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Guangxi, a province in southwestern China, has the second highest reported number of HIV/AIDS cases in China. This study aimed to develop an accurate and effective model to describe the tendency of HIV and to predict its incidence in Guangxi. HIV incidence data of Guangxi from 2005 to 2016 were obtained from the database of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network models, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models, generalised regression neural network (GRNN) models and exponential smoothing (ES) were used to fit the incidence data. Data from 2015 and 2016 were used to validate the most suitable models. The model performances were evaluated by evaluating metrics, including mean square error (MSE), root mean square error, mean absolute error and mean absolute percentage error. The LSTM model had the lowest MSE when the N value (time step) was 12. The most appropriate ARIMA models for incidence in 2015 and 2016 were ARIMA (1, 1, 2) (0, 1, 2)12 and ARIMA (2, 1, 0) (1, 1, 2)12, respectively. The accuracy of GRNN and ES models in forecasting HIV incidence in Guangxi was relatively poor. Four performance metrics of the LSTM model were all lower than the ARIMA, GRNN and ES models. The LSTM model was more effective than other time-series models and is important for the monitoring and control of local HIV epidemics.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
The current experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary protein levels and rumen-protected folic acid (RPFA) supplementation on ruminal fermentation, microbial enzyme activity, bacterial populations and urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in growing beef steers. Low-protein (LP) or high-protein (HP) diets were fed to eight ruminally cannulated first-generation cross-bred (Blonde d'Aquitaine × Simmental) beef steers with or without RPFA supplementation. Steers were fed a total mixed ration, and dietary concentrate to maize silage ratio was 50 : 50 (dry matter (DM) basis). No interaction between dietary crude protein (CP) levels and RPFA supplementation was observed during the experiment. Ruminal pH was unaffected by RPFA supplementation, but decreased with increasing dietary CP levels. Ruminal total volatile fatty acid concentration increased with increasing dietary CP levels or RPFA supplementation. Molar proportion of acetate increased with RPFA supplementation, but tended to decrease with increasing dietary CP levels. The proportion of propionate decreased with RPFA supplementation, but was unaffected by dietary CP levels. As a result, the acetate to propionate ratio increased with RPFA supplementation, but tended to be lower for the HP diets than the LP diets. Ammonia-nitrogen content decreased with RPFA supplementation, but increased with increasing dietary CP levels. In situ ruminal degradability of maize straw and concentrate increased with increasing dietary CP levels or RPFA supplementation. Microbial enzyme (carboxymethyl-cellulase, cellobiase, xylanase, pectinase, α-amylase and protease) activity, bacterial populations (Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Prevotella ruminicola, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminobacter amylophilus) and urinary PD excretion increased with increasing dietary CP levels or RPFA supplementation. The current study showed that increasing dietary CP levels from 109·1 to 130·7 g/kg DM or supplementing 75 mg RPFA improved ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis by increasing bacterial population and microbial enzyme activity.
crAssphage is a newly discovered gut bacteriophage. However, its pathogenicity and molecular epidemiology in humans are as yet unclear. In this study, we investigated the association between crAssphage and diarrhoea, as well as the molecular epidemiology of crAssphage in Chinese patients from our hospital. Our results indicated that there were no significant differences in the crAssphage-positive ratio and viral loads in faecal supernatants between adults with diarrhoea and healthy adults. Of infants and children with diarrhoea, 2·8% were found to be crAssphage-positive, including two infants aged <1 month. Markedly, of all confirmed crAssphage-positive strains, 100% had the ORF00039 deletion and 77·8% had low identity of ORF00018 compared to crAssphage (GenBank accession no. NC_024711, designated genotype 1). Thus, crAssphage was not associated with diarrhoea and most strains of crAssphage in Chinese patients (designated genotype 2) were characterized by the ORF00039 deletion and low identity of ORF00018.
A new approach for the analysis of stress intensity factors (SIFs) for cracked plane plate is proposed based on the wavelet finite element method using the scaling functions of B-spline wavelet on the interval (BSWI). The performance of the method is investigated through the comparison of the results with the available numerical examples in the literate. It is shown that the solution quality is much better than that of the traditional adaptive finite element method. Though the method is applied to plane structures in this paper, it can be extended to solving problems for other classes of structures.
