To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Prior to integrated circuit (IC) packaging, die performance must be verified using probe cards to screen for defective products. With the decrease in IC line width, the dimensions of the pads used for performance verification and the spacing between adjacent pads have also decreased. However, when the pad pitch is reduced to less than 30 μm, commonly used probe cards will face manufacturing problems in miniaturization. To resolve probe card manufacturing problems caused by the miniaturization of IC components, the use of an anisotropic conductive film (ACF) in probe cards was proposed in this study. Theoretical calculations and experimental testing of this probe structure were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of this concept.
In theoretical calculations, composite material and buckling theory were utilized to evaluate the buckling behavior of the ACF. In experimental testing, photolithography and electroplating techniques were used to control the line width and spacing intervals of the micron-scale metal wires in the ACF. After the ACF was fabricated, the mechanical properties of the ACF during wafer testing were assessed. Theoretical analyses and experimental testing verified that ACFs can potentially be applied to the performance verification of IC products. In the ACF structure, multiple probes came into contact with each pad. Therefore, ACFs can potentially be applied to the performance verification of IC components with pad diameters of less than 20 μm. The results of this study directly benefit the miniaturization of ICs.
In this study, the properties of surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters, including phase velocity and electromechanical coupling coefficient (K2) are investigated. The effective surface permittivity (ESP) method was employed to estimate the K2 of bulk materials (single layer) and multi-layer (double-layer and trilayer) structures. In the cases of bulk materials, the calculation results agree with the experimental data, and the errors are less than 7% for quartz. In the cases of double-layer materials, the phase velocity and K2 of various materials, such as ZnO/Diamond and LiNbO3/Diamond, were acquired, and the results demonstrate that LiNbO3/diamond is the optimal choice for high-frequency SAW devices. For the cases of trilayer, the structure of ZnO/PZT/diamond has relatively high K2 and phase velocity. Therefore, this structure is the optimal trilayer structure for high-frequency SAW devices. The study demonstrates that ESP method can be successfully used for estimating SAW properties in piezoelectric multi-layer structures even though the structures contain nonpiezoelectric film (diamond). The proposed numerical computation has the potential to shorten the developing time of SAW device.
In this study, the fictitious time integration method (FTIM) is applied to investigate wave propagation over an arbitrary bathymetry with measured uncertainty. The FTIM is used to convert the higher-order elliptic mild-slope equation (EMSE) into a FTIM like EMSE (FTIMEMSE). It has the advantage to describe wave transformation from deep water to shallow water region in a large coastal area with numerical efficiency. The validity of the noise resistance for the measured uncertainty of the bathymetry is also studied. In addition, typical examples for waves propagating over an elliptic shoal rest on a horizontal and sloping bottom is presented. It is concluded that the FTIM is robust in the numerical stability and capable of against the noise of the measurement.
Surveillance is integral for the monitoring and control of infectious diseases. We conducted prospective laboratory surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in five Singaporean public-sector hospitals from 2006 to 2010, using WHONET 5.6 for data compilation and analysis. Molecular profiling using multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec classification and multilocus sequence typing was performed for a random selection of isolates. Our results showed overall stable rates of infection and bacteraemia, although there was significant variance among the individual hospitals, with MRSA rates increasing in two smaller hospitals and showing a trend towards decreasing in the two largest hospitals. The proportion of blood isolates that are EMRSA-15 (ST22-IV) continued to increase over time, slowly replacing the multi-resistant ST239-III. A new MRSA clone – ST45-IV – is now responsible for a small subset of hospital infections locally. More effort is required in Singaporean hospitals in order to reduce the rates of MRSA infection significantly.
