We have undertaken a systematic study of the effect of co-implantation on the electrical properties of C implanted in GaAs. Two effects have been studied, the additional damage caused by co-implantation and the stoichiometry in the implanted layer. A series of co-implant ions were used: group III (B, Al, Ga), group V (N, P, As) and noble gases (Ar, Kr). Co-implantation of ions which create an amorphous layer was found to increase the electrical activity of C Once damage was created, maintaining stoichiometric balance by co-implantation of a group III further increased the fraction of electrically active carbon impurities. Co-implantation of Ga and rapid thermal annealing at 950°C for 10 s resulted in carbon activation as high as 68%, the highest value ever reported.