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The character of optical excitations in nanoscale and atomic-scale materials is often strongly mixed, having contributions from both single-particle transitions and collective, plasmon-like response. This complicates the quantum description of these excitations, because there is no clear way to define their quantization. To move toward a quantum theory for these optical excitations, they must first be characterized so that single-particle-like and collective, plasmon-like excitations can be identified. We show that time-dependent density functional theory can be used to make that characterization if both the charge densities induced by the excitation and the transitions that make up the excitation are analyzed. Density functional theory predicts that single-particle-like and collective excitations can coexist. Exact calculations for small nanosystems predict that single-particle excitations evolve into collective excitations as the electron–electron interaction is turned on with no indication that they coexist. These different predictions present a challenge that must be resolved to develop an understanding for quantum excitations in nanoplasmonic materials.
Epilepsy is a common medical condition for which physicians perform driver fitness assessments. The Canadian Medical association (CMA) and the Canadian Council of Motor transportation administrators (CCMTA) publish documents to guide Canadian physicians’ driver fitness assessments.
We aimed to measure the consistency of driver fitness counseling among epileptologists in Canada, and to determine whether inconsistencies between national guidelines are associated with greater variability in counseling instructions.
We surveyed 35 epileptologists in Canada (response rate 71%) using a questionnaire that explored physicians’ philosophies about driver fitness assessments and counseling practices of seizure patients in common clinical scenarios. Of the nine scenarios, CCMTA and CMA recommendations were concordant for only two. Cumulative agreement for all scenarios was calculated using Kappa statistic. Agreement for concordant (two) vs. discordant (seven) scenarios were split at the median and analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test.
Overall the agreement between respondents for the clinical scenarios was not acceptable (Kappa=0.28). For the two scenarios where CMa and CCMta guidelines were concordant, specialists had high levels of agreement with recommendations (89% each). A majority of specialists disagreed with CMa recommendations in three of seven discordant scenarios. The lack of consistency in respondents’ agreement attained statistical significance (p<0.001).
Canadian epileptologists have variable counseling practices about driving, and this may be attributable to inconsistencies between CMa and CCMta medical fitness guidelines. This study highlights the need to harmonize driving recommendations in order to prevent physician and patient confusion about driving fitness in Canada.
The Craniofacial Biology Research Group in the School of Dentistry at The University of Adelaide is entering an exciting new phase of its studies of dental development and oral health in twins and their families. Studies of the teeth and faces of Australian twins have been continuing for nearly 30 years, with three major cohorts of twins recruited over that time, and currently we are working with twins aged 2 years old to adults. Cross-sectional data and records relating to teeth and faces of twins are available for around 300 pairs of teenage twins, as well as longitudinal data for 300 pairs of twins examined at three different stages of development, once with primary teeth, once at the mixed dentition stage, and then again when the permanent teeth had emerged. The third cohort of twins comprises over 600 pairs of twins recruited at around birth, together with other family members. The emphasis in this third group of twins has been to record the timing of emergence of the primary teeth and also to sample saliva and dental plaque to establish the timing of colonization of decay-forming bacteria in the mouth. Analyses have confirmed that genetic factors strongly influence variation in timing of primary tooth emergence. The research team is now beginning to carry out clinical examinations of the twins to see whether those who become colonized earlier with decay-forming bacteria develop dental decay at an earlier age. By making comparisons within and between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs and applying modern molecular approaches, we are now teasing out how genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors interact to influence dental development and also oral health.
Studies of twins carried out over the past 25 years by the Craniofacial Biology Research Group at the University of Adelaide have provided insights into the roles of genetic, environmental and epigenetic influences on human dento-facial growth and development. The aim of this paper is to review some of the main findings of these studies and to highlight the value of using different twin models, including the monozygotic (MZ) co-twin design. We also introduce the concept of ‘dental phenomics’ whereby modern 2D and 3D imaging systems are now enabling biologically-meaningful, dental phenotypes to be quantified in order to provide detailed descriptions of the size and shape of teeth. We propose that developments in the field of ‘dental phenomics’, with linking of the data generated to large-scale genome sequencing approaches, should enable us to further unravel the mysteries of how genetic, environmental and epigenetic factors interact to produce the extensive range of morphological variations evident within the human dentition and face.
