To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Evidence suggests that early trauma may have a negative effect on cognitive functioning in individuals with psychosis, yet the relationship between childhood trauma and cognition among those at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis remains unexplored. Our sample consisted of 626 CHR children and 279 healthy controls who were recruited as part of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study 2. Childhood trauma up to the age of 16 (psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and bullying) was assessed by using the Childhood Trauma and Abuse Scale. Multiple domains of cognition were measured at baseline and at the time of psychosis conversion, using standardized assessments. In the CHR group, there was a trend for better performance in individuals who reported a history of multiple types of childhood trauma compared with those with no/one type of trauma (Cohen d = 0.16). A history of multiple trauma types was not associated with greater cognitive change in CHR converters over time. Our findings tentatively suggest there may be different mechanisms that lead to CHR states. Individuals who are at clinical high risk who have experienced multiple types of childhood trauma may have more typically developing premorbid cognitive functioning than those who reported minimal trauma do. Further research is needed to unravel the complexity of factors underlying the development of at-risk states.
Recently many activists, scholars, and political commentators have focused their attention on rising income inequality, stagnating wages, union decline, and the disappearance of steady work. They have proposed a variety of programs to address these trends, such as expanding eligibility for overtime, implementing paid family leave, raising the minimum wage, and investing in more training. While each of these specific proposals are valuable in themselves, they address only a part of the problem and offer only partial solutions. What they miss is that that there has been a fundamental change in the nature of work over the past three decades. Since the late 1980s, the entire context of the work experience has changed profoundly. Gone are the days when individuals (at least white, male individuals) with only a high school education could obtain a steady well-paying job by their late twenties and expect to stay in that job for the remainder of their careers. In the past, many blue-collar jobs provided job security, income stability, and a reliable package of social insurance and retirement benefits. But the steady job with a single employer throughout one’s career is a relic of the past.
Externalizing disorders are known to be partly heritable, but the biological pathways linking genetic risk to the manifestation of these costly behaviors remain under investigation. This study sought to identify neural phenotypes associated with genomic vulnerability for externalizing disorders.
One-hundred fifty-five White, non-Hispanic veterans were genotyped using a genome-wide array and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Genetic susceptibility was assessed using an independently developed polygenic score (PS) for externalizing, and functional neural networks were identified using graph theory based network analysis. Tasks of inhibitory control and psychiatric diagnosis (alcohol/substance use disorders) were used to measure externalizing phenotypes.
A polygenic externalizing disorder score (PS) predicted connectivity in a brain circuit (10 nodes, nine links) centered on left amygdala that included several cortical [bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) pars triangularis, left rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC)] and subcortical (bilateral amygdala, hippocampus, and striatum) regions. Directional analyses revealed that bilateral amygdala influenced left prefrontal cortex (IFG) in participants scoring higher on the externalizing PS, whereas the opposite direction of influence was observed for those scoring lower on the PS. Polygenic variation was also associated with higher Participation Coefficient for bilateral amygdala and left rACC, suggesting that genes related to externalizing modulated the extent to which these nodes functioned as communication hubs.
Findings suggest that externalizing polygenic risk is associated with disrupted connectivity in a neural network implicated in emotion regulation, impulse control, and reinforcement learning. Results provide evidence that this network represents a genetically associated neurobiological vulnerability for externalizing disorders.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and stress/trauma exposure are cross-sectionally associated with advanced DNA methylation age relative to chronological age. However, longitudinal inquiry and examination of associations between advanced DNA methylation age and a broader range of psychiatric disorders is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if PTSD, depression, generalized anxiety, and alcohol-use disorders predicted acceleration of DNA methylation age over time (i.e. an increasing pace, or rate of advancement, of the epigenetic clock).
Genome-wide DNA methylation and a comprehensive set of psychiatric symptoms and diagnoses were assessed in 179 Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans who completed two assessments over the course of approximately 2 years. Two DNA methylation age indices (Horvath and Hannum), each a weighted index of an array of genome-wide DNA methylation probes, were quantified. The pace of the epigenetic clock was operationalized as change in DNA methylation age as a function of time between assessments.
Analyses revealed that alcohol-use disorders (p = 0.001) and PTSD avoidance and numbing symptoms (p = 0.02) at Time 1 were associated with an increasing pace of the epigenetic clock over time, per the Horvath (but not the Hannum) index of cellular aging.
This is the first study to suggest that posttraumatic psychopathology is longitudinally associated with a quickened pace of the epigenetic clock. Results raise the possibility that accelerated cellular aging is a common biological consequence of stress-related psychopathology, which carries implications for identifying mechanisms of stress-related cellular aging and developing interventions to slow its pace.
