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A sub-sea permafrost drilling program was conducted near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Sub-sea permafrost was found at all offshore drill sites and was characterized as being ice bonded or unbonded. The unbonded sub-sea permafrost occurred in a thin layer at the sea bed; the near-shore thickness of this layer appears to be controlled by the bathymetry. The mean annual sea-bed temperatures were about —3.4°C at 203 m offshore, — 1.1°C at 481 m offshore and —0.7°C at 3370 m offshore. The thermal diffusivity was about 21 m2 a-1 for unbonded sandy gravel with silt. The sub-sea permafrost soils were sandy gravel with some silt overlain by a thin layer of silty sand which increased in thickness from a few meters near shore to about 14 m at 3370 m offshore. A few small ice lenses were found in a hole 195 m offshore but no massive ice was observed. Pore-water salt concentrations at the sea bed were 3-4 times that of normal sea-water where ice was frozen to the sea bed and 1–2 times that of normal sea-water otherwise. Preliminary laboratory experiments showed that the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the unbonded sub-sea permafrost was about 10–6–10–7 m s–1. The permeability of the subterranean permafrost was zero.
The majority of fast radio bursts (FRBs) are poorly localised, hindering their potential scientific yield as galactic, intergalactic, and cosmological probes. LOFT-e, a digital backend for the U.K.’s e-MERLIN seven-telescope interferometer will provide commensal search and real-time detection of FRBs, taking full advantage of its field of view (FoV), sensitivity, and observation time. Upon burst detection, LOFT-e will store raw data offline, enabling the sub-arcsecond localisation provided by e-MERLIN and expanding the pool of localised FRBs. The high-time resolution backend will additionally introduce pulsar observing capabilities to e-MERLIN.
Accumulation studies along the lowermost 100 km of Jakobshavns Isbræ show that the local net balance above the equilibrium line (1210 m elevation in 1986) is significantly less than that measured along the EGIG line about 100 km further north. This indicates the presence of a precipitation low in this region which will affect any global mass-balance assessment for the Jakobshavns Isbræ drainage basin. Comparison of the estimated calving and ablation fluxes shows that calving removes about twice as much mass from this drainage basin as does melting. Basal melting over the entire basin accounts for about 20% of the total ice loss by ablation. Temperature measurements at 12 m depth along the same section of the Isbræ show the warming effects of refreezing meltwater and cooling effects of severe crevassing. In addition, there is a significant variation in temperature across the fast-moving ice stream which is probably caused by deformation heating in the shear margins which delineate the ice stream within the ice sheet. This lateral temperature gradient could be important in ice-stream dynamics through its effects on ice rheology. Detailed measurements within the percolation fades show that surface melt can penetrate up to 3 m by piping in cold firn, and, upon refreezing, can cause significant warming at these depths.
A reconnaissance program has been carried out to identify problems caused by glaciers in a large proposed hydroelectric development in the Susitna River basin of Alaska. Balance measurements on the major glaciers have been initiated, and long-term balance between 1949 and 1980 has been estimated from existing photo sets. From the latter it appears that shrinking of the glac!iers, which comprise 4% of the basin area, may have contributed appreciably to the measured basin runoff. A potential instability in the drainage of Eureka Glacier, on the edge of the basin, has been identified. The glaciers of the basin seem to be largely temperate, and most of them are surging or pulsing types. Velocity measurements show seasonal variations that suggest appreciable contribution to the motion from basal sliding. A study of the moraines of Susitna Glacier, which is a surging type, indicates that no surge is imminent. Glacier-dammed lakes exist in the basin; they are small but could be enlarged by surging or other mechanisms. Some general problems in the estimation of the transport of suspended sediment are noted.