The Craniofacial Biology Research Group at the University of Adelaide has been involved in studies of the teeth and faces of twins for over 25 years (Townsend et al., 2006). Our main aim is to clarify the roles of genetic, environmental and epigenetic influences on human dento-facial growth and development. Three cohorts of twins have been recruited to enable different objectives and specific hypotheses to be addressed.
The artistlike pictures of vortex flows presented here have been produced by the flow itself. The method of this “natural” flow visualization can be described briefly as follows: The working fluid is water mixed with some paste in order to increase the viscosity. Vortex flows are produced by pulling a stick or similar devices through the fluid or by injecting fluid through a nozzle into the working tank.
The flow visualization is performed in the following way: the surface of the fluid at rest is sparkled with oil paint of different colors diluted with some evaporating chemical. After the vortex structures have formed due to wakes or jets, a sheet of white paper is placed on the surface of the working fluid, where the oil color is attached to the paper immediately. The final results are artistlike paintings of vortex flows which exhibit a rich variety of flow structures.
Mixing in regular and chaotic flows
These photographs show the time evolution of two passive tracers in a low Reynolds number two-dimensional timeperiodic flow. The initial condition corresponds to two blobs of dye, green and orange, located below the free surface of a cavity filled with glycerine. The flow is induced by moving the top and bottom walls of the cavity while the other two walls are fixed. In this experiment the top wall moves from left to right and the bottom wall moves from right to left; both velocities are of the form Usin2(2πt/T), with the same U and the same period T, but with a phase shift of 90°.
Radiation doses from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are a significant issue for spacecraft crew exposures in deep space. We report initial work to evaluate a range of materials for GCR shielding. Earlier work has shown that conventional spacecraft materials, aluminum and higher atomic number structural alloys, provide relatively little shielding and, under certain conditions, may increase radiation risk. Materials containing high proportions of hydrogen and other low atomic mass nuclei provide improved GCR shielding. Polyethylene (PE) is generally considered a good performance benchmark shield material. However, PE shielding occupies volume and adds mass to the spacecraft. In this work we investigate several materials that are shown to provide shielding similar to PE, but which could furnish additional spacecraft functions, possibly eliminating the need for materials currently used for structural support or thermal management. Carbon forms that can incorporate a large mass of hydrogen, as well as polymers and polymer composites are being explored. Calculations of shielding effectiveness in GCR spectra have been carried out. Experiments to measure shielding properties recently have been completed at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) using high energy beans of O16. In this paper we report preliminary shielding results.
Cadmium Sulfide/Cadmium Telluride (CdS/CdTe) devices are subject to stress under various biases. Striking differences are observed with the Current-Voltage, and Capacitance- Voltage measurements for cells degraded at 100°C in dark under forward (FB), open circuit (OC), and reverse (RB) biases. RB stress provides the greatest degradation, and the apparent doping density profile shows anomalous behavior at the zero bias depletion width. Thin films of CdS, both doped and undoped, with Cu are characterized with photoluminescence (PL). The PL spectra from the CdS films are correlated with the CdS spectra from stressed devices, revealing that Cu signatures in the CdS layer of stressed devices are a function of stress biasing. Device modeling using AMPS-1D produces IV curves similar to that in RB degraded devices, by only varying the trap level concentration in the CdS layer.
The Philippine islands hold a concentration of species diversity and endemism of global importance, yet few studies have analyzed biogeographic patterns or attempted to prioritize areas for conservation within the archipelago. We analyzed distributions of 386 species on 28 Philippine islands and island groups, documenting intense concentration of species richness, especially of endemic species, on the two largest islands, Mindanao and Luzon. Factors identified as influencing species richness included island area, maximum elevation, and Pleistocene patterns of connection and isolation. Reserve systems were developed based on heuristic complementarity algorithms, and compared with the existing Integrated Protected Areas (IPAS) system in the country, showing that IPAS is an impressive first step towards protecting avian diversity in the country. Addition of presently proposed reserves on Palawan and Mindoro would make IPAS a near-optimal reserve design, at least at the level of island representation. Important challenges remain, however, with regard to design of reserve systems within islands to represent complete island avifaunas.
