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The Commission held two sessions. At the first session there was an interesting discussion in which the majority of the eighteen members of the Commission present participated.
The second session was given over to stellar parallaxes. Dr Adams described the methods followed at Mt Wilson in deriving the spectroscopic parallaxes of 4179 stars and Dr Schlesinger explained the methods for deriving the values given in the Second Yale Catalogue. Parallax programmes were discussed by various observers.
A novel electroactive nanostructured silver molybdenum oxyfluoride (SMOF) perovskite was successfully synthesized via mechanochemistry through the use of AgFx and MoO3. The structure of the SMOF perovskite has been examined utilizing X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and elemental analysis. The SMOF perovskite exhibited a very good electrochemical activity. A detailed in-situ electrochemical study by XRD and XAS was carried out. Finally, preliminary work on fabrication of a metallic Ag2F phase and optimization of the rate capability of SMOF perovskite is presented.
Two dimensional hole and electron gases in wurtzite GaN/AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures are induced by strong polarization induced effects. The sheet carrier concentration and the confinement of the two dimensional carrier gases located close to one of the AlGaN/GaN interfaces are sensitive to a high number of different physical properties such as polarity, alloy composition, strain, thickness and doping. We have investigated the structural quality, the carrier concentration profiles and electrical transport properties by a combination of high resolution x- ray diffraction, Hall effect and C-V profiling measurements. The investigated heterostructures with N- and Ga-face polarity were grown by metalorganic vapor phase or plasma induced molecular beam epitaxy covering a broad range of alloy compositions and barrier thickness. By comparison of theoretical and experimental results we demonstrate that the formation of two dimensional hole and electron gases in GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures both rely on the difference of the polarization between the AlGaN and the GaN layer. In addition the role of polarity on the carrier accumulation at different interfaces in n- and p-doped heterostructures will be discussed in detail
AlGaN/GaN is a promising system for high power electron devices. Quality of ohmic contacts is a critical parameter in determining the performance of the device. Although we have achieved a transfer resistance (Rc) of 0.35Δmm and ρc of 9.5×10−7 Δcm−2 the morphology and edge acuity of the contacts are poor. The standard ohmic contact recipes consist of a combination of Titanium and Aluminum with Nickel and/or Gold. This is annealed at 800°C-950°C [1-5]. In this work we study ohmic contacts on unintentionally doped Al0.3Ga0.7N/GaN system. We look at ratios of Ti/Al from 0 to 2 to determine which is the optimum ratio in terms of surface morphology and electrical characteristics. From our studies we conclude that morphology of a Ti/Al contact is good over a ratio of 0.3 and the contact resistance is minimized at a Ti/Al of 0.6. The ohmic contacts are improved electrically if a layer of gold is added on top. The best electrical contacts however were obtained with a four layer recipe of Ti/Al/Ti/Au, which gave contact resistance (Rc) around 0.45Δmm, but the morphology of the contacts was poor.
The perovskite CaTiO3 is one of the major phases of the Synroc titanate mineral assemblage. Its chemical durability in an aqueous environment, which is relevant to the Synroc concept, has been investigated by solution analysis, surface analysis and electron microscopy. In general it has been found that dissolution due to base catalyzed hydrolysis is the most significant mechanism of attack; the results suggest that an ion exchange mechanism is confined to the first monolayer. Below 90°C the extent of attack, and release of Ca into solution, is limited by the formation of a titanaceous amorphous layer (” 100A thickness) which imposes a reaction constraint at the film-solid interface. Dissolution may also be constrained by the pH and Ca2+concentration in the bulk liquid. Above 90°C dissolution is relatively less constrained due to instability of the amorphous layer which is replaced by nucleation and epitaxial growth of TiO2 on the dissolving substrate. Thermodynamic stability of CaTiO3 for T< 90°C can easily be engineered into the waste repository, while hydrothermal stability (T > 90°C) is more difficult to achieve.
Several conductive structures, which appeared to be usable as base electrodes for integrated devices based on high dielectric materials, have been annealed for 30 minutes in oxygen at 650 °C. Similar structures coated with lead-based ferroelectrics deposited by the sol-gel method have been annealed for 1 min in oxygen at higher temperatures. The materials have been characterized by Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the crystallographic structure of the ferroelectrics films has been determined by X-ray diffractometry (XRD).
Only RuO2/Ru has been found to be suitable as an electrode, at temperatures not exceeding 650 °C. It has also been found that the electrode materials can strongly affect the crystallization behavior of the sol-gel ferroelectric films and the formation of single-phase perovskite layers.
