy/upland rice and different ecological zones were screened, using 36 microsatellite primers and 113 accessions in the Yunnan landrace rice core collection. The genetic diversity of japonica was higher than that of indica, and the ecological zone with the highest and smallest genetic diversity lay in south-east and north-east Yunnan, respectively. This distribution was consistent at morphological and isozyme levels with studies on the entire Yunnan rice resources and core collection. In addition, the results showed that, among 416 markers, there were six indica/japonica-specific markers, 15 specific markers for paddy/upland rice and three specific markers in different ecological zones. The main conclusions are that the landrace rice core collection in Yunnan genetically represents the entire landrace rice resources in Yunnan, the centre of genetic diversity at DNA level lies in south-east Yunnan, and the DNA differentiation between indica and japonica is small. Furthermore, microsatellite markers were useful for studying the genetic diversity, classification and ecotype of germplasm resources and their core collection.
GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs (x=0.5, 0.6, 1.0) superlattices used as buffer layers in HEMT devices have been grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) at. atmospheric pressure, and characterized by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The initial stage of nucleation on the substrates has been clearly verified by examining the undulations of a 30na GaAs layer sandwiched between the substrate and the superlattice. Both Alo.5Gao.5As/GaAs and AlAs/GaAs superlattices can smooth out interface roughness caused by contaminations and dislocations on the substrate surface. The mechanism of smoothing effect has been discussed in detail.
Parkinson's disease (PD) has been proposed to result from the interaction of aging and environment in susceptible individuals. Defective metabolism of debrisoquine, inherited as an autosomal recessive, has been associated with this susceptibility. In 35 PD patients and 19 age-matched controls, no significant differences in debrisoquine metabolism were found, although a trend to impaired metabolism was noted in patients with disease onset ≤40. Foci of PD patients were associated with rural living and well water drinking, or rural living coupled with market gardening or wood pulp mills. In a questionnaire survey, patients with PD onset ≤age 47 were significantly more likely to have lived in rural areas and to have drunk well water than those with onset ≥age 54 (p≤0.01). Because of population mobility in North America, a case-control study designed to test environmental, occupational, dietary and other proposed risk factors for PD was conducted in China, where the population is more stationary and the environment more stable. No significant differences in incidences of head trauma, smoking or childhood measles were found between patients and controls.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.