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We use the underlying data of the IMPLAN Pro 3.0 regional economic simulation model to estimate the current economic contribution of Michigan's local food system and explore the chain of transactions giving rise to consumption of locally sourced goods from producer to processor to consumption. The proposed methodology includes both unprocessed and processed foods in the estimation of the local food system's economic value. The model also provides a replicable and consistent approach to estimating the value of local food systems within regional and state economies.
Resilience is the capacity of individuals to resist mental disorders despite exposure to stress. Little is known about its neural underpinnings. The putative variation of white-matter microstructure with resilience in adolescence, a critical period for brain maturation and onset of high-prevalence mental disorders, has not been assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Lower fractional anisotropy (FA) though, has been reported in the corpus callosum (CC), the brain's largest white-matter structure, in psychiatric and stress-related conditions. We hypothesized that higher FA in the CC would characterize stress-resilient adolescents.
Three groups of adolescents recruited from the community were compared: resilient with low risk of mental disorder despite high exposure to lifetime stress (n = 55), at-risk of mental disorder exposed to the same level of stress (n = 68), and controls (n = 123). Personality was assessed by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Voxelwise statistics of DTI values in CC were obtained using tract-based spatial statistics. Regional projections were identified by probabilistic tractography.
Higher FA values were detected in the anterior CC of resilient compared to both non-resilient and control adolescents. FA values varied according to resilience capacity. Seed regional changes in anterior CC projected onto anterior cingulate and frontal cortex. Neuroticism and three other NEO-FFI factor scores differentiated non-resilient participants from the other two groups.
High FA was detected in resilient adolescents in an anterior CC region projecting to frontal areas subserving cognitive resources. Psychiatric risk was associated with personality characteristics. Resilience in adolescence may be related to white-matter microstructure.
Olfactory dysfunction is common. The reliability of self-assessment tools for smell testing is still controversial. This study aimed to provide new data about the accuracy of olfactory self-assessment compared with a standardised smell test.
Prospective, controlled, cohort study of patients with olfactory disorders and healthy controls.
Ninety-six patients with a smell deficit and 71 controls were asked to rate their sense of smell on a visual analogue scale. Their olfactory abilities were also evaluated with the Sniffin' Sticks tests.
The whole cohort showed a significant correlation between visual analogue scale smell scores and Sniffin' Sticks total scores. This correlation was also significant in the patient group, but not in the control group. These results were independent of olfactory deficit aetiology and subject age.
Self-assessment of olfaction is only a reliable indicator in smell-impaired patients, not in healthy controls. For an accurate assessment of olfaction, reliable, standardised tests are needed.
The maintenance of post-operative lordosis has been shown to be a key factor in decreasing adjacent level disc stress. Previous studies of the PEEK (polyetherether ketone) cage have used intervertebral bony fusion as the primary measure of surgical success; however, little is known about its effects on spinal curvature. Our objective was to compare the PEEK cage to the cervical plate with respect to the maintenance of cervical lordosis at one year. Secondary outcomes included fusion and complication rates.
We performed a retrospective study of patients who underwent ACDF (anterior cervical discectomy and fusion) by two different methods; 13 patients were treated with the PEEK cage, and 22 with allograft and plating.
Patient and treatment characteristics were similar in both groups. Average global lordotic curvature (C2-C7) was increased by 1.7 degrees for the PEEK cage and decreased by 1.6 degrees for the plate after an average follow-up of 12.46 and 14.95 months, respectively. Regional lordosis for the PEEK cage and plate was decreased by 2.5 and 2.1 degrees, respectively for the same time period. These differences did not achieve statistical significance. Bony fusion was observed in all patients. One patient in each group developed persistent mild dysphagia.
The PEEK cage is comparable to the anterior cervical plate in the maintenance of post-operative cervical lordosis.
A five year collaborative study of influenza in volunteer families from 1973–78 covered a period in which there were outbreaks every year but no major epidemics of influenza. Volunteers over the age of 15 years were bled before and after each of the five winters, and virus isolation was attempted from as many as possible when they reported episodes of illness. Children under 15 in the volunteer families were also swabbed when they were ill. Although most families experienced one or more attacks by influenza viruses, there was little transmission within families.
Cattle and sheep were housed with infected pigs for 11 days. Small amounts of virus were recovered intermittently from the pharynx, milk and rectal swabs of the cattle, but no evidence of subclinical infection was found. Some indication of virus growth in the sheep was obtained in that large amounts of virus were recovered from the pharyngeal region 4 to 7 days after exposure and six of the eight sheep developed significant titres of neutralizing antibody which were maintained in four animals for at least 6 weeks.
In animals exposed to foot-and-mouth disease virus by indirect contact, virus was recovered from the blood, milk, pharynx, vagina and rectum for variable periods of time before clinical disease was apparent. Virus instilled into the mammary gland multiplied rapidly and virus concentrations greater than 107 p.f.u./ml. were recorded within 8–32 hr., depending on the virus strain and dose inoculated. Virus multiplication was accompanied by clinical signs of mastitis but the classical signs of foot-and-mouth disease did not appear for 52–117 hr. Dissemination of virus from the mammary gland occurred within 4–24 hr. and in some animals samples taken from the pharynx, mouth, nose and vagina contained virus for periods up to 97 hr. before the appearance of vesicular lesions. Virus production in the udder declined with the appearance of virus neutralizing activity in the blood and the milk but persisted in some animals for periods of 3–7 weeks. The ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus to persist in mammary tissue was confirmed by the demonstration of virus multiplication in the udders of immune animals.
