Pine oil, a by-product of sulphate wood pulping, protected pheromone-baited, living Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.), and spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss - P. engelmannii Parry hybrids) from attack by Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopk.), mountain pine beetle (D. ponderosa Hopk.), and spruce beetle (D. rufipennis (Kirby)), respectively. Pine oil also protected surrounding trees and reduced attack incidence on Douglas-fir, lodgepole pine, and spruce within at least a 10 m radius. α-Terpineol, one of the constituents of the pine oil mixture, was less effective.