A multi-cross-correlation method (MCCM) was developed in a particle image velocimetry (PIV) auto-processing system to reduce spurious vectors and improve accuracy of measurements. This technique is an improvement based on conventional cross-correlation method (CCM). Four typical neighboring interrogation windows were specified to be overlapped and calculated by MCCM. A high cross-correlation value is obtained in which many particle images match up with their corresponding spatially shifted partners, and small cross-correlation peaks due to interference of noises during experiments are reduced. Several parameters such as out-of-plane motions, particle size, and seeding density are considered for checking both MCCM and conventional PIV algorithms. The examination gives authenticity to the merits of MCCM for avoiding particles loss or mistaken velocity vectors.
The hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) single-junction thin-film solar cells were fabricated on SnO2:F-coated glasses by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The boron-doped amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H) was served as the window layer (p-layer) and the undoped a-SiC:H was used as a buffer layer (b-layer). The optimization of the p/b/i/n thin-films in a-Si:H solar cells have been carried out and discussed. Considering the effects of light absorption, electron-hole extraction and light-induced degradation, the thicknesses of p, b, n and i layers have been optimized. The optimal a-Si:H thin-film solar cell having an efficiency of 9.46% was achieved, with VOC=906 mV, JSC=14.42 mA/cm2 and FF=72.36%.
Welded structures are vulnerable to fracture due to cracks, especially at the welds. To investigate the safety of T-Shape welded structures used in some construction sites, a method is proposed in this paper to evaluate the crack occurrence probabilities of the structures. Three major factors that affect the crack occurrence are taken into consideration. They are residual stress, diffusible hydrogen content and chemical composition of the weld metal. In the analysis, finite element analysis is performed to find the residual stress distribution of the structures. The uncertainties of diffusible hydrogen content and chemical composition are treated as random variables. The critical cooling time is found and utilized for evaluating the crack occurrence probability of the welded structure. Numerical results indicate that T-shape welded joints lead to higher residual stresses and higher crack occurrence probabilities in comparison with the traditional butt joints. Therefore, more attention should be paid to this kind of welded joints when they are used.
The previous monolithic active grating bender design met some basic design requirements. However, after a real grating (BM-AGM) had been fabricated and installed for testing, the results showed that the usable length is a mere 60 mm because of the higher-order term error in the surface profile. A method was thus derived to eliminate the higher-order term error by modifying the width of the bender substrate through finite-element method simulation, reducing the residual error from about 100 nm to 6 nm. Owing to the closure of the grating department of Zeiss, ruling the monolithic bender is no longer available and the design has to be modified to a composite-type bender with Si substrate. A prototype was fabricated and assembled to examine all the design situations. The surface roughness of the width-modified Si substrate is around 30 nm before assembly. The residual error after assembly and bending is less than 10 nm. It proves that the design is feasible. However, due to the manufacturing capacity of the vendor, a short-length substrate is required and the design has to be modified. The detailed design modification and testing results are presented in this paper.
High‐T YBaCuO and BiSrCaCuO Superconducting wires have been fabricated by powder metallurgy technique. Copper and silver tubes were used as the external jackets. Thermal annealing treatments for all the wire‐type samples were performed between 773 K and 1223 K. Both electrical and magnetization studies show that the superconducting properties can be improved after properly thermal annealing these samples with silver jacket. Our experimental results show that proper thermal annealing treatment can enhance the intragrain critical current density more than 100 times; however, the intergrain critical current density improves only a few times.
The characteristics of YBa2Cu3O7−x (YBCO) thin films by laser ablation on MgO bicrystals have been investigated. The bicrystals were fabricated by hot pressing two single crystals with the configuration of  tilt boundaries. The YBCO films were epitaxial grown with C-axis normal to the both adjacent grains of bicrystals. The FWHM about (005) reflection was 0.4–0.5 degree, indicating the high degree of the oriention for the film with small mosaic spread. Our preliminary study showed that the typical value of Jc on either side of the bicrystal boundary was 0.4–10×106 A/cm2 at 15K, while that across the 10° tilt boundaries was 0.3–9×105 A/cm2 at 15K. These results implied that the artificial grain boundaries effectively weakened the supercurrent, and therefore, the weak-link properties of artificial boundaries were more easily controllable than those of naturally occuring grain boundaries.