A novel polymer has been developed for use as a thin film dielectric in the interconnect structure of high density integrated circuits. The coating is applied to the substrate as an oligomeric solution, SiLK*, using conventional spin coating equipment and produces highly uniform films after curing at 400 °C to 450 °C. The oligomeric solution, with a viscosity of ca. 30 cPs, is readily handled on standard thin film coating equipment. Polymerization does not require a catalyst. There is no water evolved during the polymerization. The resulting polymer network is an aromatic hydrocarbon with an isotropie structure and contains no fluorine.
The properties of the cured films are designed to permit integration with current ILD processes. In particular, the rate of weight-loss during isothermal exposures at 450 °C is ca. 0.7 wt.%/hour. The dielectric constant of cured SiLK has been measured at 2.65. The refractive index in both the in-plane and out-of-plane directions is 1.63. The flow characteristics of SiLK lead to broad topographic planarization and permit the filling of gaps at least as narrow as 0.1 μm. The glass transition temperature for the fully cured film is greater than 490 °C. The coefficient of thermal expansivity is 66 ppm/°C below the glass transition temperature. The stress in fully cured films on Si wafers is ca. 60 MPa at room temperature. The fracture toughness measured on thin films is 0.62 MPa m ½. Thin coatings absorb less than 0.25 wt.% water when exposed to 80% relative humidity at room temperature.
Continuous microscratch tests on an uncoated and a diamond-like carbon coated CoCrMo alloy were performed in air to evaluate the micro-friction and micro-tribology by utilizing a load and depth sensing instrument. By using a diamond-like carbon coating, the friction coefficient for a small applied load was found to decrease compared to the CoCrMo substrate. The hard diamond-like carbon coating prevents the local plastic yielding of the micro-contacts and the adhesion between the metal/metal surfaces during the microscratch tests. However, the effect of the diamond-like carbon coating on the friction was not seen when the applied load is high.
Free-standing films of gold and aluminum have been fabricated using standard micro-machining techniques. LPCVD silicon nitride films are deposited onto (100) silicon wafers. Square and rectangular silicon nitride membranes are made by anisotropic etching of the silicon substrates. Then, metal films are deposited onto the silicon nitride membranes by means of evaporation. Finally, the sacrificial silicon nitride film is etched away by means of reactive plasma etching, resulting in well-defined, square and rectangular metal membranes.
Bulge testing of square windows allows one to determine the biaxial modulus of the film as well as the residual stress in it. Testing rectangular windows yields the plane-strain elastic modulus and the residual stress. Since deformation in rectangular membranes approaches plane-strain deformation, this geometry is ideal for studying the plastic properties of the metal films. Stress-strain curves can be readily determined from the load-deflection curves of rectangular membranes. The gold films have a biaxial modulus of 161±3 GPa and a plane-strain modulus of 105±5 GPa, slightly lower than the literature values for a (111) textured film. The yield stress of these films is approximately 231±17 MPa at 10−4% plastic strain. The elastic moduli of the aluminum films are 105±3 GPa and 76.4±0.7 GPa, respectively; the yield stress of these films is 187±30MPa.
Diamond-like carbon (DLC), a hard, optically transparent, and chemically inert material, is becoming increasingly important for many applications. With the development of low-temperature deposition techniques, DLC can now be applied to many heat-sensitive polymers. This paper will discuss the application of a DLC coating as an abrasion and moisture barrier for three different laser-protective holographic filters. The objective of this investigation is to study the influence of the coating process on the holographic filters, and to determine the effectiveness of the DLC coating as the environmental seal for these filters. The DLC coated filters were characterized by UV/visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, before and after exposure in an environmental chamber set at 71°C, and 90% humidity. The structure and hardness of the DLC coating were evaluated respectively by Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation method.