The number of people living with dementia in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is expected to increase rapidly in the coming decades. However, our understanding of how best to reduce dementia risk in the population is very limited. As a first step in developing intervention strategies to manage dementia risk in this setting, we investigated rates of cognitive decline in a rural population in Tanzania and attempted to identify associated factors.
The study was conducted in the rural Hai district of northern Tanzania. In 2014, community-dwelling people aged 65 years and over living in six villages were invited to take part in a cognitive screening program. All participants from four of the six villages were followed-up at two years and cognitive function re-tested. At baseline and follow-up, participants were assessed for functional disability, hypertension, and grip strength (as a measure of frailty). At follow-up, additional assessments of visual acuity, hearing impairment, tobacco and alcohol consumption, and clinical assessment for stroke were completed.
Baseline and follow-up data were available for 327 people. Fifty people had significant cognitive decline at two-year follow-up. Having no formal education, low grip strength at baseline, being female and having depression at follow-up were independently associated with cognitive decline.
This is one of the first studies of cognitive decline conducted in SSA. Rates of decline at two years were relatively high. Future work should focus on identification of specific modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline with a view to developing culturally appropriate interventions.
The time at which the Laurentide Ice Sheet reached its maximum extent and subsequently retreated from its terminal moraine in New Jersey has been constrained by bracketing radiocarbon ages on preglacial and postglacial sediments. Here, we present measurements of in situ produced 10Be and 26Al in 16 quartz-bearing samples collected from bedrock outcrops and glacial erratics just north of the terminal moraine in north-central New Jersey; as such, our ages represent a minimum limit on the timing of ice recession from the moraine. The data set includes field and laboratory replicates, as well as replication of the entire data set five years after initial measurement. We find that recession of the Laurentide Ice Sheet from the terminal moraine in New Jersey began before 25.2±2.1 ka (10Be, n=16, average, 1 standard deviation). This cosmogenic nuclide exposure age is consistent with existing limiting radiocarbon ages in the study area and cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages from the terminal moraine on Martha’s Vineyard ~300 km to the northeast. The age we propose for Laurentide Ice Sheet retreat from the New Jersey terminal position is broadly consistent with regional and global climate records of the last glacial maximum termination and records of fluvial incision.
This article responds to recent calls for organizational research to address larger, more globally relevant questions and to pay attention to history, by analyzing the crucial debate over intellectual property rights (IPR) between the United States and China. Despite the recent US position, the United States has not always been a leading IPR advocate. Rather, it was a leading IPR violator during the nineteenth century. An institution-based view of IPR history suggests that both the US refusal to protect foreign IPR in the nineteenth century and the current Chinese lack of enthusiasm to meet US IPR demands represent rational choices. However, as cost-benefit considerations change institutional transitions are possible. We predict that to the same extent the United States voluntarily agreed to strengthen IPR protection when its economy became sufficiently innovation-driven, China will similarly improve its IPR protection.
Pipe bifurcations are common flow configurations in both natural and man-made systems. This study follows our previous report (Chen et al., Phys. Fluids, vol. 27, 2015, 034107) by describing three aspects of flows through junction angles of
, with a square cross-section. First, the inflow creates tightly spiralling vortices in four quadrants of the junction. For sufficiently large Reynolds number
, these vortices undergo behaviour resembling steady near-axisymmetric breakdown. With increasing
, the flow through the
junction remains steady and stable until the first Hopf bifurcation. Beyond the Hopf bifurcation, the vortices undergo a helical instability. The
junctions, however, first exhibit pitchfork bifurcations leading to asymmetric solutions. Second, the direct eigenmodes of the linearised flow are large in vortices in the outlet pipes, whereas the adjoint eigenmodes primarily reside in a small region in the inlet and the junction, near the front and back walls. Third, the sensitivities of the eigenvalues to spatially localised feedback and base flow modifications are greatest in and near the junction vortices. We highlight the regions of high growth rate and frequency sensitivity, as well as regions where the production and transport of perturbations by modifications of the base flow contribute most to the base flow sensitivity. The flow separation at the corners of the junction does not coincide with the eigenmodes or sensitivity regions.
