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Is it possible to compare French presidential politics with village leadership in rural India? Most social scientists are united in thinking such unlikely juxtapositions are not feasible. Boswell, Corbett and Rhodes argue that they are possible. This book explains why and how. It is a call to arms for interpretivists to embrace creatively comparative work. As well as explaining, defending and illustrating the comparative interpretive approach, this book is also an engaging, hands-on guide to doing comparative interpretive research, with chapters covering design, fieldwork, analysis and writing. The advice in each revolves around 'rules of thumb', grounded in experience, and illustrated through stories and examples from the authors' research in different contexts around the world. Naturalist and humanist traditions have thus far dominated the field but this book presents a real alternative to these two orthodoxies which expands the horizons of comparative analysis in social science research.
We evaluated whether a diagnostic stewardship initiative consisting of ASP preauthorization paired with education could reduce false-positive hospital-onset (HO) Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI).
Single center, quasi-experimental study.
Tertiary academic medical center in Chicago, Illinois.
Adult inpatients were included in the intervention if they were admitted between October 1, 2016, and April 30, 2018, and were eligible for C. difficile preauthorization review. Patients admitted to the stem cell transplant (SCT) unit were not included in the intervention and were therefore considered a contemporaneous noninterventional control group.
The intervention consisted of requiring prescriber attestation that diarrhea has met CDI clinical criteria, ASP preauthorization, and verbal clinician feedback. Data were compared 33 months before and 19 months after implementation. Facility-wide HO-CDI incidence rates (IR) per 10,000 patient days (PD) and standardized infection ratios (SIR) were extracted from hospital infection prevention reports.
During the entire 52 month period, the mean facility-wide HO-CDI-IR was 7.8 per 10,000 PD and the SIR was 0.9 overall. The mean ± SD HO-CDI-IR (8.5 ± 2.0 vs 6.5 ± 2.3; P < .001) and SIR (0.97 ± 0.23 vs 0.78 ± 0.26; P = .015) decreased from baseline during the intervention. Segmented regression models identified significant decreases in HO-CDI-IR (Pstep = .06; Ptrend = .008) and SIR (Pstep = .1; Ptrend = .017) trends concurrent with decreases in oral vancomycin (Pstep < .001; Ptrend < .001). HO-CDI-IR within a noninterventional control unit did not change (Pstep = .125; Ptrend = .115).
A multidisciplinary, multifaceted intervention leveraging clinician education and feedback reduced the HO-CDI-IR and the SIR in select populations. Institutions may consider interventions like ours to reduce false-positive C. difficile NAAT tests.
This paper analyzes in detail the role of environmental and economic shocks in the migration of the 1930s. The 1940 US Census of Population asked every inhabitant where they lived five years earlier, a unique source for understanding migration flows and networks. Earlier research documented migrant origins and destinations, but we will show how short-term and annual weather conditions at sending locations in the 1930s explain those flows, and how they operated through agricultural success. Beyond demographic data, we use data about temperature and precipitation, plus data about agricultural production from the agricultural census. The widely known migration literature for the 1930s describes an era of relatively low migration, with much of the migration that did occur radiating outward from the Dust Bowl region and the cotton South. Our work about the complete United States will provide a fuller examination of migration in this socially and economically important era.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
The Medium-l Program of the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument on board SOHO provides continuous observations of oscillation modes of angular degree, l, from 0 to ∼ 300. The initial results show that the noise in the Medium-l oscillation power spectrum is substantially lower than in ground-based measurements. This enables us to detect lower amplitude modes and, thus, to extend the range of measured mode frequencies. The MDI observations also reveal the asymmetry of oscillation spectral lines. The line asymmetries agree with the theory of mode excitation by acoustic sources localized in the upper convective boundary layer. The sound-speed profile inferred from the mean frequencies gives evidence for a sharp variation at the edge of the energy-generating core. In a thin layer just beneath the convection zone, helium appears to be less abundant than predicted by theory. Inverting the multiplet frequency splittings from MDI, we detect significant rotational shear in this thin layer.
