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We performed a spatial-temporal analysis to assess household risk factors for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in a remote, severely-affected village. We defined a household as a family's shared living space and a case-household as a household with at least one resident who became a suspect, probable, or confirmed Ebola case from 1 August 2014 to 10 October 2014. We used Geographic Information System (GIS) software to calculate inter-household distances, performed space-time cluster analyses, and developed Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE). Village X consisted of 64 households; 42% of households became case-households over the observation period. Two significant space-time clusters occurred among households in the village; temporal effects outweighed spatial effects. GEE demonstrated that the odds of becoming a case-household increased by 4·0% for each additional person per household (P < 0·02) and 2·6% per day (P < 0·07). An increasing number of persons per household, and to a lesser extent, the passage of time after onset of the outbreak were risk factors for household Ebola acquisition, emphasizing the importance of prompt public health interventions that prioritize the most populated households. Using GIS with GEE can reveal complex spatial-temporal risk factors, which can inform prioritization of response activities in future outbreaks.
The unique phenotypic and genetic aspects of obsessive-compulsive (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) are not well characterized. Here, we examine symptom patterns and heritability of OCD and ADHD in TS families.
OCD and ADHD symptom patterns were examined in TS patients and their family members (N = 3494) using exploratory factor analyses (EFA) for OCD and ADHD symptoms separately, followed by latent class analyses (LCA) of the resulting OCD and ADHD factor sum scores jointly; heritability and clinical relevance of the resulting factors and classes were assessed.
EFA yielded a 2-factor model for ADHD and an 8-factor model for OCD. Both ADHD factors (inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms) were genetically related to TS, ADHD, and OCD. The doubts, contamination, need for sameness, and superstitions factors were genetically related to OCD, but not ADHD or TS; symmetry/exactness and fear-of-harm were associated with TS and OCD while hoarding was associated with ADHD and OCD. In contrast, aggressive urges were genetically associated with TS, OCD, and ADHD. LCA revealed a three-class solution: few OCD/ADHD symptoms (LC1), OCD & ADHD symptoms (LC2), and symmetry/exactness, hoarding, and ADHD symptoms (LC3). LC2 had the highest psychiatric comorbidity rates (⩾50% for all disorders).
Symmetry/exactness, aggressive urges, fear-of-harm, and hoarding show complex genetic relationships with TS, OCD, and ADHD, and, rather than being specific subtypes of OCD, transcend traditional diagnostic boundaries, perhaps representing an underlying vulnerability (e.g. failure of top-down cognitive control) common to all three disorders.
The Southern Hemisphere VLBI Experiment (SHEVE) program is aimed at producing high-resolution images of southern radio sources. The radio telescopes of the present SHEVE array are described below and some recent results presented.
Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) pressurized heavy-water reactors produce 14C by neutron activation of trace quantities of nitrogen in annular gas and reactor components (14N(n,p)14C), and from 17O in the heavy water moderator by (17O(n,α)14C). The radiocarbon produced in the moderator is removed on ion exchange resins incorporated in the water purification systems; however, a much smaller gaseous portion is vented from reactor stacks at activity levels considerably below 1% of permissible derived emission limits. Early measurements of the carbon speciation indicated that >90% of the 14C emitted was in the form of CO2. We conducted surveys of the atmospheric dispersion of 14CO2 at the Chalk River Laboratories and at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. We analyzed air, vegetation, soils and tree rings to add to the historical record of 14C emissions at these sites, and to gain an understanding of the relative importance of the various carbon pools that act as sources/sinks within the total 14C budget. Better model parameters than those currently available for calculating the dose to the critical group can be obtained in this manner. Global dose estimates may require the development of techniques for estimating emissions occurring outside the growing season.
Fontan survivors have depressed cardiac index that worsens over time. Serum biomarker measurement is minimally invasive, rapid, widely available, and may be useful for serial monitoring. The purpose of this study was to identify biomarkers that correlate with lower cardiac index in Fontan patients.
