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The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Pollack et al. [Icarus 19, 372 (1973)] have reported the optical constants for obsidian, basalt, andesite and basaltic glass over the wavelength range 0.2 to 50 μm, and Lamy [Icarus 34, 68 (1978)] reported the optical constants from 0.10 to 0.44 μ for obsidian, basalt, and basaltic glass. We have revised the former measurements for basaltic glass and extended them into the extreme UV to 0.0173 μ.
The author commences by adverting to a very generally recognised geological difficulty—viz., that of accounting for the disappearance of the mineral from the carbonaceous matter in the processes which have resulted in the formation of coal-beds as we now find them. Coal-beds have undoubtedly their origin from decaying vegetable matter; and the deposition is unquestionably traceable to at least three different sources—viz., the carrying down by rivers of drift wood, and its deposition in deltas and estuaries at their mouths; the accumulations of dead forest trees, &c., falling for successive generations where they had grown; and the growth of peat. But in all of the three methods it is clear that the vegetable matter must have been mixed up to a very large extent with earthy matter, which earthy matter has since disappeared, so as to leave carbonaceous deposits in a comparative state of purity. The explanation of this disappearance has hitherto completely baffled geological ingenuity, and the author, in offering the present solution of the enigma, ventures to hope that he has successfully grappled with the difficulty.
Rare clasts of limestone contained in the uppermost Carboniferous Fitzroy Tillite Formation of the Falkland Islands contain a rich Cambrian fauna of archaeocyaths together with a radiocyath and a few trilobites. Neither Cambrian strata nor limestone are present in the indigenous rock succession and the clasts are regarded as exotic erratics, introduced during the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation of southern Gondwana, prior to its Mesozoic break-up. Nineteen archaeocyath taxa have been identified, with seven (plus a radiocyath) occurring in a single clast. Trilobite identifications are less definitive, but they are compared to Yorkella and the Siberian genera Edelsteinaspis, Namanoia and Chondrinouyina. The archaeocyath fauna has an Australo–Antarctic character and the Transantarctic Mountains seem the most likely source for these unusual erratics. Most recent reconstructions of Gondwana rotate a Falklands microplate into a position between South Africa and East Antarctica. There, it is in proximity with the Eastern Cape Province, where tillites within the Permo-Carboniferous Dwyka Group are correlatives of the Fitzroy Tillite Formation, and the ‘Atlantic’ end of the Transantarctic Mountains. The Dwyka Group tillites also contain rare clasts of archaeocyathan limestone and the rotational reconstruction produces a continuity of the apparent ice-flow directions in South Africa and the Falkland Islands.
Two complementary techniques are used to study the electrical transport properties related to the use of diamonds as materials for ionizing radiation detectors. Transient photoconductivity using soft x-rays is used to probe the first few microns of the material, while ionizing particle-excited conductivity is used to probe the entire bulk of the material (1 millimeter). Both techniques measure the mean drift distance of free carriers, or the collection distance d. In addition, transient photoconductivity is able to extract the lifetimes and mobilities of the excited carriers. The collection distance measured by the two methods are in agreement, suggesting the material is homogeneous. At an applied field of 10 kV/cm, d is 25 to 30 microns, and, up to a field of 25 kV/cm, d has not saturated. The lifetime varies between 100 and 600 ps, and the mobility varies between 1000 and 4000 cm2/V-s, the range due to natural variations from sample to sample. The primary defects limiting the lifetime are believed to be nitrogen impurities and dislocations.
The electrical properties associated with carrier mobility, μ, and lifetime, τ, have been investigated for the chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films using charged particle-induced conductivity and time resolved transient photo-induced conductivity. The collection distance, d, the average distance which electron and hole depart when driven by an applied electric field E, was measured by both methods. The collection distance is related to the carrier mobility and lifetime by d = μEτ Our measurements show that the collection distance increases linearly with sample thickness for CVD diamond films. The collection distance at the growth side of the CVD diamond film is comparable to that of single crystal natural type IIa diamond; at the substrate side of the film, the collection distance is near zero. No saturation of the collection distance is observed for film thickness up to 500 microns.
Diamond is suitable for use as an ionizing particle detector for high rate, high radiation, and/or chemically harsh environments. A sampling calorimeter, a detector measuring the total energy of an incident particle, consisting of 20 alternating layers of diamond and tungsten has been constructed and tested. The diamond for the detector layers was grown by chemical vapor deposition with an averaged thickness of 500 μm. The active area of each layer was 3×3 cm2 with ohmic contacts on opposite faces forming a metal-insulator-metal structure. The calorimeter was tested with electrons of energies up to 5.0 GeV. The response of the diamond/tungsten calorimeter was found to be linear as a function of incident energy. A direct comparison of diamond/tungsten and silicon/tungsten calorimeters was made.
Epitaxially grown GaN by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on SiC were implanted with 100 keV Si+ (for n-type) and 80 keV Mg+ (for p-type) with various fluences from 1×1012 to 7×1015 ions/cm2 at liquid nitrogen temperature (LT), room temperature (RT), and 700 °C (HT). High temperature (1200 °C and 1500 °C) annealing was carried out after capping the GaN with epitaxial AIN by MOCVD to study damage recovery. Samples were capped by a layer of AIN in order to protect the GaN surface during annealing. Effects of implant temperature, damage and dopant activation are critically studied to evaluate a role of ion implantation in doping of GaN. The damage was studied by Rutherford Backscattering/Channeling, spectroscopic ellipsometry and photoluminescence. Results show dependence of radiation damage level on temperature of the substrate during implantation: implantations at elevated temperatures up to 550 °C decrease the lattice disorder; “hot implants” above 550 °C can not be useful in doping of GaN due to nitrogen loss from the surface. SE measurements have indicated very high sensitivity to the implantation damage. PL measurements at LT of 80 keV Mg+ (5×1014 cm-2) implanted and annealed GaN showed two peaks : one ∼100 meV and another ∼140 meV away from the band edge.