Background: The degree of overlap between schizophrenia (SCZ) and affective psychosis (AFF) has been a recurring question since Kraepelin’s subdivision of the major psychoses. Studying nonpsychotic relatives allows a comparison of disorder-associated phenotypes, without potential confounds that can obscure distinctive features of the disorder. Because attention and working memory have been proposed as potential endophenotypes for SCZ and AFF, we compared these cognitive features in individuals at familial high-risk (FHR) for the disorders. Methods: Young, unmedicated, first-degree relatives (ages, 13–25 years) at FHR-SCZ (n=41) and FHR-AFF (n=24) and community controls (CCs, n=54) were tested using attention and working memory versions of the Auditory Continuous Performance Test. To determine if schizotypal traits or current psychopathology accounted for cognitive deficits, we evaluated psychosis proneness using three Chapman Scales, Revised Physical Anhedonia, Perceptual Aberration, and Magical Ideation, and assessed psychopathology using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist -90 Revised. Results: Compared to controls, the FHR-AFF sample was significantly impaired in auditory vigilance, while the FHR-SCZ sample was significantly worse in working memory. Both FHR groups showed significantly higher levels of physical anhedonia and some psychopathological dimensions than controls. Adjusting for physical anhedonia, phobic anxiety, depression, psychoticism, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms eliminated the FHR-AFF vigilance effects but not the working memory deficits in FHR-SCZ. Conclusions: The working memory deficit in FHR-SZ was the more robust of the cognitive impairments after accounting for psychopathological confounds and is supported as an endophenotype. Examination of larger samples of people at familial risk for different psychoses remains necessary to confirm these findings and to clarify the role of vigilance in FHR-AFF. (JINS, 2016, 22, 1026–1037)
A revision of the North American members of the Leptogium saturninum group (i.e. species with long lower-surface hairs, isidia, and usually smooth upper surface) is presented based on molecular phylogenetic analyses of mtSSU and nrITS sequence data, together with an extensive morphological study. Three species supported by both molecular and morphological characteristics are recognized: L. acadiense sp. nov. (distinguished by granular saturninum-type isidia, medulla composed of irregularly arranged or perpendicular hyphae), L. cookii sp. nov. (distinguished by cylindrical saturninum-type isidia) and L. hirsutum (distinguished by hirsutum-type isidia and medulla composed of loosely intertwined hyphae). One species supported by morphological characteristics, but for which no molecular data could be generated, is also recognized: L. compactum sp. nov. (distinguished by hirsutum-type isidia and medulla composed of tightly packed hyphae). Finally, L. saturninum (distinguished by granular saturninum-type isidia and medulla composed of perpendicular and parallel hyphae) is supported by morphological characteristics but molecular data from geographically diverse populations, including those near the type locality, indicate that the morphologically defined species is paraphyletic. Leptogium burnetiae is excluded from North American based on morphological study of the type. The species are described and illustrated in detail, and are distinguished morphologically by their isidium development, morphology of mature isidia, and pattern of hyphae in the medulla in transverse sections near lobe margins. A key to the members of the L. saturninum group and related species is also presented.
To describe compliance with the central line (CL) insertion bundle overall and with individual bundle elements in US adult intensive care units (ICUs) and to determine the relationship between bundle compliance and central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates.
National sample of adult ICUs participating in National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance.
Hospitals were surveyed to determine compliance with CL insertion bundle elements in ICUs. Corresponding NHSN ICU CLABSI rates were obtained. Multivariate Poisson regression models were used to assess associations between CL bundle compliance and CLABSI rates, controlling for hospital and ICU characteristics.
A total of 984 adult ICUs in 632 hospitals were included. Most ICUs had CL bundle policies, but only 69% reported excellent compliance (≥95%) with at least 1 element. Lower CLABSI rates were associated with compliance with just 1 element (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64–0.92); however, ≥95% compliance with all 5 elements was associated with the greatest reduction (IRR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.59–0.77). There was no association between CLABSI rates and simply having a written CL bundle policy nor with bundle compliance <75%. Additionally, better-resourced infection prevention departments were associated with lower CLABSI rates.
Our findings demonstrate the impact of transferring infection prevention interventions to the real-world setting. Compliance with the entire bundle was most effective, although excellent compliance with even 1 bundle element was associated with lower CLABSI rates. The variability in compliance across ICUs suggests that, at the national level, there is still room for improvement in CLABSI reduction.
Gametocytes are the specialized form of Plasmodium parasites that are responsible for human-to-mosquito transmission of malaria. Transmission of gametocytes is highly effective, but represents a biomass bottleneck for the parasite that has stimulated interest in strategies targeting the transmission stages separately from those responsible for clinical disease. Studying targets of naturally acquired immunity against transmission-stage parasites may reveal opportunities for novel transmission reducing interventions, particularly the development of a transmission blocking vaccine (TBV). In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on immunity against the transmission stages of Plasmodium. This includes immune responses against epitopes on the gametocyte-infected erythrocyte surface during gametocyte development, as well as epitopes present upon gametocyte activation in the mosquito midgut. We present an analysis of historical data on transmission reducing immunity (TRI), as analysed in mosquito feeding assays, and its correlation with natural recognition of sexual stage specific proteins Pfs48/45 and Pfs230. Although high antibody titres towards either one of these proteins is associated with TRI, the presence of additional, novel targets is anticipated. In conclusion, the identification of novel gametocyte-specific targets of naturally acquired immunity against different gametocyte stages could aid in the development of potential TBV targets and ultimately an effective transmission blocking approach.
