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Weed interference during crop establishment is a serious concern for Florida strawberry [Fragaria×ananassa (Weston) Duchesne ex Rozier (pro sp.) [chiloensis×virginiana]] producers. In situ remote detection for precision herbicide application reduces both the risk of crop injury and herbicide inputs. Carolina geranium (Geranium carolinianum L.) is a widespread broadleaf weed within Florida strawberry production with sensitivity to clopyralid, the only available POST broadleaf herbicide. Geranium carolinianum leaf structure is distinct from that of the strawberry plant, which makes it an ideal candidate for pattern recognition in digital images via convolutional neural networks (CNNs). The study objective was to assess the precision of three CNNs in detecting G. carolinianum. Images of G. carolinianum growing in competition with strawberry were gathered at four sites in Hillsborough County, FL. Three CNNs were compared, including object detection–based DetectNet, image classification–based VGGNet, and GoogLeNet. Two DetectNet networks were trained to detect either leaves or canopies of G. carolinianum. Image classification using GoogLeNet and VGGNet was largely unsuccessful during validation with whole images (Fscore<0.02). CNN training using cropped images increased G. carolinianum detection during validation for VGGNet (Fscore=0.77) and GoogLeNet (Fscore=0.62). The G. carolinianum leaf–trained DetectNet achieved the highest Fscore (0.94) for plant detection during validation. Leaf-based detection led to more consistent detection of G. carolinianum within the strawberry canopy and reduced recall-related errors encountered in canopy-based training. The smaller target of leaf-based DetectNet did increase false positives, but such errors can be overcome with additional training images for network desensitization training. DetectNet was the most viable CNN tested for image-based remote sensing of G. carolinianum in competition with strawberry. Future research will identify the optimal approach for in situ detection and integrate the detection technology with a precision sprayer.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
The impact of spatial and temporal variations in the surface albedo and aerodynamic roughness length on the surface energy balance of Haut Glacier d’Arolla, Switzerland, was examined using a semi-distributed surface energy-balance model (Arnold and others, 1996). The model was updated to incorporate the glacier-wide effects of albedo and aerodynamic roughness-length variations using parameterizations following Brock (1997). After the model’s performance was validated, the glacier-wide patterns of the net shortwave, turbulent and melt energy fluxes were examined on four days, representative of surface conditions in late May, June July and August. In the model, meteorological conditions were held constant on each day in order that the impact of albedo and aerodynamic roughness-length variations could be assessed independently. A late-summer snowfall event was also simulated. Albedo and aerodynamic roughness-length variations, particularly those associated with the migration of the transient snowline and the decay of the winter snowpack, were found to exert a strong influence on the magnitude of the surface energy fluxes The importance of meteorological conditions in suppressing the surface energy fluxes and melt rate following a fresh snowfall was highlighted
Measurements of surface dynamics on polythermal John Evans Glacier, Nunavut, Canada, over two winter periods and every 7–10 days throughout two melt seasons (June–July 2000, 2001) provide new insight into spatio-temporal patterns of High Arctic glacier dynamics. In the lower ablation zone, mean annual surface velocities are 10–21 m a–1, but peak velocities up to 50% higher are attained during late June/early July. In the upper ablation zone and lower accumulation zone, mean annual surface velocities are typically 10–18 m a–1, and peak velocities up to 40% higher occur during late July. In the upper accumulation zone, mean annual surface velocities are 2–9 m a–1, and motion in mid- to late July exceeds this by up to 10%. Rapid drainage of ponded supraglacial water in the upper ablation zone to an initially distributed subglacial drainage system in mid-June may force excess surface motion in the warm-based lower glacier. The data indicate that the duration of the velocity response may be related to the rate of channelization of the basal drainage, and the velocity response may be transmitted up-glacier by longitudinal coupling. An increase in surface velocities in the middle glacier in late July occurs in conjunction with the opening of two further moulins in the accumulation zone.
