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In this paper, we study the shape and dynamics of helical coherent structures found in the flow field of an annular swirling jet undergoing vortex breakdown. The flow field is studied by means of time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry measurements. The obtained flow fields are analysed using both classic and spectral proper orthogonal decomposition. Despite the simple geometrical set-up of the annular jet, the flow field is very complex. Two distinct large-scale helical flow structures are identified: a single and a double helix, both co-rotating with the swirl direction, and it is revealed that these structures are not higher harmonics of each other. The structures have a relatively low energy content which makes it hard to separate them from other dynamics of the flow field, notably turbulent motions. Because of this, classic proper orthogonal decomposition fails to identify both structures properly. Spectral proper orthogonal decomposition, on the other hand, allows them to be identified accurately when the filter size is set at around eight times the precession period. The precession frequencies of the single and double helices correspond to Strouhal numbers of 0.273 and
, respectively. A global stability analysis of the mean flow field shows that these structures correspond to two separate global modes. The precessing frequencies obtained by the stability analysis and the related spatial structures match very well with the experimental observations. The current work extends our knowledge on turbulent vortex breakdown and on mean field global stability theory in general. It leads to the following conclusions. Firstly, single- and double-helix vortex breakdown are both manifestations of global modes. Previous studies have shown that both
modes can coexist in swirling jets. However, the
mode has been identified as a second harmonic of the first mode, while this study identifies both as two independent global modes. Secondly, this work shows that the simultaneous occurrence of multiple helical global modes is possible within a turbulent flow and their shapes and frequencies are very well predicted by mean field stability analysis. The latter finding is of general interest as it applies to a wide class of fluid problems dominated by multiple oscillatory structures.
Compulsory admission can be experienced as devaluing and stigmatising by people with mental illness. Emotional reactions to involuntary hospitalisation and stigma-related stress may affect recovery, but longitudinal data are lacking. We, therefore, examined the impact of stigma-related emotional reactions and stigma stress on recovery over a 2-year period.
Shame and self-contempt as emotional reactions to involuntary hospitalisation, stigma stress, self-stigma and empowerment, as well as recovery were assessed among 186 individuals with serious mental illness and a history of recent involuntary hospitalisation.
More shame, self-contempt and stigma stress at baseline were correlated with increased self-stigma and reduced empowerment after 1 year. More stigma stress at baseline was associated with poor recovery after 2 years. In a longitudinal path analysis more stigma stress at baseline predicted poorer recovery after 2 years, mediated by decreased empowerment after 1 year, controlling for age, gender, symptoms and recovery at baseline.
Stigma stress may have a lasting detrimental effect on recovery among people with mental illness and a history of involuntary hospitalisation. Anti-stigma interventions that reduce stigma stress and programs that enhance empowerment could improve recovery. Future research should test the effect of such interventions on recovery.
During the period, there have been several major events which have effected the scope and interest of Commission 19. The most significant of these has been the dissolution of the BIH and IPMS and their replacement by the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS). The correlation of higher frequency fluctuations in the Earth’s rotation rate with changes in the Earth’s Atmospheric Angular Momentum is also significant. Many investigators now seem to believe that the “decade variations„ in the Earth’s rotation rate are caused by torques between the core and mantle caused by the uneven motions at the core-mantle boundary. These events and discoveries have made this an exciting period. It seems that the future holds more in the way of discovery due to the utilization of the more accurate and precise Earth rotation data coming from the modern observing techniques.
A sub-committee, consisting of Miss M. A. Blagg and Dr K. Müller, has been at work during the past twelve months on the preparation of a list of names and designations for the lunar formations. This work is practically complete but as it was received by the chairman as late as August 22 it has not been possible for him to do more than glance over it. This brief report by him is therefore merely a summary of their work and of the material which is ready for action by the Commission.
A search for Type Ia supernovae at cosmological distances is being undertaken in an attempt to exploit their standard candle property to constrain the mass density of the universe. We describe the rationale for such a program, the observational approach and strategy taken, and the progress made to date. The science that is being generated by the project in additional to supernova detection is also discussed briefly.
Patients with psychosis display the so-called ‘Jumping to Conclusions’ bias (JTC) – a tendency for hasty decision-making in probabilistic reasoning tasks. So far, only a few studies have evaluated the JTC bias in ‘at-risk mental state’ (ARMS) patients, specifically in ARMS samples fulfilling ‘ultra-high risk’ (UHR) criteria, thus not allowing for comparisons between different ARMS subgroups.
In the framework of the PREVENT (secondary prevention of schizophrenia) study, a JTC task was applied to 188 patients either fulfilling UHR criteria or presenting with cognitive basic symptoms (BS). Similar data were available for 30 healthy control participants matched for age, gender, education and premorbid verbal intelligence. ARMS patients were identified by the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS) and the Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument – Adult Version (SPI-A).