The effect of new International Monetary Fund (IMF) lending announcements on capital markets depends on the lender’s political motivations. There are conditions under which lending reduces the risk of a deepening crisis and the risk premium demanded by market actors. Yet the political interests that make lenders willing to lend may weaken the credibility of commitments to reform, and the act of accepting an agreement reveals unfavorable information about the state of the borrower’s economy. The net ‘catalytic’ effect on the price of private borrowing depends on whether these effects dominate the beneficial effects of the liquidity the loan provides. Decomposing the contradictory effects of crisis lending provides an explanation for the discrepant empirical findings in the literature about market reactions. This study tests the implications of the theory by examining how sovereign bond yields are affected by IMF program announcements, loan size, the scope of conditions attached to loans and measures of the geopolitical interests of the United States, a key IMF principal.
We examine the degree of consensus in quality ratings of prominent U.S. wine publications. For the purposes of wine consumption and research, are ratings on the ubiquitous 100-point scale reliable measures of quality? The value of expert judgment has been called into question by a number of studies, especially in the context of wine competitions and tasting events. Using data on 853 wines, we find a moderately high level of consensus, measured by the correlation coefficient, between most pairs of publications, similar to the level found by Ashton (2013). Rank and intraclass correlations are similar. Consensus is not found to be related to the blinding policies (or lack thereof) of the critical publications. (JEL Classifications: C93, D46)
To describe the use of antimicrobial stewardship policies and to investigate factors associated with implementation in a national sample of acute care hospitals.
Infection Control Directors from acute care hospitals participating in the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN).
An online survey was conducted in the Fall of 2011. A subset of hospitals also provided access to their 2011 NHSN annual survey data.
Responses were received from 1,015 hospitals (30% response rate). The majority of hospitals (64%) reported the presence of a policy; use of antibiograms and antimicrobial restriction policies were most frequently utilized (83% and 65%, respectively). Respondents from larger, urban, teaching hospitals and those that are part of a system that shares resources were more likely to report a policy in place (P<.01). Hospitals located in California were more likely to have policy in place than in hospitals located in other states (P=.014).
This study provides a snapshot of the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship policies in place in U.S. hospitals and suggests that statewide efforts in California are achieving their intended effect. Further research is needed to identify factors that foster the adoption of these policies.
US state and territorial laws were reviewed to identify Clostridium difficile infection reporting mandates. Twenty states require reporting either under state law or by incorporating federal Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ reporting requirements. Although state law mandates are more common, the incorporation of federal reporting requirements has been increasing.
Democracies are more supportive of US positions on important votes in the UN General Assembly than of nondemocracies. Is this because democracies share common perspectives, or does this pattern reflect coercion? Since 1985, US law has stipulated that the US State Department identify important votes and that aid disbursements reflect voting decisions. To unravel these alternative explanations, we introduce a strategic statistical model that allows us to estimate voting preferences, vulnerability to influence, and credibility of linkage, which are theoretical quantities of interest that are not directly observable. The results reject the hypothesis of shared democratic values: poor democracies have voting preferences that are more oppositional to US positions than autocracies, and they are more willing than autocracies to take symbolic stands that may cost them foreign aid. Democracies support US positions, however, because US aid linkages are more credible when directed toward democratic countries. Splitting the sample into Cold War and post–Cold War segments, we find that the end of the Cold War changed the way US linkage strategies treated allies and left- and right-leaning governments, but the effects of democracy remained constant.
To determine the association between state legal mandates for data submission of central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) with process and outcome measures.
Participants. National sample of level II/III and III NICUs participating in National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance.
State mandates for data submission of CLABSIs in NICUs in place by 2011 were compiled and verified with state healthcare-associated infection coordinators. A web-based survey of infection control departments in October 2011 assessed CLABSI prevention practices, ie, compliance with checklist/bundle components (process measures) in ICUs including NICUs. Corresponding 2011 NHSN NICU CLABSI rates (outcome measures) were used to calculate standardized infection ratios (SIRs). Association between mandates and process and outcome measures was assessed by multivariable logistic regression.
Among 190 study NICUs, 107 (56.3%) were located in states with mandates, with mandates in place >3 years in 52 (49%). More NICUs in states with mandates reported ≥95% compliance to at least 1 CLABSI prevention practice (52.3%–66.4%) than NICUs in states without mandates (28.9%–48.2%). Mandates were predictors of ≥95% compliance with all practices (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.4–6.1). NICUs in states with mandates reported lower mean CLABSI rates in the ≤750-g birth weight group (2.4 vs 5.7 CLABSIs/1,000 central line–days) but not in others. Mandates were not associated with SIR <1.
State mandates for NICU CLABSI data submission were significantly associated with ≥95% compliance with CLABSI prevention practices, which declined with the duration of mandate but not with lower CLABSI rates.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(9):1133-1139