The strong spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric effects in the wurtzite IIInitride semiconductors lead to new possibilities for device design. In typical heterojunction field effect transistors these effects are used to create large electron concentrations at the AlGaN/GaN interface. However, we examine several other possible device structures which include heterojunctions of AlGaN, GaN, and InGaN. For example, we find the strong electric fields present in these structures allow us to create quantum wells greater than 1 eV deep. Both Ga-faced and N-faced materials are explored. The two-dimensional electron gas concentrations in these structures are found using a self-consistent 1-D Schrödinger-Poisson solver modified to incorporate the effects of spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization. The boundary conditions at the heterojunction interfaces and at the surface and substrate are discussed in detail. Electron concentrations are compared with those obtained experimentally through capacitance-voltage and Hall effect measurements.
Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) with AlxGa1−xN/AlyGa1−yN multiple quantum well (MQW) active regions, doped in the barriers with different Si doping level, show a sharp near band-edge emission (UV luminescence). Besides the near band-edge emission, some samples also show parasitic emissions with a broad peak centered at about 520 nm (green luminescence). The EL intensities of the UV emission line and the green emission line are studied. The UV luminescence peak intensity increases superlinearly with the injection current, following a power law with an exponent of about 2.0. In contrast, the green luminescence peak intensity increases linearly with the injection current, with an exponent of about 1.0. A theoretical model is proposed to explain the relationship between the peak intensities and the injection current. The results obtained from the model are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The model provides a method to evaluate the dominant recombination process by measuring the exponent of the power-law dependence.
Neuropsychologists routinely rely on response validity measures to evaluate the authenticity of test performances. However, the relationship between cognitive and psychological response validity measures is not clearly understood. It remains to be seen whether psychological test results can predict the outcome of response validity testing in clinical and civil forensic samples. The present analysis applied a unique statistical approach, classification tree methodology (Optimal Data Analysis: ODA), in a sample of 307 individuals who had completed the MMPI-2 and a variety of cognitive effort measures. One hundred ninety-eight participants were evaluated in a secondary gain context, and 109 had no identifiable secondary gain. Through recurrent dichotomous discriminations, ODA provided optimized linear decision trees to classify either sufficient effort (SE) or insufficient effort (IE) according to various MMPI-2 scale cutoffs. After “pruning” of an initial, complex classification tree, the Response Bias Scale (RBS) took precedence in classifying cognitive effort. After removing RBS from the model, Hy took precedence in classifying IE. The present findings provide MMPI-2 scores that may be associated with SE and IE among civil litigants and claimants, in addition to illustrating the complexity with which MMPI-2 scores and effort test results are associated in the litigation context. (JINS, 2008, 14, 842–852.)
To assess the mycobactericidal efficacy of an agent relatively new to disinfection, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) and to compare the resistances of three Mycobacterium species. Mycobacterium bovis (strain BCG) was compared with Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium terrae to investigate the feasibility of using either of the latter two species in tuberculocidal testing. M chelonae (a rapid grower) and M terrae (an intermediate grower) both grow faster and are less virulent than M bovis (a slow grower).
The quantitative suspension protocol specified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Tuberculocidal Activity Test Method (EPA test), was used throughout this study. Standard suspensions of all three species were prepared in a similar manner. Two suspensions of M bovis, created in different laboratories, were used. These were tested against two concentrations of alkaline glutaraldehyde to provide reference data. Two concentrations of OPA were evaluated against all mycobacterial test suspensions. Four replicates of each organism-disinfectant combination were performed.
Results were assessed by analysis of variance. M terrae was significantly more resistant to 0.05% OPA than either M bovis or M chelonae. At 0.21% OPA, M terrae was slightly more susceptible than one test suspension of M bovis, but not significantly different from the other. M chelonae was significantly less resistant than the other species at both OPA concentrations. At their respective minimum effective concentration, OPA achieved a 6-log10 reduction of M bovis in nearly one sixth the time required by glutaraldehyde (5.5 minutes vs 32 minutes).
These data, along with other recent studies, lend support to the idea that M terrae may be a suitable test organism for use in the tuberculocidal efficacy testing of disinfectants. They also confirm the relatively rapid tuberculocidal activity of OPA.