A new series of low-melting, highly volatile, thermally and air-stable cadmium MOCVD precursors have been synthesized and characterized. Cd(hfa)2(N, N-DE-N', N'-DMEDA) has been successfully utilized in the growth of highly conductive and transparent CdO thin films. Hall measurements conducted on films deposited simultaneously on MgO (100) single crystal and Corning 1737F glass substrates reveal that the films on MgO have significantly enhanced carrier mobilities. Owing to similar grain sizes and carrier concentrations we attribute this effect to improved texture and associated improvements crystalline order. Conductivities as high as 8,590 S/cm are obtained which is to our knowledge the highest value reported to date for CdO films without aliovalent dopants.
In a school with 250 pupils all under the age of 10, sixty-four suffered from diarrhoea and abdominal pain. The victims sickened on 5 and 6 February, but it was not until 12 February that the first cases (bacteriologically confirmed) were notified to the Health Authority. All the notified cases were between the ages of 6 and 9 years and attended the same school. Older children, who attended other schools, were not affected.
Dideoxy nucleotide sequencing of a portion of the 1D gene of SAT-type foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) was used to derive phylogenetic relationships between viruses recovered from the oesophageo-pharyngeal secretions of buffalo in the Kruger National Park as well as several other wildlife areas in southern Africa. The three serotypes differed from one another by more than 40 % while intratypic variation did not exceed 29%. Within each type, isolates from particular countries were more closely related to one another than to isolates from other countries lending credence to previous observations that FMDV evolve independently in different regions of the subcontinent.
A survey of ABO blood groups, secretor status and smoking habits among 389 students and staff of a school in which there was an outbreak of meningococcal disease found no difference in the distribution of the ABO blood groups but a significantly higher proportion of non-secretors (37·6%) in the population examined compared with that reported for previous surveys of the neighbouring population in Glasgow (26·2%) (P < 0·0005). There was also a significantly higher proportion of non-secretors among carriers of meningococci (47%) compared with non-carriers (32%). Increased carriage of meningococci among non-secretors might contribute to the increased susceptibility of individuals with this genetic characteristic to meningococcal disease observed in previous studies. Although passive exposure to cigarette smoke has been associated with meningococcal disease, there was no association between passive smoking and carriage. There was, however, a significant association between active smoking and carriage.
Sequencing of part of the 1D gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus was used to determine the relationships between SAT-2 viruses isolated from outbreaks which occurred in cattle in Zimbabwe and Namibia and in impala in South Africa between 1979 and 1989. The results demonstrated that the outbreaks in different countries were unrelated. Surprisingly close relationships were shown between all SAT-2 viruses isolated from cattle in Zimbabwe since 1983 but the two major epizootics which occurred in 1989 were caused by viruses which were clearly different. Conversely, two apparently unrelated outbreaks in impala in South Africa were caused by viruses which could not be distinguished.
Cases of paratyphoid fever are often not diagnosed until the second, third or subsequent weeks of illness. When calculating clearance rates of a series of cases the calculations must be based only on the numbers known to be positive at the week under consideration. If based throughout on the total number of cases the rates of clearance in the early weeks are greatly reduced.
Cases for which laboratory records are incomplete must not be entirely rejected when calculating clearance rates but must be retained in the population for as long as they were known to be positive.
Analyses designed to show the duration of infection in paratyphoid fever can only be made with accuracy under the most favourable conditions.
A large number of cases of paratyphoid fever were repeatedly examined bacteriologically to establish the duration of the infection as distinct from the clinical illness. After an initial lag the proportion of cases remaining infected fell logarithmically until the carriers revealed themselves.
We are grateful to many medical officers for information about their cases, and to Dr Lewis Fanning and Dr Ian Sutherland for much helpful criticism.
Armenia has always had an ambiguous place between the major powers, be they the East Roman empire and Sasanian Iran, the Byzantine empire and the caliphate, or the Ottoman empire and the Safavids. Armenian loyalties have not been consistent, either in support of a coherent internal policy or with regard to external diplomacy. The very definition of Armenia highlights the problem. Does the term refer to a geographical entity – and if so, what are its borders? Or does it refer to a people with common bonds – and if so, are those bonds linguistic, religious, cultural or political?
Despite the conversion of King Tiridates IV (c. 283–330) to Christianity, probably in 314, and the establishment of an organised church, the continuing strength of Iranian traditions and the cultural and kinship ties of the Armenian nobility to Iran made Armenia an uncertain ally for the Romans. Yet since the Armenian monarchy was a branch of the Arsacid dynasty which had been overthrown by the Sasanians in 224, relations between Armenia and Iran were already strained. Tiridates’ conversion compounded an already difficult situation, for the shahs naturally became suspicious of the future loyalty of Armenians to their Iranian heritage. In the fifth century, attempts by the shahs to impose Zoroastrianism led to armed conflict – while to the west, the Armenians found their relationship with fellow Christians increasingly marred by their involvement in the struggles over orthodoxy. The division of Armenia c. 387 into two monarchies and two spheres of influence – a large Iranian sector east of a line running from Sper to Martyropolis (see map 8), and a much smaller Roman sector west of that line up to the Euphrates – did not solve ‘the Armenian question’.