HBsAg reappearance may constitute not only a risk for liver disease but also an infectious source. We aimed to determine whether HBsAg may reappear after spontaneous HBsAg seroclearance. A cohort of 2999 HBsAg-positive subjects aged 30–55 years was recruited in Guangxi, China in 2004. HBsAg was tested every 6 months from July 2004 to June 2007, then, one more time in December 2013. The results showed that spontaneous HBsAg seroclearance occurred in 41 subjects in the first 3 years, giving a 0·54% annual seroclearance rate. Thirteen of the 41 subjects were randomly tested for HBsAg in 2013. Four subjects became HBsAg positive. S gene sequences of HBV were analysed from serum collected before seroclearance and after reappearance, respectively, for subject QS840 (11 and 12 clones), subject TN98 (13 and 13 clones) and subject WX227 (10 and 8 clones). Serotype, subgenotype and amino-acid substitution pattern in each sample collected after reappearance was observed in the sample collected before HBsAg seroclearance. Nucleotide similarity between the two sequences from each subject was >99% and five sequences from subject TN98 were the same. In conclusion, following reactivation, HBsAg may reappear in individuals with spontaneous HBsAg seroclearance many years previously.
On May 22, 1989 the Japanese Ginga Team discovered a new X-ray source that was cataloged as GS 2023+338. This source was subsequently identified as coincident in position with a previously known nova cataloged as V404 Cygni. Its last recorded outburst was in 1938 when it rose to about 12th mag. Spectroscopic data were obtained and confirmed the nature of the outburst. Additional ground based data were obtained by us at CTIO and the VLA. The X-ray behavior of this object has been reported to be very unusual and it reached a peak of about 17 crab about one week after discovery. Since then it has varied widely in magnitude at all wavelengths at which it has been studied. We present a brief summary of the observations that have been obtained up to the time of the meeting and shortly thereafter.
Evidence suggests some overlap between the pathological use of food and drugs, yet how impulsivity compares across these different clinical disorders remains unclear. Substance use disorders are commonly characterized by elevated impulsivity, and impulsivity subtypes may show commonalities and differences in various conditions. We hypothesized that obese subjects with binge-eating disorder (BED) and abstinent alcohol-dependent cohorts would have relatively more impulsive profiles compared to obese subjects without BED. We also predicted decision impulsivity impairment in obesity with and without BED.
Thirty obese subjects with BED, 30 without BED and 30 abstinent alcohol-dependent subjects and age- and gender-matched controls were tested on delay discounting (preference for a smaller immediate reward over a larger delayed reward), reflection impulsivity (rapid decision making prior to evidence accumulation) and motor response inhibition (action cancellation of a prepotent response).
All three groups had greater delay discounting relative to healthy volunteers. Both obese subjects without BED and alcohol-dependent subjects had impaired motor response inhibition. Only obese subjects without BED had impaired integration of available information to optimize outcomes over later trials with a cost condition.
Delay discounting appears to be a common core impairment across disorders of food and drug intake. Unexpectedly, obese subjects without BED showed greater impulsivity than obese subjects with BED. We highlight the dissociability and heterogeneity of impulsivity subtypes and add to the understanding of neurocognitive profiles across disorders involving food and drugs. Our results have therapeutic implications suggesting that disorder-specific patterns of impulsivity could be targeted.
NASA's NuSTAR observatory is the first focusing hard X-ray telescope. Launched in June 2012, NuSTAR is sensitive in the 3–79 keV range with unprecedented ~17″ FWHM angular resolution above 12 keV, a result of its multilayer-coated optics and 10-m focal length. With its large effective area (900 cm2 at 10 keV), NuSTAR has point-source sensitivity ~100 times better than previous hard X-ray telescopes. Here we describe NuSTAR and its planned work on rotation-powered pulsars and magnetars during its nominal 2-yr baseline mission that has just commenced.