Methods and results
This study was a multi-centre case series assessing the correlations between biomarkers and cardiac magnetic resonance-derived cardiac index in Fontan patients ⩾6 years of age with biochemical and haematopoietic biomarkers obtained ±12 months from cardiac magnetic resonance. Medical history and biomarker values were obtained by chart review. Spearman’s Rank correlation assessed associations between biomarker z-scores and cardiac index. Biomarkers with significant correlations had receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve estimated. In total, 97 cardiac magnetic resonances in 87 patients met inclusion criteria: median age at cardiac magnetic resonance was 15 (6–33) years. Significant correlations were found between cardiac index and total alkaline phosphatase (−0.26, p=0.04), estimated creatinine clearance (0.26, p=0.02), and mean corpuscular volume (−0.32, p<0.01). Area under the curve for the three individual biomarkers was 0.63–0.69. Area under the curve for the three-biomarker panel was 0.75. Comparison of cardiac index above and below the receiver operating characteristic curve-identified cut-off points revealed significant differences for each biomarker (p<0.01) and for the composite panel [median cardiac index for higher-risk group=2.17 L/minute/m2 versus lower-risk group=2.96 L/minute/m2, (p<0.01)].
Higher total alkaline phosphatase and mean corpuscular volume as well as lower estimated creatinine clearance identify Fontan patients with lower cardiac index. Using biomarkers to monitor haemodynamics and organ-specific effects warrants prospective investigation.
The MACHO data base has been used to examine light curves of all red giant stars brighter than Mbol ∼ −2 in a 0.5° × 0.5° area of the LMC bar. Periods, often multiple, have been searched for in all stars found to be variable. Five distinct period-luminosity sequences have been found on the low mass (M ≲ 2.25M⊙) giant branch. Comparison of observed periods, luminosities and period ratios with theoretical models identifies Miras unambiguously as radial fundamental mode pulsators, while semi-regular variables can be pulsating in the 1st, 2nd or 3rd overtone, or even the fundamental. All these variables lie on just 3 of the 5 distinct sequences, and they all appear to be on the AGB.
The fourth sequence contains red giants on the first giant branch (FGB) or at the red end of the core-helium burning loops of intermediate mass stars (M ≳ 2.25M⊙). The light curves of these stars strongly suggest that they are contact binaries, and they make up ∼0.5% of stars within 1 mag. of the FGB tip. Stars on the fifth sequence show semi-regular, eclipse-like light curves. The light curves and periods of these stars suggest that they are in semi-detached binaries, transfering mass to an invisible companion via a stellar wind or Roche lobe overflow. They make up ∼25% of AGB stars. If the existence of these red giant contact and semi-detached binaries is confirmed, then extant theories of binary star evolution will require substantial modification.
PKS 1830–211 is the strongest known radio gravitational lens by almost an order of magnitude and has the potential to provide a measurement of H0, provided the lensing system can be parameterized. Attempts to identify optical counterparts, to measure redshifts, have so far proved unsuccessful and this has lead to radio and millimetre spectral line observations. We present our discovery of an absorption system at z = 0.19. A brief description is also made of our ATCA observations to measure the lensing time delay for this source.
PKS 1934–638 is an archetypal GPS source, peaking at 1.4 GHz and exhibits almost no flux density variability. VLBI images at frequencies of .843, 2.3, 4.8, & 8.4 were made with the southern hemisphere VLBI array and they reveal that the source is a 42 mas compact double. There is no detectable change in separation over the last 20 years, yielding an upper limit of ~ 0.03c ± 0.2c on any expansion velocity. The spectral shapes of the two components are remarkably similar, despite indications of finer structure on longer baselines. Magnetic field calculations indicate fields of a few mGauss and the results are consistent with equipartition.
The object of the present communication is to demonstrate the relationships which, in the light of present knowledge, appear to exist between the various Pleistocene and Holocene deposits in the Lower and Middle Thames Valley. For this purpose two cross-sections of the valley have been drawn indicating the relative positions of the deposits which occur at various localities as though they were all present in two localities, one in the Lower, and one in the Middle Thames.