The mean number of draws to decision (DTD) significantly differed between ARM -subgroups: UHR patients made significantly less draws to make a decision than ARMS patients with only cognitive BS. Furthermore, UHR patients tended to fulfil behavioural criteria for JTC more often than BS patients. In a secondary analysis, ARMS patients were much hastier in their decision-making than controls. In patients, DTD was moderately associated with positive and negative symptoms as well as disorganization and excitement.
Our data indicate an enhanced JTC bias in the UHR group compared to ARMS patients with only cognitive BS. This underscores the importance of reasoning deficits within cognitive theories of the developing psychosis. Interactions with the liability to psychotic transitions and therapeutic interventions should be unravelled in longitudinal studies.
In September 2011, a patient cluster with a rare Salmonella serotype – Strathcona – was identified in Denmark. An outbreak investigation was initiated to reveal the source in order to stop the outbreak. In addition to hypothesis-generating interviews, comparable analyses of patients’ household shopping receipts were conducted. A matched case-control study with 25 cases and 56 population register controls was conducted to test the findings of the hypothesis-generating investigation. In total, 43 cases of Salmonella Strathcona were reported in Denmark. Additionally, 28 cases were reported from Germany, Italy, Austria and Belgium. The results of the investigation in Denmark showed that 8/10 cases had bought datterino tomatoes prior to disease onset. Illness was associated with a specific supermarket chain [matched odds ratio (mOR) 16·9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·2–130], and having consumed elongated small tomatoes (OR 28·1, 95% CI 2·6–302). Traceback investigation showed that the tomatoes came from an Italian producer. This outbreak, linked to tomatoes, underpins the growing recognition of the broad source range of Salmonella and the ability of fresh produce to cause multi-country outbreaks. It is important to strengthen the international cooperation between public-health and food-safety authorities in the European Union to investigate future multi-country outbreaks in order to prevent illness from ready-to-eat produce.
We describe a hybrid pixel array detector (electron microscope pixel array detector, or EMPAD) adapted for use in electron microscope applications, especially as a universal detector for scanning transmission electron microscopy. The 128×128 pixel detector consists of a 500 µm thick silicon diode array bump-bonded pixel-by-pixel to an application-specific integrated circuit. The in-pixel circuitry provides a 1,000,000:1 dynamic range within a single frame, allowing the direct electron beam to be imaged while still maintaining single electron sensitivity. A 1.1 kHz framing rate enables rapid data collection and minimizes sample drift distortions while scanning. By capturing the entire unsaturated diffraction pattern in scanning mode, one can simultaneously capture bright field, dark field, and phase contrast information, as well as being able to analyze the full scattering distribution, allowing true center of mass imaging. The scattering is recorded on an absolute scale, so that information such as local sample thickness can be directly determined. This paper describes the detector architecture, data acquisition system, and preliminary results from experiments with 80–200 keV electron beams.
Lameness is an important issue in group-housed sows. Automatic detection systems are a beneficial diagnostic tool to support management. The aim of the present study was to evaluate data of a positioning system including acceleration measurements to detect lameness in group-housed sows. Data were acquired at the Futterkamp research farm from May 2012 until April 2013. In the gestation unit, 212 group-housed sows were equipped with an ear sensor to sample position and acceleration per sow and second. Three activity indices were calculated per sow and day: path length walked by a sow during the day (Path), number of squares (25×25 cm) visited during the day (Square) and variance of the acceleration measurement during the day (Acc). In addition, data on lameness treatments of the sows and a weekly lameness score were used as reference systems. To determine the influence of a lameness event, all indices were analysed in a linear random regression model. Test day, parity class and day before treatment had a significant influence on all activity indices (P<0.05). In healthy sows, indices Path and Square increased with increasing parity, whereas variance slightly decreased. The indices Path and Square showed a decreasing trend in a 14-day period before a lameness treatment and to a smaller extent before a lameness score of 2 (severe lameness). For the index acceleration, there was no obvious difference between the lame and non-lame periods. In conclusion, positioning and acceleration measurements with ear sensors can be used to describe the activity pattern of sows. However, improvements in sampling rate and analysis techniques should be made for a practical application as an automatic lameness detection system.
The attenuated positive symptoms syndrome (APSS) is considered an at-risk indicator for psychosis. However, the characteristics and developmental aspects of the combined or enriched risk criteria of APSS and basic symptom (BS) criteria, including self-experienced cognitive disturbances (COGDIS) remain under-researched.