Early Proterozoic rapakivi intrusions in S Greenland occur as thick sheets which have ramp–flat geometry and were intruded along the median planes of active ductile extensional shear zones. These shear zones and their intrusions were linked via transfer zones in a major three-dimensional framework. At high structural levels (c. 6 km) the rapakivi intrusions developed thermal aureoles which overprint the regional assemblages, whereas at deeper levels in the regional structure they are contemporaneous with regional metamorphism. Thermobarometry on the regional and contact assemblages indicates low pressure granulite facies conditions (200–400 MPa, 650°-800°C) suggesting very high thermal gradients. The rapakivi suite and associated norites have low initial 87Sr/86Sr together with positive εNd values, indicating the involvement of predominantly young crust and/or mantle component in the generation of the igneous suite. It is considered that the voluminous norites are closely related to the mafic melts which underplated the juvenile crust to trigger the generation of the monzonitic rapakivi suite. Taken together, the data are consistent with a model of Proterozoic lithospheric extension, thinning of relatively juvenile continental crust and compression of mantle isotherms, resulting in high crustal heat flow, mafic underplating, and crustal melting with emplacement of magmas along a linked network of extensional shear zones.
TiAlTiAu and TiAlPdAu contacts to GaN/AlGaN, rapid thermal annealed at temperatures ranging from 650°C to 950°C, have been investigated using conventional and chemical TEM analysis. Ohmic behaviour was seen for TiAlTiAu contacts annealed at 750°C or higher, but was not observed in TiAlPdAu contacts annealed at up to 950°C. The effect of annealing temperature on the structural evolution of the contact is explained in terms of different extents of interfacial reaction. In particular, the formation of TiN after anneals at high temperatures is required to activate the contact. At anneals of 950°C, TiAlTiAu samples show a structure of TiN grains within an interfacial band, with TiN inclusions into the AlGaN preceded by an Al-Au diffusion front. Inclusion formation and the effect on the contact electrical performance is described.
Several series of sodali te analogues of unit cell composition M8X2(TO2)12, where M is Zn or Cd, X is a chalcogen, and T is a tetrahedral cation B, or Be in combination with Si or Ge, have been prepared. An M4X tetrahedron, which is the first coordination sphere of the bulk semiconductor MX, sits at the center of each sodalite cage. These materials have been structurally characterized by solid state 77Se and 125STe MAS NMR and by powder X-ray diffraction. Diffuse reflectance optical absorption spectra are reported for each series. The borates have optical properties similar to the bulk MX whereas the beryllosilicates and germanates exhibit large blue shifts in the absorption spectra.
Molecular dynamics simulations which make use of a many-body analytic potential function have been used to study the nanometer-scale indentation of diamond and graphite. We find that the simulation correctly reproduces experimentally determined trends in load versus penetration data. As a result, trends in mechanical properties, e.g. Young's modulus, are also reproduced.
Solid-state chemistry has been used to control both the size and the interconnection distance of small II-VI semiconductor moeities incorporated in zeolitic hosts with the sodalite-type structure. Structural characterization was carried out using X-ray Rietveld powder methods, and optical properties of these materials were also measured. These novel materials show quantum superlattice effects as evidenced by blue shifts in their optical absorption spectra.
This paper briefly reviews the standard Transmission Line Model (TLM) commonly used to measure the specific contact resistance of a planar ohmic contact. It is proposed that in the case of a typical Au-Ge-Ni alloyed ohmic contact, a more realistic model would need to take into account the presence of the alloyed layer at the metal-semiconductor interface. An alternative is described which is based on three contact layers and the two interfaces between them, thus forming a Tri-Layer Transmission Line Model (TLTLM). Expressions are given for the contact resistance Rc and the contact end resistance Re of this structure, together with a current division factor, f. Values for the parameters of this model are inferred from experimentally reported values of Rc and Re for two types of contact.
AuTiAlTi, AuPdAlTi and AuAlTi ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN layers rapid thermal annealed at temperatures up to 950°C have been characterised using conventional and chemical transmission electron microscopy techniques. The relationship between the as-deposited metallic structure, annealing temperature, post-anneal interfacial microstructure and contact resistance is examined.
The presence of a TiN interfacial layer is found to correlate with the onset of ohmic behaviour. Ti and Pd barrier layers are found to be ineffective at stopping the diffusion of Au to the interface. Au is implicated in the development of the inclusions, which are associated with threading dislocations. Once activated, the presence of the inclusions has little influence on the ohmic behaviour of the sample.