As many of the more important deposits in the Lower Thames are represented to the north and south of the river in the Dartford area, we have drawn the one section as if our ideal locality occurred in that neighbourhood. In this section, therefore, the relative altitudes of the various beds above and below present river level are those which are found in that part of the Thames basin. In tributary valleys, or in other parts of the main valley these altitudes are not of course necessarily maintained. In cases where deposits belonging to a particular stage have not been preserved in the Dartford area, but occur in a neighbouring part of the valley, or in a tributary valley, their position in the composite section has been roughly gauged by a process of extrapolation. Similarly when dealing with the Middle Thames, we have drawn our ideal section as though all the deposits occurred in one section of the valley in the neighbourhood of Iver.
To systematically summarise the peer-reviewed literature relating to the aetiology, clinical presentation, investigation and treatment of geniculate neuralgia.
Articles published in English between 1932 and 2012, identified using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases.
The search terms ‘geniculate neuralgia’, ‘nervus intermedius neuralgia’, ‘facial pain’, ‘otalgia’ and ‘neuralgia’ were used to identify relevant papers.
Fewer than 150 reported cases were published in English between 1932 and 2012. The aetiology of the condition remains unknown, and clinical presentation varies. Non-neuralgic causes of otalgia should always be excluded by a thorough clinical examination, audiological assessment and radiological investigations before making a diagnosis of geniculate neuralgia. Conservative medical treatment is always the first-line therapy. Surgical treatment should be offered if medical treatment fails. The two commonest surgical options are transection of the nervus intermedius, and microvascular decompression of the nerve at the nerve root entry zone of the brainstem. However, extracranial intratemporal division of the cutaneous branches of the facial nerve may offer a safer and similarly effective treatment.
The response to medical treatment for this condition varies between individuals. The long-term outcomes of surgery remain unknown because of limited data.
Load transfer and mechanical strength of reinforced polymers are fundamental to developing advanced composites. This paper demonstrates enhanced load transfer and mechanical strength due to synergistic effects in binary mixtures of nano-carbon/polymer composites. Different compositional mixtures (always 1 wt. % total) of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and single-layer graphene (SLG) were mixed in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and effects on load transfer and mechanical strength were studied using Raman spectroscopy. Significant shifts in the G-bands were observed both in tension and compression for single as well binary nano-carbon counterparts in polymer composites. Small amounts of MWNT0.1 dispersed in SLG0.9/PDMS samples (subscripts represents weight percentage) reversed the sign of the Raman wavenumbers from positive to negative values demonstrating reversal of lattice stress. A wavenumber change from 10 cm-1 in compression (-10% strain) to 10 cm-1 in tension (50% strain), and an increase in elastic modulus of ∼103% was observed for MWNT0.1SLG0.9/PDMS with applied uniaxial tension. Presence of MWNTs in the matrix reduced the segmental polymeric chain length and provided limited extensibility to the chains. This in turn eliminated compressive deformation of SLG and significantly enhanced load transfer and mechanical strength of composites in tension. The orientation order of MWNT with application of uniaxial tensile strain directly affected the shift in Raman wavenumbers (2D band and G-band) and load transfer. It is observed that the cooperative behavior of binary nano-carbons in polymer composites resulted in enhanced load transfer and mechanical strength. Such binary compositions could be fundamental to developing advanced composites.
Classical plasticity theories generally assume that the stress at a point is a function of strain at that point only. However, when gradients in strain become significant, this localization assumption is no longer valid. These conventional models fail to display a ‘size effect’. This effect is seen experimentally when the scale of the phenomenon of interest is on the order of several microns. Under these conditions, strain gradients are of a significant magnitude as compared to the overall strain and must be considered for models to accurately capture observed phenomena.