Based on the Structured Interview of Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS), the prevalence of APSS in 13- to 35-year-old individuals seeking help in an early recognition program for schizophrenia and bipolar-spectrum disorders was examined. BS criteria and COGDIS were rated using the Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument for Adults/Children and Youth. Participants meeting APSS criteria were compared with participants meeting only BS criteria across multiple characteristics. Co-occurrence (APSS+/BS+, APSS+/COGDIS+) was compared across 13–17, 18–22 and 23–35 years age groups.
Of 175 individuals (age = 20.6 ± 5.8, female = 38.3%), 94 (53.7%) met APSS criteria. Compared to BS, APSS status was associated with suicidality, higher illness severity, lower functioning, higher SIPS positive, negative, disorganized and general symptoms scores, depression scores and younger age (18.3 ± 5.0 v. 23.2 ± 5.6 years, p < 0.0001) with age-related differences in the prevalence of APSS (ranging from 80.3% in 13- to 17-year-olds to 33.3% in 23- to 35-year-olds (odds ratio 0.21, 95% confidence interval 0.11–0.37). Within APSS+ individuals, fewer adolescents fulfilled combined risk criteria of APSS+/BS+ or APSS+/COGDIS+ compared to the older age groups.
APSS status was associated with greater suicidality and illness/psychophathology severity in this help-seeking cohort, emphasizing the need for clinical care. The age-related differences in the prevalence of APSS and the increasing proportion of APSS+/COGDIS+ may point to a higher proportion of non-specific/transient, rather than risk-specific attenuated positive symptoms in adolescents.
Whether the public stigma associated with mental illness negatively affects an individual, largely depends on whether the person has been labelled ‘mentally ill’. For labelled individuals concealing mental illness is a common strategy to cope with mental illness stigma, despite secrecy's potential negative consequences. In addition, initial evidence points to a link between stigma and suicidality, but quantitative data from community samples are lacking.
Based on previous literature about mental illness stigma and suicidality, as well as about the potential influence of labelling processes and secrecy, a theory-driven model linking perceived mental illness stigma and suicidal ideation by a mediation of secrecy and hopelessness was established. This model was tested separately among labelled and unlabelled persons using data derived from a Swiss cross-sectional population-based study. A large community sample of people with elevated psychiatric symptoms was examined by interviews and self-report, collecting information on perceived stigma, secrecy, hopelessness and suicidal ideation. Participants who had ever used mental health services were considered as labelled ‘mentally ill’. A descriptive analysis, stratified logistic regression models and a path analysis testing a three-path mediation effect were conducted.
While no significant differences between labelled and unlabelled participants were observed regarding perceived stigma and secrecy, labelled individuals reported significantly higher frequencies of suicidal ideation and feelings of hopelessness. More perceived stigma was associated with suicidal ideation among labelled, but not among unlabelled individuals. In the path analysis, this link was mediated by increased secrecy and hopelessness.
Results from this study indicate that among persons labelled ‘mentally ill’, mental illness stigma is a contributor to suicidal ideation. One explanation for this association is the relation perceived stigma has with secrecy, which introduces negative emotional consequences. If our findings are replicated, they would suggest that programmes empowering people in treatment for mental illness to cope with anticipated and experienced discrimination as well as interventions to reduce public stigma within society could improve suicide prevention.
Electronically active block polymers based on π-conjugated macromolecules have been investigated for applications where nanostructured electrodes are of prime import; however, controlling the nanoscale order of these materials has proven challenging. Here, we demonstrate that diblock copolymers that utilize a non-conjugated radical polymer moiety as the electronically active block assemble into ordered thin-film nanostructures. Specifically, the diblock copolymer polydimethylsiloxane-b-poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy methacrylate) (PDMS–PTMA) was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization to generate polymers with readily controlled molecular properties. Importantly, solvent annealing of the PDMS–PTMA thin films led to well-defined nanostructures with domain spacings of the order of ~30–40 nm.
Neurocognitive deficits are important aspects of schizophrenic disorder because they have a strong impact on social and vocational outcomes. Previously it was assumed that cognitive abilities progressively deteriorate with illness onset. However, recent research results have contradicted this with observations of continuous or even improved performance in individuals at risk for psychosis or manifest schizophrenia. The objective of our longitudinal study was to examine neurocognitive functioning in help-seeking individuals meeting basic symptoms or ultra-high-risk criteria for schizophrenic psychosis (HRSchiz) or risk criteria for affective psychosis (HRBip). The progression of cognitive functioning in individuals converting to psychosis was compared with that of at-risk individuals who did not convert during the follow-up period.