Biased assessment of tillage impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration are often associated with a lack of information on the initial level of SOC stocks. The present study reported the changes in SOC concentrations and stocks following 10-year different tillage practices relative to the initial SOC levels. The tillage trial included no tillage (NT), ridge tillage (RT) and mouldboard plough (MP) on a Black soil (Hapludolls) in Northeast China. Results showed that tillage, soil depth and time significantly affected SOC concentration and SOC stock. Tillage and crop residue retention had great impacts on the SOC concentrations in the top 0·1 m layer. Compared with MP and NT, RT resulted in higher SOC concentration and SOC stock in the plough layer (0–0·2 m), which became more obvious with time. The soil under NT and RT had higher stratification ratios (SR) of SOC (SR, the ratio of SOC concentration in 0–0·05 m to that in 0·1–0·2 m) than under MP. Significant positive and nearly identical linear relationships between the SR of SOC and the duration of tillage practices occurred for both NT and RT soils; the increased SR in NT resulted from both SOC increase in surface and SOC decrease in subsurface soils, but in RT, the increased SR was only from a substantial SOC increase in surface soil. Accordingly, the present study highlights that RT was more helpful than NT in carbon sequestration for the studied Black soil in Northeast China.
Saline-sodic soils are widely distributed in the western Songnen Plain of Northeast China and planting rice has been found to be an effective and feasible approach for improving saline-sodic soil and increasing food production. Assessment of the effectiveness and sustainability of this method requires monitoring of the changes in soil salinity and nutrient content. The objective of the current study was to investigate the changes of soil salinity and nitrogen (N) contents over 1, 3, 6 and 9 years of cultivation, four application rates of N (N0: no N, N1: 100 kg N/ha, N2: 200 kg N/ha and N3: 300 kg N/ha) and two irrigation water types: ground water irrigation (GWI) and river water irrigation (RWI). Salinity and N contents of soil and water samples were analysed before planting and after harvest throughout the experiments. Soil pH and electrical conductivity (EC), especially in the surface layer of 0–40 cm depth, decreased with years of cultivation with both GWI and RWI, while soil inorganic N and total N contents increased. Moreover, with increasing N application rates, soil inorganic N and total N contents increased significantly in the 0–20 cm soil layer. Increasing N application had little effect on soil pH and EC. Reclaiming and planting rice promoted desalination of the surface and formation of a fertile tillage layer in saline-sodic paddy fields. In terms of irrigation and drainage in saline-sodic paddy fields, both soil salinity and N contents increased. Soil total salinity increased annually by 34 and 12·8 kg/ha, and inorganic N contents increased annually by 9 and 13·5 kg/ha with GWI and RWI, respectively. Therefore, comprehensive agricultural practices should be adopted for improving and cropping rice in saline-sodic paddy fields.
Exact analysis of displacements and stresses in 2-D orthotopic laminates under extension is conducted. On the basis of the Hamiltonian state space approach and the transfer matrix method, a complete solution, in the context of generalized strain, which exactly satisfies the state space equation, the traction-free BC on the top and bottom surfaces of the rectangular section, the interfacial continuity conditions in multi-layered laminates, and the end conditions on free edges, is obtained by combing the eigensolutions and the particular solution. Evaluating of the stresses in the boundary layer for verification shows that the stress decay in laminates under uniform extension may be slow and the edge effects may be pronounced.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
The Beijing/W lineage strains are the major prevalent strains in China. The prevalence, mortality and drug-resistant rates of tuberculosis in Xinjiang, Northwestern China are higher than in other parts of the country. Our previous study results showed that the dominant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) were ‘Beijing/W lineage’ MTB in Xinjiang; those strains had no significant correlation with drug resistance. We investigated whether the prevalence of ‘Beijing/W lineage’ sublineage strains was associated with drug resistance. We collected 478 sputum specimens from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Beijing/W strains and their sublineages were identified by distinguishing five specific large sequence polymorphisms, using polymerase chain reaction. All strains were subjected to a drug susceptibility test using the proportion method on Löwenstein–Jensen culture medium. In total, 379 clinical isolates of MTB were isolated and identified, 57·26% of these isolates were identified as Beijing/W strains, of which 11·06% isolates were in sublineage 105, 14·74% isolates in sublineage 207, 69·59% isolates in sublineage 181, and 4·61% isolates in sublineage 150. None of the isolates was in sublineage 142. Our data showed there were four sublineages of Beijing/W isolates in Xinjiang province, China. However, there were no correlations between drug resistance and the sublineages of Beijing/W strains.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
In this paper an explicit finite-difference time-domain scheme for solving the Maxwell’s equations in non-staggered grids is presented. The proposed scheme for solving the Faraday’s and Ampere’s equations in a theoretical manner is aimed to preserve discrete zero-divergence for the electric and magnetic fields. The inherent local conservation laws in Maxwell’s equations are also preserved discretely all the time using the explicit second-order accurate symplectic partitioned Runge-Kutta scheme. The remaining spatial derivative terms in the semi-discretized Faraday’s and Ampere’s equations are then discretized to provide an accurate mathematical dispersion relation equation that governs the numerical angular frequency and the wavenumbers in two space dimensions. To achieve the goal of getting the best dispersive characteristics, we propose a fourth-order accurate space centered scheme which minimizes the difference between the exact and numerical dispersion relation equations. Through the computational exercises, the proposed dual-preserving solver is computationally demonstrated to be efficient for use to predict the long-term accurate Maxwell’s solutions.