The ability of a hard coating to resist delamination in wear applications is found to depend on the substrate crystal orientation. A variety of alloys with and without a carbon coating were tested by microscratching with a diamond stylus. The hardness of the carbon coating was characterized by nanoindentation techniques before the microscratch tests. As the diamond passed from one crystal to another differing amounts of damage were observed for each crystal orientation. The width of the delaminated region was found to be dependent on the extent of the slip line fields in the substrate generated by the scratching. To eliminate the possibility of differing adhesion on different crystal faces, a nickel aluminide intermetallic with the two crystals rotated about the same pole was tested. In the uncoated state when scratched across the grain boundary the slip line fields were extensive for one crystal but limited for the other crystal. Similar fixed-load scratches on the carbon coating produced delamination on the easy slip orientation but only a slight deformation of the coating on the other crystal. The observed failure appears to be due to the deformation of the substrate and not inferior adhesion of the coating to the crystal face. This finding should have important ramifications in the design and failure analysis of systems, such as magnetic recording media, medical implants, etc.
Silicon monoxide (SiO) formed by molecular beam deposition (MBD) has many attractive optical, electrical, mechanical, and chemical properties which make it a suitable dielectric for many semiconductor device applications. It can be thermally evaporated at a much lower temperature than Si, SiO2 or Si3 N4 and it condenses on cooler surfaces in uniform and adherent stoichiometric SiO (x = 1) films when evaporated in high vacuum. At low deposition rates and at high pressures of oxygen, SiOx (1 ≤ x ≤ 2) films result. This allows variation of refractive index, stress and other properties of SiOx with x. In general, the SiO (x = l) films are under tensile stress <100 MPa which is significantly lower than that observed in other dielectric films. Slight introduction of oxygen during deposition reduces the tensile stress; at an O2 pressure of 5 × 10−7 Torr and above, the films are in compression. This allows the tunability of stress in SiOx films and deposition of films essentially free from stress. Furthermore, both Si and SiO have similar values of the linear thermal expansion coefficient (average values between 23 °C and 350°C: 3.37 × 10−6°C−1 and 2.7 × 10−6°C−1, respectively). As a result, SiOx/Si films develop little thermal stress during thermal cycling.
Unpassivated 2.1 μm wide Al-4wt%Cu interconnects with near-bamboo grain structure, are electromigration-tested to failure in-situ in transmission electron microscopy. Early stress-induced voids stop growing and are not fatal. Hillocking is associated with precipitates, fatal voiding with copper depletion. Electromigration-induced voids form at the upstream end of inclined grain boundaries. Healing events are analysed and it is shown that open-circuit failure can occur when the proximity of grain boundaries impairs the stress-driven healing.
A wafer curvature technique was used to measure the mechanical stresses during thermal cycling and the isothermal stress relaxation in passivated Ti/TiN/AlSi(l%)Cu(0.5%)-lines (aspect ratio: 0.92) in the in-plane directions, parallel and perpendicular to the lines. The evaluation of the measured curvature data is explained in detail. The evaluation procedure was tested with the help of passivated SiO2-lines in which the stresses can be calculated because both, the SiO2-lines and the passivation, behave elastically. Comparision to elastic Finite-Element-Method calculations show excellent agreement. The main results are:
a)During thermal cycling all stresses in the AlSiCu-lines vary linearly with temperature without significant hysteresis. The stress parallel to the lines is higher than perpendicular to the lines. X-ray stress data from the same sample confirm the wafer curvature data and show, additionally, that the stresses in the two directions perpendicular to the lines are equal.
b)The isothermal stress relaxation depends strongly on the temperature with a maximum at 250°C. Void formation and growth probably control the observed relaxation.
Results of an investigation aimed at developing a technique by which the fracture toughness of a thin film or small volume can be determined in nanoindentation experiments are reported. The method is based on the radial cracking which occurs when brittle materials are deformed by a sharp indenter such as a Vickers or Berkovich diamond. In microindentation experiments, the lengths of radial cracks have been found to correlate reasonably well with fracture toughness, and a simple semi-empirical method has been developed to compute the toughness from the crack lengths. However, a problem is encountered in extending this method into the nanoindentation regime with the standard Berkovich indenter in that there are well defined loads, called cracking thresholds, below which indentation cracking does not occur in most brittle materials. We have recently found that the problems imposed by the cracking threshold can be largely overcome by using an indenter with the geometry of the corner of a cube. For the cube-corner indenter, cracking thresholds in most brittle materials are as small as 1 mN (∼ 0.1 grams). In addition, the simple, well-developed relationship between toughness and crack length used for the Vickers indenter in the microindentation regime can be used for the cube-corner indenter in the nanoindentation regime provided a different empirical constant is used.