The mechanics community has been actively involved in the development of strain gradient theories for many years. Recently, interest in this area has been rekindled and several new approaches have appeared in the literature. Two different approaches are currently being evaluated. One approach considers strain gradients as internal variables that do not introduce work conjugate higher order stresses. Another approach considers the strain gradients as internal degrees of freedom that requires work conjugate higher order stresses. Experiments are being performed to determine which approach models material behavior accurately with the least amount of complexity. A key difference between the two models considered here is the nature of the assumed boundary conditions at material interfaces. Therefore, we are investigating the deformation behavior of aluminum/sapphire interfaces loaded under simple shear. Samples are fabricated using ultra-high vacuum diffusion bonding. To determine the lattice rotations near the boundary, we are examining the samples with both electron backscatter diffraction methods (EBSD) in the scanning electron microscope and with a variety of diffraction techniques in the transmission electron microscope. The experimentally found boundary conditions shall be subsequently used to determine whether the simpler internal variable model is adequately descriptive or if the greater complexity associated with the internal degree of freedom approach is warranted.
A study has been made of the effect of solute (Mn, Al, Ni) additions on microstructure refinement due to large strain deformation in single phase, copper solid solutions. The solutes were specifically selected for their influence on stacking fault energy (SFE) of copper, and the large strain deformation was imposed by chip formation in machining. The microstructure of Cu- 0.7at%Ni chip consists of elongated, sub-micrometer sized grains while Cu-7at%Al chip is made up of long, thin microbands with twins. The microstructure of the chip changes as the SFE of the material varies. With all of the solid solutions studied, the hardness of the chips is found to be significantly greater than that of the bulk material. Recrystallization temperature of solid solution chips is found to be higher than those of pure copper chips.
A geometric model for intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) is presented and used to evaluate the influence of grain boundary structure on the IGSCC resistance of polycrystalline materials. Preliminary observations regarding the structure of intergranular fracture paths in Alloy 600 C-ring specimens exposed to high temperature caustic media are noted to be consistent with the general predictions of the proposed geometric model and demonstrate that significant enhancement to bulk IGSCC resistance may be achieved through material processing considerations which result in (1) moderate increases in the frequency of structurally ‘special’ grain boundaries (i.e., interfaces close to low Σ CSL's) and (2) refinement in grain size.
We have observed that a change in the bulk sulfur content of oxygen-free electronic copper markedly affects its high temperature (400–1000°C), high strain-rate (> 103 s−1) deformation and fracture behavior. These conditions are typical of those found in "jets" formed from the explosive deformation of copper shaped-charge liners. Specifically, an increase in the bulk sulfur concentration from 4 ppm to 8 ppm shortens the breakup time, tb, of the copper jets by nearly 20% as measured using flash x-ray radiographs recorded during breakup of the jets. At bulk concentrations of 4 ppm, the jet was observed to be uniform and axisymmetric with a breakup time of 186 µs. Jet particles exhibited length-to-diameter ratios of roughly 8:1. The addition of sulfur transformed the jet breakup behavior to non-uniform, non-axisymmetric rupture and reduced the breakup time to 147 µs. The length-to-diameter ratios decreased to roughly 5:1 in the sulfurdoped samples. Previously measured sulfur solubilities and diffusivities in copper at the temperatures where this material was processed indicates nearly all of the sulfur was localized to grain boundaries. Therefore, we infer that the increase in sulfur content at grain boundaries is directly responsible for the change in breakup performance of the shaped-charge jets.
Normal alkanes of carbon number n>14 exhibit surface crystallization at their liquid-vapor interface. This has been investigated with x-ray reflectivity, grazing incidence scattering and surface tension measurements. The structure and thermodynamics of the surface layer is consistent with a monolayer of the bulk rotator phase occurring at the surface above the bulk melting temperature. On the other hand, thin films of alkanes on SiO2, exhibit a reduction of the melting temperature. The surface crystalline phase is observed for carbon number n>14. The vanishing of surface phase for small n may be due to a transition from surface freezing to surface melting behavior. These measurements can yield the relative surface energies of the various phases.