High rates of surface uplift and horizontal velocities were measured during a hydrologically induced spring speed-up event. Spatial patterns of surface uplift are analyzed to estimate components of vertical motion due to flow along an inclined bed and vertical strain. Areas are identified where surface uplift was most likely due in part to the opening or enlargement of subglacial cavities by bed separation. Results suggest a widespread enlargement of subglacial cavities during the event, and survival of residual cavities after the event. The spatial pattern of cavity enlargement closely matches previously identified axes of preferential subglacial drainage. It is suggested that localized cavity opening along axes of preferential drainage may constitute the initial stage in the seasonal development of channelized subglacial drainage. It is concluded that spatial and temporal variations in glacier motion may play an active role in determining the structure and rate of development of subglacial drainage during the summer melt season.
Spatial and temporal variations in aerodynamic roughness length (z0) on Haut Glacier d’Arolla, Switzerland, during the 1993 and 1994 ablation seasons are described, based on measurements of surface microtopography. The validity of the microtopographic z0 measurements is established through comparison with independent vertical wind profile z0 measurements over melting snow, slush and ice. The z0 variations are explained through correlation and regression analyses, using independent measurements of meteorological and surface variables, and parameterizations are developed to calculate z0 variations for use in surface energy-balance melt models. Several independent variables successfully explain snow z0 variation through their correlation with increasing surface roughness, caused by ablation hollow formation, during snowmelt. Non-linear parameterizations based on either accumulated melt or accumulated daily maximum temperatures since the most recent snowfall explain over 80% of snow z0 variation. The z0 following a fresh snowfall on an ice surface is parameterized based on relationships with the underlying ice z0, snow depth and accumulated daily maximum temperatures. None of the independent variables were able to successfully explain ice z0 variation. Although further comparative studies are needed, the results lend strong support to the microtopographic technique of measuring z0 over melting glacier surfaces.
The surface velocity of a predominantly cold polythermal glacier (John Evans Glacier, Ellesmere Island, Canada) varies significantly on both seasonal and shorter time-scales. Seasonal variations reflect the penetration of supraglacial water to the glacier bed through significant thicknesses of cold ice. Shorter-term events are associated with periods of rapidly increasing water inputs to the subglacial drainage system. Early-season short-term events immediately follow the establishment of a drainage connection between glacier surface and glacier bed, and coincide with the onset of subglacial outflow at the terminus. A mid-season short-term event occurred as surface melting resumed following cold weather, and may have been facilitated by partial closure of subglacial channels during this cold period. There is a close association between the timing and spatial distribution of horizontal and vertical velocity anomalies, the temporal pattern of surface water input to the glacier, and the formation, seasonal evolution and distribution of subglacial drainage pathways. These factors presumably control the occurrence of highwater-pressure events and water storage at the glacier bed. The observed coupling between surface water inputs and glacier velocity may allow predominantly cold polythermal glaciers to respond rapidly to climate-induced changes in surface melting.
Dye-tracer experiments undertaken over two summer melt seasons at polythermal John Evans Glacier, Ellesmere Island, Canada, were designed to investigate the character of the subglacial drainage system and its evolution over a melt season. In both summers, dye injections were conducted at several moulins and traced to a single subglacial outflow. Tracer breakthrough curves suggest that supraglacial meltwater initially encounters a distributed subglacial drainage system in late June. The subsequent development and maintenance of a channelled subglacial network are dependent upon sustained high rates of surface melting maintaining high supraglacial inputs. In a consistently warm summer (2000), subglacial drainage became rapidly and persistently channelled. In a cooler summer (2001), distributed subglacial drainage predominated. These observations confirm that supraglacial meltwater can access the bed of a High Arctic glacier in summer, and induce significant structural evolution of the subglacial drainage system. They do not support the view that subglacial drainage systems beneath polythermal glaciers are always poorly developed. They do suggest that the effects on ice flow of surface water penetration to the bed of predominantly cold glaciers may be short-lived.
