Using data from the Alberta Health Care Insurance Plan, the prevalence of motor neurone disease (MND) was estimated for the Province of Alberta, Canada. Between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 1995, 208 cases of MND (125 males, 83 females) were identified from physician billing records giving a period prevalence of 7.38 (8.9 for males, 5.9 for females) per 100,000 population. On prevalence day, July 1, 1995, there were 171 cases (103 males, 68 females) of MND giving a point prevalence estimate of 6.07 (7.3 for males, 4.8 for females) per 100,000 population. Males were more likely to be diagnosed (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.1, 2.1) with MND and there was an increased risk of receiving a diagnosis with increasing age (χ2
trend = 281, p < 0.001). The mean age of the cases was 59.2 years (58.5 for males, 60.3 for females) and did not differ significantly between the sexes. Geographically, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence across regions of the Province. During the study period, 28% of the cases had died (30% of males, 25% of females). The prevalence of MND in Alberta, is among the highest reported in the literature and requires additional investigation to verify these estimates and identify possible causative factors.