The structure of quinoline oligomers synthesized by the catalytic dehydrogenative condensation reaction of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline was elucidated on the basis of various spectroscopic data including the 2D COSY 1H NMR. The x-ray crystal structural study of two quinoline dimers successfully isolated from the bulk material resolved the puzzle of ring conjunction positions between quinoline units of the oligomer product. A reaction mechanism is proposed. From this mechanism a delicate balance between dehydrogenation and polymerization activity of the catalyst is required to optimize the yield and the molecular weight of the product.
Ion exchange was carried out on a lithium-doped fluorophlogopite machinable glassceramic with composition, in wt%, 52.2 SiO2, 14.0 Al2O3, 14.2 MgO, 12.5 MgF2, 1.4 Li2O, and 5.7 Na2O, to study the strengthening effect. The crystalline phases after annealings were Na-fluorophlogopite and betaspodumene, with a volume fraction of about 2:1. Ion exchange of Li by K in the glassceramic at 770° C for 4 h improved 2.1 to 2.3 times the three point bending strength (TPBS). Hence strong machinable ceramic with TPBS of greater than 300 MPa can be made. Ion exchange increases 100% electrical resistivity and improves 21% chemical stability, due to a surface layer of about 100 micrometer enriched with K.
Surface oxidation kinetics of an a-Si3 N4 submicron size and an amorphous nano-size powder have been studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Bremsstrahlung-excited Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The samples were oxidized by heating in air at temperatures between 850°C and 1000°C. The oxide thickness for each heating time and temperature was determined both from the relative 0 Is and N Is XPS peak intensities and from the Si02 and Si3 N4 Si KLL peak intensities. In each case, there was a good agreement between the oxide thickness value calculated from the XPS data and that obtained from the AES data. At these temperatures, oxidation followed a linear rate law. Activation energies of 15±1 kcal/mole and 27±1 kcal/mole were measured for the a-powder and the amorphous powder, respectively.
Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of the cleaved surfaces of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 (2212), Bi2Sr2CuO6 (221), and the Pb-substituted Bi1.5Pb0.5Sr2CuO6 (Pb-substituted 221) at room temperature have been obtained. On the 2212 (Tc=85 K) compound, high resolution images show striations ˜10 Å to 30 Å wide. Similar striations of a periodicity of ˜27 Å are also observed on the 221 (Tc=10 K) compound. On the Pb-substituted 221 (Tc=25 K) compound, no periodic structure can be observed. On samples oriented with Laue reflection, the striations are observed to run parallel to the a or b axis of the crystal. These striations are likely to be associated with the undulations along the b axis of the Bi layer observed in recent transmission electron micrographs. For the 2212 compound, comparison of the dependence of scan line characteristics on tunneling bias with calculations on the density of states of each elemental component around the Fermi energy also suggests that tunneling occurs on the Bi face. The topographical and tunneling bias dependence results show that the Bi-rich surfaces of these new superconductors is essentially a termination of the bulk structure even though structural or chemical defects are common.
We use a two-photon laser-scanning microscope to fabricate two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal structures in commercially available SU-8 polymer films, and successfully demonstrate making nanostructures beyond the diffraction limit with high aspect ratios. By varying the laser beam power, scanning speed, focal depth, line spacing and scanning angles, we obtain 2D photonic crystals with circular, elliptical, rectangular, or diamond-shape unit cells in a hexagonal or square lattice. An aspect ratio as high as 6.9 with 250 nm line width was achieved. In addition, we can controllably place defects of specific patterns, e.g. lines, dots, and Y-splitters, in the otherwise perfect photonic crystal. We also combine two-photon nanolithography with conventional UV photolithography to make 2D photonic crystals between waveguides. The combination of these two lithography methods was done on a single polymer film, suggesting potential for easy fabrication of complex photonic devices.