Spatial and temporal variations of surface albedo on Haut Glacier d’Arolla, Switzerland, during the 1993 and 1994 ablation seasons are described. Correlation and regression analyses are used to explain the albedo variations in terms of independent meteorological and surface property variables. Parameterizations are developed which allow estimation of albedo variation in surface energy-balance models. Snow albedo is best estimated from accumulated daily maximum temperatures since snowfall. On “deep” snow (≥0.5 cm w.e. depth) a logarithmic function is used, while on “shallow” snow (<0.5 cm w.e. depth) an exponential function is used to enable the albedo to decay to the underlying ice or debris albedo. The transition from “deep” to “shallow” snow is calculated as a function of decreasing snow depth (combined r2 = 0.65). This new parameterization performs better than earlier schemes because accumulated daily maximum temperatures since snowfall correlate strongly with snow grain-size and impurity concentration, the main physical controls on snow albedo. Ice albedo may be parameterized by its relationship to elevation (r2 = 0.28), but this approach results in only a small improvement over the assumption of a constant mean ice albedo.
The Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI) is a globally complete collection of digital outlines of glaciers, excluding the ice sheets, developed to meet the needs of the Fifth Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for estimates of past and future mass balance. The RGI was created with limited resources in a short period. Priority was given to completeness of coverage, but a limited, uniform set of attributes is attached to each of the ~198 000 glaciers in its latest version, 3.2. Satellite imagery from 1999–2010 provided most of the outlines. Their total extent is estimated as 726 800 ± 34 000 km2. The uncertainty, about ±5%, is derived from careful single-glacier and basin-scale uncertainty estimates and comparisons with inventories that were not sources for the RGI. The main contributors to uncertainty are probably misinterpretation of seasonal snow cover and debris cover. These errors appear not to be normally distributed, and quantifying them reliably is an unsolved problem. Combined with digital elevation models, the RGI glacier outlines yield hypsometries that can be combined with atmospheric data or model outputs for analysis of the impacts of climatic change on glaciers. The RGI has already proved its value in the generation of significantly improved aggregate estimates of glacier mass changes and total volume, and thus actual and potential contributions to sea-level rise.
The subglacial chemical weathering environment is largely controlled by low temperatures and the presence of freshly comminuted minerals with a high surface area. These characteristics are believed to promote dissolution processes that give rise to low silica and high Ca2+ fluxes emanating from glacierized basins. We test an alternative hypothesis, that mineral precipitation reactions in the subglacial environment play an equally important role in controlling the water chemistry in glacierized basins. We analyze borehole and proglacial water chemistry from a subarctic polythermal glacier, complemented by mineral XRD analysis of suspended sediment, till and bedrock samples. In conjunction with a thermodynamic analysis of the water and mineral chemistry, we use reaction-path modelling to study the chemical enrichment of water through the glacier system. We find that the high pH of the subglacial environment is conducive to secondary mineral precipitation, and that it is not possible to balance the water chemistry using dissolution reactions alone. We show that low silica can be explained by standard weathering reactions without having to invoke mineral-leaching reactions. Our results suggest that subglacial weathering intensity may be significantly underestimated if the production of secondary minerals is not considered.
Velocity and strain-rate patterns in a small temperate valley glacier display flow effects of channel geometry, ice thickness, surface slope, and ablation. Surface velocities of 20–55 m/year show year-to-year fluctuations of 1.5–3 m/year. Transverse profiles of velocity have the form of a higher-order parabola modified by the effects of flow around a broad bend in the channel, which makes the velocity profile asymmetric, with maximum velocity displaced toward the outside of the bend. Marginal sliding rates are 5–22 m/year against bedrock and nil against debris. Velocity vectors diverge from the glacier center-line near the terminus, in response to surface ice loss, but converge toward it near the firn line because of channel narrowing. Plunge of the vectors gives an emergence flow component that falls short of balancing ice loss by about 1 m/year. Center-line velocities vary systematically with ice thickness and surface slope. In the upper half of the reach studied, effects of changing thickness and slope tend to compensate, and velocities are nearly constant; in the lower half, the effects are cumulative and velocities decrease progressively down-stream. Where the slope increases down-stream from 7° to 9°, reflecting a bedrock step, there is localized longitudinal extension of 0.03 year–1 followed by compression of 0.08 year–1 where the slope decreases. Marginal shear (up to 0.5 year–1) is strongly asymmetric due to flow around the bend: the stress center-line, where one of the principal axes becomes longitudinal, is displaced 150 m toward the inside of the bend. This effect is prominently visible in the crevasse pattern. Ice fluxes calculated independently by “laminar” flow theory and by continuity disagree in a way which shows that internal deformation of the ice is controlled not by local surface slope but by an effective slope that is nearly constant over the reach studied.