The aim of this paper is to rework the material in Chapter III of Gross and Zagier's “Heegner points and derivatives of L-series” —see [GZ] in the list of references—based on more systematic deformation-theoretic methods, so as to treat all imaginary quadratic fields, all residue characteristics, and all j-invariants on an equal footing. This leads to more conceptual arguments in several places and interpretations for some quantities which appear to otherwise arise out of thin air in [GZ, Ch. III]. For example, the sum in [GZ, Ch. III, Lemma 8.2] arises for us in (9−6), where it is given a deformation-theoretic meaning. Provided the analytic results in [GZ] are proven for even discriminants, the main results in [GZ] would be valid without parity restriction on the discriminant of the imaginary quadratic field. Our order of development of the basic results follows [GZ, Ch. III], but the methods of proof are usually quite different, making much less use of the “numerology” of modular curves.
Here is a summary of the contents. In Section 2 we consider some background issues related to maps among elliptic curves over various bases and horizontal divisors on relative curves over a discrete valuation ring. In Section 3 we provide a brief survey of the Serre–Tate theorem and the Grothendieck existence theorem, since these form the backbone of the deformation-theoretic methods which underlie all subsequent arguments.
Strength, friction, and wear are dominant factors in the performance and reliability of materials and devices fabricated using nickel based LIGA and silicon based MEMS technologies. However, the effects of frictional contacts and wear on the mechanical performance of microdevices are not well-defined. To address these effects on performance of LIGA nickel, we have begun a program employing nanoscratch and nanoindentation. Nanoscratch techniques were used to generate wear patterns using loads of 100, 200, 500, and 990 μN with each load applied for 1, 2, 5, and 10 passes. Nanoindentation was then used to measure properties in each wear pattern correcting for surface roughness. The results showed a systematic increase in hardness with applied load and number of nanoscratch passes. The results also showed that the work hardening coefficient determined from indentation tests within wear patterns follows the work hardening behavior established from tensile tests, supporting use of a nanomechanics-based approach for studying mechanical properties of wear tested material.
Nanoindentation is a promising tool for obtaining the elastic properties of thin films. However, no means exists to predict or extrapolate the elastic modulus of the top layer in multilayer systems from experimental data. The mechanical properties of PZT multilayer systems have become increasingly important in applications for MEMS devices. The indentation modulus vs. a/t behaviour of PZT on Pt/SiO2/Si wafer substrate was investigated and compared with a new analytical solution for Herztian indentation of multilayers. Five different PZT film thicknesses were indented (70, 140, 400, 700, 1500 nm), using a 10 μm radius indenter. Good agreement was found between analytical equations and experimental data. However the behaviour of the multilayer system was complex. This makes the deconvolution of film properties difficult for thicknesses less than about 1000 nm.
DNA was extracted from specimens derived from the calcaneus of the Tyrolean Ice Man under
sterile conditions in a laboratory, where no DNA extractions and PCR experiments had been
performed before. Agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining did not reveal any
evidence of genomic DNA in the preparation obtained, indicating a high degree of DNA degradation.
Nevertheless, we performed PCR amplifications with this sample using primer pairs specific for HLA
class II alleles. HLA-DRB and DQB1 alleles were amplified in a nested PCR approach. In one of the
reactions, we observed a distinct amplification product, which we directly sequenced. By comparing
the obtained nucleotide sequence with a database of HLA alleles we assigned the HLA-DRB1*1402
type to the amplified sample. None of the investigators involved possesses this allele, indicating that
no contamination with modern DNA had occured. The HLA-DRB1*1402 allele is extremely rare in
Europe, but is common in Inuits and South American Indians and has previously only once been
identified in the laboratory.
Background. The protective effects of religion against late life depression may depend on the broader sociocultural environment. This paper examines whether the prevailing religious climate is related to cross-cultural differences of depression in elderly Europeans.
Methods. Two approaches were employed, using data from the EURODEP collaboration. First, associations were studied between church-attendance, religious denomination and depression at the syndrome level for six EURODEP study centres (five countries, N = 8398). Secondly, ecological associations were computed by multi-level analysis between national estimates of religious climate, derived from the European Value Survey and depressive symptoms, for the pooled dataset of 13 EURODEP study centres (11 countries, N = 17739).
Results. In the first study, depression rates were lower among regular church-attenders, most prominently among Roman Catholics. In the second study, fewer depressive symptoms were found among the female elderly in countries, generally Roman Catholic, with high rates of regular church-attendance. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were found among the male elderly in Protestant countries.
Conclusions. Religious practice is associated with less depression in elderly Europeans, both on the individual and the national level. Religious practice, especially when it is embedded within a traditional value-orientation, may facilitate coping with adversity in later life.