The durations (T90) of 315 GRBs detected with Fermi/GBM (8-1000 keV) by 2011 September are calculated using the Bayesian Block method. We compare the T90 distributions between this sample and that observed with previous/current GRB missions. We show that T90 is energy-band dependent and the observed bimodal T90 distribution would be due to the instrumental selection effect.
Annual H3N2 subtype influenza outbreaks in Guangdong, China are a severe public health issue and require ongoing monitoring of emerging viral variants. The variation and evolution of haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of influenza isolates from Guangdong during 2007–2011 and others from GenBank were analysed using Lasergene 7.1 and MEGA 5.05, and serological analysis of antigens was determined by haemagglutination inhibition (HI). Susceptibility to antiviral drugs was correlated with genetic mutations. Phylogenetic analysis and alignment of HA and NA genes were performed on 18 Guangdong isolates and 26 global reference strains. The non-synonymous (dN) evolutionary rate of HA1 was 3·13 times that of HA2. Compared with the A/Perth/16/2009 vaccine HA gene, homologies of Guangdong isolates were between 98·8–99·7% and 98·0–98·4% in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Amino-acid substitutions were found in five epitopes of HA1 from Guangdong isolates between 2007 and 2011, especially in epitopes B (N160K) and D (K174R/N). The K189E/N/Q and T228A mutations in the receptor-binding site (RBS) occurred in the 2010 strains, which affected the antigenicity of HA1. The antigenicity of the epidemic H3N2 isolates in 2010 was somewhat different from that of A/Perth/16/2009. The Guangdong H3N2 isolates were determined to be oseltamivir-resistant with IC50 of 0·396±0·085 nmol/l (n=17) and zanamivir-resistant with IC50 of 0·477±0·149 nmol/l (n=18). Variations were present in epitopes B and D, two sites in the RBS and two glycosylation sites in the Guangdong H3N2 HA1 gene. The majority of the Guangdong H3N2 isolates were sensitive to oseltamivir and zanamivir. Compared to the World Health Organization 2012 vaccine strains, Guangdong H3N2 strains varied genetically and antigenically to some degree.
Hybrid magnetic/plasmonic nanoparticles possess properties originating from each individual material. Such properties are beneficial for biological applications including bio-imaging, targeted drug delivery, in vivo diagnosis and therapy. Limitations regarding their stability and toxicity, however, challenge their safe use. Here, the one-step flame synthesis of composite SiO2-coated Ag/Fe2O3 nanoparticles is demonstrated. The hermetic SiO2 coating does not influence the morphology, the superparamagnetic properties of the iron oxide particles and the plasmonic optical properties of the silver particles. Therefore, the hybrid SiO2-coated Ag/Fe2O3 nanoparticles exhibit desired properties for their employment in bio-applications.
In the current work, we present a detailed study on the material properties of the CIGS layers, fabricated on top of the CMOS chips, and compare the results with the fabrication on standard glass substrates. Almost identical elemental composition on both glass and CMOS chips (within measurement error). From X-ray diffraction measurement, except two peaks from the Si <100> substrate, the diffraction peaks from CIGS solar cell CMOS chip and that on glass substrate coincide for all three temperatures. Helium ion microscope images of the cross-section and top view of the CIGS layers, shows that the grain size is suitable for high efficiency solar cells.
The hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) single-junction thin-film solar cells were fabricated on SnO2:F-coated glasses by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The boron-doped amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H) was served as the window layer (p-layer) and the undoped a-SiC:H was used as a buffer layer (b-layer). The optimization of the p/b/i/n thin-films in a-Si:H solar cells have been carried out and discussed. Considering the effects of light absorption, electron-hole extraction and light-induced degradation, the thicknesses of p, b, n and i layers have been optimized. The optimal a-Si:H thin-film solar cell having an efficiency of 9.46% was achieved, with VOC=906 mV, JSC=14.42 mA/cm2 and FF=72.36%.
Thermoelectric (TE) properties of erbium-silicon co-doped InxGa1-xN alloys (InxGa1-xN: Er + Si, 0≤x≤0.14), grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition, have been investigated. It was found that doping of InGaN alloys with Er atoms of concentration, N[Er] larger than 5x1019 cm-3, has substantially reduced the thermal conductivity, κ, in low In content InGaN alloys. It was observed that κ decreases as N[Er] increases in Si co-doped In0.10Ga0.90N alloys. A room temperature ZT value of ~0.05 was obtained in In0.14Ga0.86N: Er + Si, which is much higher than that obtained in un-doped InGaN with similar In content. Since low In content InGaN is stable at high temperatures, these Er+Si co-doped InGaN alloys could be promising TE materials for high temperature applications.