Visual markers detectable by histochemical staining have been developed
for analysing the time course and tissue specificity of maize
infections by Fusarium moniliforme. Three F. moniliforme
strains, RRC 374, MRC 826 and RRC PAT, were transformed with a
plasmid, pHPG, containing the gusA reporter gene which codes for
β-glucuronidase (GUS) and the hph gene for hygromycin
resistance as the selectable marker. Introduction of plasmid DNA into germinating
conidia yielded 1·2×10−7
transformants per conidium; expression of both gusA and hph
was however, transient. Stable transformants were obtained using protoplasts
recipient, but transformation frequency was reduced. Southern blot and
PCR analyses confirmed incorporation of pHPG into the
genome of all three F. moniliforme strains with gusA
properly inserted in MRC 826 and RRC PAT, but apparently disrupted in RRC
374. The growth pattern for transformed F. moniliforme isolates
and the parental wild types followed a sigmoid curve on minimal
and enriched media. Hygromycin totally inhibited growth for wild type isolates,
but not of transformants. Transformed isolates
maintained the ability to infect the maize plant. Thus, this study is the
first report of F. moniliforme transformed with a visibly
detectable reporter gene to use for analysing this endophyte-host interaction
of world-wide importance to animal and human health.
The nervous systems of helminths are predominantly peptidergic in nature, although it is likely that the full range of regulatory peptides used by these organisms has yet to be elucidated. Attempts to identify novel helminth neuropeptides are being made using immunocytochemistry with antisera raised against peptides isolated originally from insects. One of these antisera was raised against allatostatin III, a peptide isolated originally from the cockroach, Diploptera punctata, and a member of a family of related peptides found in insects. Allatostatin immunoreactivity was found throughout the nervous systems of Mesocestoides corti tetrathyridia, and adult Moniezia expansa, Diclidophora merlangi, Fasciola hepatica, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris suum and Panagrellus redivivus. Immunostaining was observed in the nerve cords and anterior ganglia of all the helminths. It was also apparent in the subtegumental nerves and around the reproductive apparatus of the flatworms, in neurones in the pharynx of D. merlangi, F. hepatica, A. suum and P. redivivus, and in fibres innervating the anterior sense organs in the nematodes. Immunostaining in all species was both reproducible and specific in that it could be abolished by pre-absorption of the antiserum with allatostatins I–IV. These results suggest that molecules related to the D. punctata allatostatins are important components in the nervous systems of a number of helminth parasites, and a free-living nematode. Their distribution within the nervous system suggests they function as neurotransmitters/neuromodulators with roles in locomotion, feeding, reproduction and sensory perception.
The localization and distribution of neuropeptides in the central nervous system of the pig roundworm, Ascaris suum, have been determined by an indirect immunofluorescence technique in conjunction with confocal microscopy. Antisera to 25 vertebrate peptides and two invertebrate peptides were used to screen the worm for immunoreactivity (IR). Immuno-staining was obtained with antisera to pancreatic polypeptide (PP), peptide YY (PYY), neuropeptide Y (NPY), gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), substance P (SP), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (SGnRH), mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (MGnRH), chromogranin A (CGA) and FMRFamide. The most extensive patterns of IR occurred with antisera to PYY, FMRFamide and gastrin. IR was evident in nerve cells and fibres in the ganglia associated with the anterior nerve ring and in the main nerve cords and their commissures; IR to FMRFamide also occurred in the posterior nerve ring. Immunostaining for the other peptides was confined to the nerve cords, with the number of immunoreactive nerve fibres varying from peptide to peptide.
Four corn hybrids were evaluated for tolerance to sethoxydim at 110 and 220 kg ha–1 applied post-directed at two growth stages (V6–7 and V10–11). Dryland corn grain yields did not respond to sethoxydim, while irrigated corn yields were sensitive to sethoxydim treatments. Sethoxydim at 220 g ha–1 reduced the grain yield of hybrid 3377 by 12% at both growth stages. Sethoxydim at the same rate reduced grain yield of hybrid 3379 by 15% when applied to V6–7 corn. Hybrid 3475 had an 11% grain yield reduction from sethoxydim applied at either dosage to V10–11 corn. Under irrigated conditions, a trend toward reduced grain yield was observed for hybrid 3183 at all application times and sethoxydim rates. Corn ear weights and kernel weights differed among hybrids but did not exhibit a response to sethoxydim within hybrids. Visual evaluation for crop injury and measured corn heights did not indicate a response to sethoxydim. There was no yield response in any hybrid to 110 g ha–1 applied to V6–7 stage corn indicating this treatment was safe to use on all hybrids evaluated.