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The rarefied gas flow phenomenon of thermophoresis is studied experimentally on a macroscopic spherical particle with a diameter of 5.1 cm for pressures ranging from 0.01 to 10 Pa (Knudsen numbers
from 10 to 0.01, respectively). Size scaling with matching Knudsen numbers makes the results applicable to microscale particles such as aerosol droplets at atmospheric pressure. Two sets of measurements are presented. The first set, complemented by numerical modelling based on the solution of the ellipsoidal statistical Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook kinetic equation, is focused on a spherical particle of high thermal conductivity in close proximity to a heated wall. The second set is conducted for the same particle placed in a linear thermal gradient established between two parallel walls. Results show the first reproducible measurements of negative thermophoretic force acting on a spherical particle in the direction from cold to hot, with values of the order of 5 % of the maximum hot to cold force production.
Numerous studies have reported links between theory of mind (ToM) deficits, neurocognition and negative symptoms with functional outcome in chronic schizophrenia patients. Although the ToM deficit has been observed in first-episode patients, fewer studies have addressed ToM as a possible trait marker, neurocognitive and symptom correlations longitudinally, and associations with later functioning.
Recent-onset schizophrenia patients (n = 77) were assessed at baseline after reaching medication stabilization, and again at 6 months (n = 48). Healthy controls (n = 21) were screened, and demographically comparable with the patients. ToM was assessed with a Social Animations Task (SAT), in which the participants’ descriptions of scenes depicting abstract visual stimuli ‘interacting’ in three conditions (ToM, goal directed and random) were rated for degree of intentionality attributed to the figures and for appropriateness. Neurocognition, symptoms and role functioning were also assessed.
On the SAT, patients had lower scores than controls for both intentionality (p < 0.01) and appropriateness (p < 0.01) during the ToM condition, at baseline and 6 months. The ToM deficit was stable and present even in remitted patients. Analyses at baseline and 6 months indicated that for patients, ToM intentionality and appropriateness were significantly correlated with neurocognition, negative symptoms and role functioning. The relationship between ToM and role functioning was mediated by negative symptoms.
The ToM deficit was found in recent-onset schizophrenia patients and appears to be moderately trait-like. ToM is also moderately correlated with neurocognition, negative and positive symptoms, and role functioning. ToM appears to influence negative symptoms which in turn makes an impact on role functioning.
The taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of Trypanosoma vivax are controversial. It is generally suggested that South American, and East and West African isolates could be classified as subspecies or species allied to T. vivax. This is the first phylogenetic study to compare South American isolates (Brazil and Venezuela) with West/East African T. vivax isolates. Phylogeny using ribosomal sequences positioned all T. vivax isolates tightly together on the periphery of the clade containing all Salivarian trypanosomes. The same branching of isolates within T. vivax clade was observed in all inferred phylogenies using different data sets of sequences (SSU, SSU plus 5.8S or whole ITS rDNA). T. vivax from Brazil, Venezuela and West Africa (Nigeria) were closely related corroborating the West African origin of South American T. vivax, whereas a large genetic distance separated these isolates from the East African isolate (Kenya) analysed. Brazilian isolates from cattle asymptomatic or showing distinct pathology were highly homogeneous. This study did not disclose significant polymorphism to separate West African and South American isolates into different species/subspecies and indicate that the complexity of T. vivax in Africa and of the whole subgenus Trypanosoma (Duttonella) might be higher than previously believed.
In this work we show that the cooling rate following a platinum diffusion strongly influences the
electrical conductivity in weakly phosphorus doped silicon. Diffusions were performed at the
temperature of 910 °C in the range of 8–32 hours in 0.6, 30, and 60 Ω cm phosphorus doped silicon
samples. Spreading resistance profile analyses clearly show an n-type to p-type conversion under
the surface when samples are cooled slowly. On the other hand, a compensation of the phosphorus
donors can only be observed when samples are quenched. One Pt related acceptor deep level at 0.43 eV from the valence band is assumed to be at the origin of the type conversion mechanism. Its
concentration increases by lowering the applied cooling rate. A complex formation with fast species
such as interstitial Pt atoms or intrinsic point defects is expected. In 0.6 Ω cm phosphorus doped
silicon, no acceptor deep level in the lower band gap is detected by DLTS measurement. This
removes the opportunity of a pairing between phosphorus and platinum and suggests the possibility
of a Fermi level controlled complex formation.
A long-term field trial was conducted to determine yield trends in relation to nutrient uptake and efficiency in different rice-based cropping systems. The cropping systems had a significant effect on wet season rice yield when residues were not recycled but had no effect otherwise. Rice yield decreased after the first year of crop residue incorporation but increased every year thereafter. Rice yield was significantly affected by residual nutrients applied to dry season crops. The highest residual effect was observed in tomato and sweet pepper to which the highest nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) rates were applied. Maize, sweet pepper, and tomato responded well to NPK application, garlic had a low response and mungbean had no response. A relay crop served as a catch crop for excess nutrients and as shade to minimize sunscald effects for tomato and sweet pepper fruits.
A long-term field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of indigo (Indigofera tinctoria) on the productivity of rainfed lowland rice-based cropping systems: rice–tomato, rice–tobacco or soyabean, rice–maize, and rice–garlic. Indigo was grown as an intercrop during the dry season and incorporated as green manure for wet season rice. Dry season crop yields were generally not affected by the indigo intercrop but indigo green manure had a positive effect on rice yields. At the same level of nitrogen (N) inputs, indigo-N produced higher yields than urea-N which may be due to high inorganic N losses.
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