Data were available from 86 study participants who completed neurocognitive and clinical assessments at baseline and, on average, 12.8 (s.d. = 1.5) months later. Neurocognitive measures were grouped according to their load in factor analysis to five cognitive domains: speed, attention, fluency, learning and memory, and working memory.
Neurocognitive functioning in HRSchiz and HRBip individuals generally improved over time. Subjects converting to manifest psychosis displayed a stable neurocognitive profile from baseline to follow-up. Compared with non-converters, they had already demonstrated a significantly lower level of performance during their baseline examinations.
Our data provide no evidence for a progressive cognitive decline in individuals at risk of psychosis. In line with the neurodevelopmental model, our findings suggest that cognitive deficits are already present very early, before or during the prodromal stage of the illness.
The impact of device processing and plasma treatments at different plasma conditions on the electronic transport properties of GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures was investigated as well as annealing in nitrogen atmosphere at 425°C. The electrical properties are characterized by Hall-effect measurements while electron spectroscopy and X-ray measurements are used to investigate changes in the surface chemical composition and in the layer structure, respectively. It is demonstrated that these layer structures are quite sensitive even to non-plasma based processing. Furthermore, treatments in SF6 and N2 based plasmas strongly affect the 2DEG properties of the heterostructure due to altering of the surface barrier accompanied by thinning of the layer structure. Depending on the layer structure and the plasma conditions used the electronic properties may be recovered by annealing.
Neurocognitive deficits are important aspects of the schizophrenic disorders because they have a strong impact on social and vocational outcomes. We expanded on previous research by focusing on the neurocognitive profiles of persons at high risk (HR) or ultra-high risk (UHR) for schizophrenic and affective psychoses. Our main aim was to determine whether neurocognitive measures are sufficiently sensitive to predict a group affiliation based on deficits in functional domains.
This study included 207 help-seeking individuals identified as HR (n = 75), UHR (n = 102) or at high risk for bipolar disorder (HRBip; n = 30), who were compared with persons comprising a matched, healthy control group (CG; n = 50). Neuropsychological variables were sorted according to their load in a factor analysis and were compared among groups. In addition, the likelihood of group membership was estimated using logistic regression analyses.
The performance of HR and HRBip participants was comparable, and intermediate between the controls and UHR. The domain of processing speed was most sensitive in discriminating HR and UHR [odds ratio (OR) 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28–0.78, p = 0.004] whereas learning and memory deficits predicted a conversion to schizophrenic psychosis (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.25–0.87, p = 0.01).
Performances on neurocognitive tests differed among our three at-risk groups and may therefore be useful in predicting psychosis. Overall, cognition had a profound effect on the extent of general functioning and satisfaction with life for subjects at risk of psychosis. Thus, this factor should become a treatment target in itself.
Resistant starch (RS) has been suggested to prolong satiety in adult pigs. The present study investigated RS-induced changes in behaviour, satiety-related hormones and metabolites in catheterized growing pigs to explore possible underlying mechanisms for RS-induced satiety. In a cross-over design with two 14-day periods, 10 pigs (initial BW: 58 kg) were assigned to two treatments comprising diets containing either 35% pregelatinized starch (PS) or 34% retrograded starch (RS). Diets were isoenergetic on gross energy. Pigs were fed at 2.8× maintenance. Postprandial plasma response of satiety-related hormones and metabolites was measured at the end of each period using frequent blood sampling. Faecal and urinary energy losses were measured at the end of each period. Behaviour was scored 24 h from video recordings using scan sampling. Energy digestibility and metabolizability were ~6% lower in RS compared with PS diet (P<0.001), and metabolizable energy (ME) intake was ~3% lower in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.001). RS-fed pigs showed less feeder-directed (P=0.001) and drinking (P=0.10) behaviours than PS-fed pigs throughout the day. Postprandial peripheral short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels were higher in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.001). Postprandial glucose and insulin responses were lower in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.001). Triglyceride levels were higher in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.01), and non-esterified fatty acid levels did not differ between diets (P=0.90). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were lower in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.001), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) levels did not differ between diets (P=0.90). Blood serotonin levels were lower (P<0.001), whereas monoamine oxidase activity (P<0.05) and tryptophan (P<0.01) levels were higher in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs. Despite a lower ME intake, RS seemed to prolong satiety, based on behavioural observations. Possible underlying mechanisms for RS-induced satiety include increased 24 h plasma SCFA levels, and decreased postprandial glucose and insulin responses. GLP-1 and PYY seemed not to play a role in RS-induced satiety. Low blood serotonin levels in RS-fed pigs suggested a difference in intestinal serotonin release between treatments. Increased postprandial plasma triglyceride levels corresponded with increased SCFA levels, but it is unclear whether triglycerides may have signalled satiety in RS-fed pigs.