Helioseismology and asteroseismology put high demands on the accuracy and consistent numerical realization of the equation of state (for a review see Däppen, these proceedings). This is explicitly illustrated by the helioseismic determination of the helium abundance of the solar convection zone in a recent investigation by Kosovichev et al. (1992). In that work it was observed that details of the treatment of the heavy elements matter more than is intuitively expected. Naively, one would expect an uncertainty of less than 10−4 in the key thermodynamic quantity, the adiabatic gradient Γ1. This is because in material of solar composition the heavy-element abundance is less than about 1.5 × 10−3 by number, and under solar conditions the dominant nontrivial contributions to the seismically relevant thermodynamic quantities predicted by modern equations of state agree to a few per cent, even for the much more abundant hydrogen and helium. However, Kosovichev et al. (1992) found that uncertainties in the treatment of the heavy elements translate into discrepancies in Γ1 of the order of 10−3, which is enough to disturb the helioseismic helium-abundance determination significantly. We briefly present the reason below. A forthcoming paper will show more detailed results, though some further information can already be found in papers by Kosovichev et al. (1992) and Christensen–Dalsgaard & Däppen (1992).
A brief summary is given of a program which is currently being carried out with the McMath telescope of the Kitt Peak National Observatory in order to study high-degree (l ≳ 150) solar p-mode oscillations. This program uses a 244 x 248 pixel CID camera and the main spectrograph of the McMath telescope to obtain velocity-time maps of the oscillations which can be converted into two-dimensional (kh – ω) power spectra of the oscillations. Several different regions of the solar spectrum have been used in order to study the oscillations at different elevations in the solar atmosphere. The program concentrates on eastward- and westward-propagating sectoral harmonic waves so that measurements can be made of the absolute rotational velocities of the solar photospheric and shallow sub-photospheric layers. Some preliminary results from this program are now available. First, we have been unable to confirm the existence of a radial gradient in the equatorial rotational velocity as was previously suggested. Second, we have indeed been able to confirm the presence of p-mode waves in the solar chromosphere as was first suggested by Rhodes et al. (1977). Third, we have been able to demonstrate differences in photospheric and chromospheric power spectra.
Most American financial crises of the postbellum gold standard era were caused by fluctuations in the cotton harvest due to exogenous factors such as weather. The transmission channel ran through export revenues and financial markets under the pre-1914 monetary regime. A poor cotton harvest depressed export revenues and reduced international demand for American assets, which depressed American stock prices, drained deposits from money center banks and precipitated a business cycle downturn—conditions that bred financial crises. The crises caused by cotton harvests could have been prevented by an American central bank, even under gold standard constraints.
We implemented a direct-observer hand hygiene audit program that used trained observers, wireless data entry devices, and an intranet portal. We improved the reliability and utility of the data by standardizing audit processes, regularly retraining auditors, developing an audit guidance tool, and reporting weighted composite hand hygiene compliance scores.
The interactions of YBa2Cu3O7-δ type high Tc superconductors with other metals and oxides are of significant technical importance because of the need for i) proper stabilizing normal metal for composite superconductor wire, ii) nonreactive crucible materials for melt processing or crystal growth, and iii) suitable nonpoisonous substrate materials for thin film/thick film superconducting devices. For these reasons, and also for the purpose of exploring possible improvements in Tc, Jc and mechanical properties, the effects of various metal and oxide additions (1–40% by weight) have been investigated. It is shown that many of the elements in the periodic table deteriorate the superconducting properties to a various degree ranging from a broadened transition or reduced Tc to a complete elimination of the superconducting behavior. However, silver, gold and cadmium were relatively benign or slightly improved the properties. These benign materials have potential for practical application in superconducting composites.
Silicide formation by reaction of palladium metal (Pd0) with hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) substrates was studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), forward recoil spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Upon low-temperature (200° C) annealing, RBS and TEM show a single-phase Pd2Si. This phase grows with the square root of time, and the activation energy is identical to that of the corresponding metal on single-crystal silicon substrates. The growth is slightly faster for hydrogenated amorphous silicon, which is attributed to its amorphous structure. During silicide formation, the hydrogen is released from silicides and presumably outdiffuses into a vacuum without interfacial accumulation. Thus, barrier formation does not occur, and the presence of hydrogen in the substrates has no effect on silicide growth.
The silicide electronic structure (core level binding energies, lineshapes, and d-band filling) of Pd2 Si on a-Si:H is identical to that of Pd2 Si formed on cr stalline silicon. Binding energy and peak shape analysis show the Pd2Si/Pd0 interface to be composed of one additional phase, Pd4Si, which has a well-defined binding energy (335.8 eV) and a narrow (FWHM = 1.1 eV), symmetric line shape. It has long been postulated that interface phases may be important in determining the phase sequence in silicide growth and the dominant diffusing species. This Pd4 Si interface phase may be important in understanding palladium silicide growth.