Dye-tracer techniques are widely used in infer the character of subglacial drainage systems. Quantitative analysis of dye breakthrough curves focuses on the determination of the water through flow velocity (u), the dispersion coefficient (D) and the dispersivity parameter (d = D/u). Together, these parameters describe the rate of passage of tracer through the drainage system and the extent to which the dye cloud becomes spread out during passage. They have been used to infer the nature of flow conditions within a drainage system and temporal changes in system morphology. Estimates of all three parameters, however, are dependent upon the sampling interval at which measurements of dye concentration used to define breakthrough curves are made. For a given breakthrough curve, the dispersion coefficient increases with the sampling interval, while the through flow velocity shows no systematic variation. As a result, the dispersivity also tends to increase with the sampling interval. Investigations of the sensitivity of parameter estimates to the sampling interval reveal that reliable estimates can be obtained only if the sampling interval is less than 1/16 of the time from dye injection to peak dye concentration. As a general guide, we Suggest that, ideally, quantitative analyses of dye breakthrough curves should therefore be conducted only when this criterion can be met.
Museum educators and graduate students at Brown University’s Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology and the Joukowsky Institute for Archaeology and the Ancient World, along with the RISD Museum at the Rhode Island School of Design, are entering their eighth year of partnering with sixth-grade social studies teachers in Providence Public Schools in a five-session classroom and museumbased archaeology program called Think Like an Archaeologist. This experiential program uses the study of archaeological methods to address state and national social studies standards and bridges social studies content with the literacy standards of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) that aim at moving students toward twenty-first-century skill building. Students not only understand the science behind the content in their textbooks but also learn how to use museum objects and archaeological artifacts as primary resources. Students also learn to “read” artifacts, express their ideas in spoken and written language as historians, and use academic vocabulary as required by CCSS while thinking like archaeologists. Through teacher feedback and student evaluations, we know this program to be a successful example of the benefits of teaching archaeological skills in middle school curricula—so much so that it has now been re-created at additional schools in other regions.
When children have marked problems with motor coordination, they often have problems with attention and impulse control. Here, we map the neuroanatomic substrate of motor coordination in childhood and ask whether this substrate differs in the presence of concurrent symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Participants were 226 children. All completed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5)-based assessment of ADHD symptoms and standardized tests of motor coordination skills assessing aiming/catching, manual dexterity and balance. Symptoms of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) were determined using parental questionnaires. Using 3 Tesla magnetic resonance data, four latent neuroanatomic variables (for the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia and thalamus) were extracted and mapped onto each motor coordination skill using partial least squares pathway modeling.
The motor coordination skill of aiming/catching was significantly linked to latent variables for both the cerebral cortex (t = 4.31, p < 0.0001) and the cerebellum (t = 2.31, p = 0.02). This effect was driven by the premotor/motor cortical regions and the superior cerebellar lobules. These links were not moderated by the severity of symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. In categorical analyses, the DCD group showed atypical reduction in the volumes of these regions. However, the group with DCD alone did not differ significantly from those with DCD and co-morbid ADHD.
The superior cerebellar lobules and the premotor/motor cortex emerged as pivotal neural substrates of motor coordination in children. The dimensions of these motor coordination regions did not differ significantly between those who had DCD, with or without co-morbid ADHD.
Animalists, those who hold that human persons are identical to human animals, seem committed to holding that, in becoming incarnate, the Son of God became a human animal. Unsurprisingly, a number of philosophers have argued that this is impossible. In this article, I consider several objections to an animalist account of the incarnation based on kind membership, viz. objections drawing on kind essentialism, constitution essentialism, and the persistence conditions of animals. After developing each objection in detail, I respond by drawing on my preferred formulation of animalism. My goal in addressing these objections is to take the first steps toward demonstrating the compatibility of animalism and the incarnation.