Conventional and chemical processing of the superconducting YBa2Cu3Ox ceramic powders are reviewed. Conditions for calcination, sintering and microstructural development are shown to be important considerations for the superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3Ox ceramics. We examine different forming techniques, e.g. dry pressing, hot pressing, tape casting and screen printing, to prepare superconducting components with different sizes, shapes and configurations. We also identify and discuss problem areas related to incomplete decomposition of BaCo3 precursor; oxidation of YBa2Cu3Ox ceramics; sensitivity of the YBa2Cu3Ox phase to water; reactivity of the YBa2Cu3Ox phase with substrates and co-firing materials; low critical current density in bulk ceramics of YBa2Cu3Ox and low mechanical strength of YBa2Cu3Ox ceramics.
Recently Lightwave Device Packaging Department at AT&T Bell Laboratories has demonstrated that ceramic materials can provide cost effective and high quality packages to house optical and electronic components for lightwave communication applications. In this paper we examine the material requirements for optical packages. We also study the material properties of metals and ceramics with a potential application in optical packages. In particular, we review hermeticity, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, dielectric constant, electrical resistivity, sintering temperature and mechanical strength of these materials. Our study will provide a data base and useful guidelines for designers to make uniformed decisions on material selection for optical package. We also review the mixing rules to predict the resultant property of a composite from the known attributes of its constituents and the use of new composite materials will provide a new degree of flexibility in the optical package design.
A new varistor based on TiO2 ceramic was developed. TiO2 ceramics with the dopant ranges of 0 < Nb < 2% and 0 < Ba < 2% were prepared and their electrical properties were measured. In these dopant ranges, several compositions were discovered to have useful varistor properties with a voltagecurrent nonlinearity index of α > 3. It was found that Ba dopant which segregates at grain boundaries and an oxidizing atmosphere during cooling are necessary to produce varistor properties in (Nb,Ba)-doped TiO2. Nb was introduced to decrease the TiO2 lattice resistivity to a range useful for device applications. Resistivity data were measured as functions of dopant composition and sintering atmospheres. Data were analyzed in terms of the defect structure in TiO2.
The Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene may be related to individual differences in cognition, likely via modulation of prefrontal dopamine catabolism. However, the available studies have yielded mixed results, possibly in part because they do not consistently account for other genes that affect cognition. We hypothesized that COMT Met allele homozygosity, which is associated with higher levels of prefrontal dopamine, would predict better executive function as measured using standard neuropsychological testing, and that other candidate genes might interact with COMT to modulate this effect. Participants were 95 healthy, right-handed adults who underwent genotyping and cognitive testing. COMT genotype predicted executive ability as measured by the Trail-Making Test, even after covarying for demographics and Apolipoprotein E (APOE), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) genotype. There was a COMT-ANKK1 interaction in which individuals having both the COMT Val allele and the ANKK1 T allele showed the poorest performance. This study suggests the heterogeneity in COMT effects reported in the literature may be due in part to gene–gene interactions that influence central dopaminergic systems. (JINS, 2011, 17, 1–7)
Recent advances in molecular genetics and genomics have been embraced by many in natural resource conservation. Today, several major conservation and management journals are now using 'genetics' editors to deal solely with the influx of manuscripts that employ molecular data. The editors have attempted to synthesize some of the major uses of molecular markers in natural resource management in a book targeted not only at scientists but also at individuals actively making conservation and management decisions. To that end, the text features contributors who are major figures in molecular ecology and evolution - many having published books of their own. The aim is to direct and distil the thoughts of these outstanding scientists by compiling compelling case histories in molecular ecology as they apply to natural resource management.
The world would be a wonderful place if our natural resources (e.g., forests, fish, and wildlife) needed no management and conservation was not a concern. In a world with a global human population approaching 7 billion and where most developed nations overconsume these resources, however, conservation is a concern and management is necessary for sustainable use. Historically, natural resource management strategies were determined by the collection and interpretation of basic field data. Today, as challenges to the sustainability and conservation of our natural resources arise, managers often need data that cannot be acquired using conventional methods. For example, a natural resource manager might want to know the number of successful breeders in a population or if genetic variation was being depleted because of a management practice. Traditional field craft alone cannot directly address such questions, but the answers can be determined with some precision if the field work is coupled with modern molecular genetic techniques.
Molecules can enlighten us about biological attributes that are virtually impossible to observe in the field (Avise 2004). Parentage analysis is one such arena in which genetic data can inform management practices (DeWoody 2005), but there are a host of others. For example, molecular data have revealed deep evolutionary splits in stocks at one time thought to be homogeneous. This finding has concomitant management implications (Hoffman et al. 2006). Similarly, molecules can enlighten us about biologies that are virtually impossible to observe in the field, such as pollen flow (Hamrick, this volume) or the physiology of migration (Nichols et al. 2008).