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The paper summarises briefly the current status of the major land using activities in the hills and uplands. The dominant land use roles of agriculture and forestry arc explained, as are other uses of recreation, water provision and wild life and landscape conservation. Land use competition in the hills and uplands is seen as the end result of conflicting policy objectives pursued by the major rural resource planning agencies over the past 50 years. The role of these agencies is analysed, as is their ability to meet their objectives in competition with each other. Finally, an attempt is made to establish a quantitative framework within which the interests of the various groups are recognised and priorities in land use can be determined.
The climate of the Inner Hebrides is considered as a variant (a) of the climate of the British Isles, and (b) of the European Atlantic seaboard. Its chief characteristics are wetness, and mildness—expressed as minimal variation of temperature both diurnally and seasonally. Other features are the marked effect of topography, particularly on rainfall, cloudiness, and windiness. The ecological significance of these features is stressed.
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy remains common in many countries. Exposure to even low amounts of alcohol (i.e. ethanol) in pregnancy can lead to the heterogeneous fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), while heavy alcohol consumption can result in the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). FAS is characterized by cerebral dysfunction, growth restriction and craniofacial malformations. However, the effects of lower doses of alcohol during pregnancy, such as those that lead to FASD, are less well understood. In this article, we discuss the findings of recent studies performed in our laboratories on the effects of fetal alcohol exposure using sheep, in which we investigated the effects of late gestational alcohol exposure on the developing brain, arteries, kidneys, heart and lungs. Our studies indicate that alcohol exposure in late gestation can (1) affect cerebral white matter development and increase the risk of hemorrhage in the fetal brain, (2) cause left ventricular hypertrophy with evidence of altered cardiomyocyte maturation, (3) lead to a decrease in nephron number in the kidney, (4) cause altered arterial wall stiffness and endothelial and smooth muscle function and (5) result in altered surfactant protein mRNA expression, surfactant phospholipid composition and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in the lung. These findings suggest that fetal alcohol exposure in late gestation can affect multiple organs, potentially increasing the risk of disease and organ dysfunction in later life.
Affordable, high quality SiC wafers are very desirable for a variety of new technologies including GaN based lighting, RF, and high-power electronics based on wide band gap materials. At Litton Airtron we have a major effort in the growth and characterization of SiC. We will present data on 35, 50 and 75-mm diameter crystals. We are growing both n-type, semiinsulating 4H, 6H, and 15R material. A variety of characterization techniques are being used at Litton Airtron to determine wafer quality. These include Raman microscopy, digital wafer photography, and crossed polarizer images. Raman spectroscopy is an excellent probe of polytype and carrier concentration for n-type materials; in addition it can be done at room temperature and is sufficiently fast that it can be used in an industrial environment. The use of digital photography allows for the collection of images that can be quantitatively analyzed and archived.
The aim of this study was to assess the bioequivalence of H13CO-3 and H14CO-3, by administering both labels simultaneously by single infusion and comparing their recovery in breath CO2 and urinary urea. Six healthy male subjects (age range 24–41 years; weight 76·7 (SD, 18·6) KG; HEIGHT 1·79 (sd 0·05) m) were infused with unprimed solutions of HCO3- (110·0 mmol/kg) labelled with 13C (0·76 mmol 13C/h) and 14C (48 Bq/h) at a constant rate for 6 h, in a whole-body calorimeter (1400 litres) for measurement of CO2 production. Samples of breath were collected hourly in a Douglas bag and all urine was collected into two batches (0–4 h and 4–6 h) for estimating recovery of infused label by measurement of enrichment or specific activity. Recovery in breath CO2 of both labels increased from about 25% for the first hour to 88% and above for hours 3–4 onwards. Mean recovery of 13C in breath CO2 was slightly higher than that of 14C for all periods (mean difference always less than 1 % of infused label) but was significant only for the first 3h (P < 0·05). Recovery of 14C in urea was significantly higher (P < 0·01) than 13C, but was confounded by substantial variability and uncertainties concerning 13CO2 background enrichments. These results suggest that there is no compelling need to alter factors currently used for recovery of 14C in breath when using 13C instead, and vice versa.
Atoll-dwelling people of Tokelau in the central Pacific have been studied in their home environment and after migration to the industrial culture of New Zealand (NZ). The NZ migrants reflect the predominantly male and young composition of the migrating group. Recent migration has eased the lot of the surplus young women from Tokelau, resulting in earlier marriage and less long-term spinsterhood. The apparently higher fertility of women residing in NZ is largely explained by selection of female migrants who already have two or more children. Earlier menarche and earlier marriage in NZ probably contribute little. Future trends will be monitored, and a decline in migrant fertility is expected, if Tokelauans follow the pattern of other Polynesian migrants to urban environments.
Chromiferous spinel and chlorite are associated and sometimes intergrown in serpentinized peridotites at Chimwadzulu Hill. The peridotites probably crystallized from a melt under the conditions of the spinel-lherzolite facies (O'Hara, 1967) in which the stable aluminous phase is spinel. The spinel that formed was probably a chromite with some Al2O3 and MgO. At lower temperatures aluminous spinel is unstable in the presence of olivine and orthopyroxene, chlorite being the stable aluminous mineral. It is thought that the chlorite crystallized under the conditions of medium-grade metamorphism that prevailed when the rocks were emplaced, and at the same time the spinel recrystallized, depleted in Al2O3 and MgO and correspondingly enriched in FeO, Fe2O3, and Cr2O3, giving rise to the observed chromite-chlorite association.
Many psychiatrists assert that an expansion of mental health services in the developing countries is overdue. This will only take place if: (i) the tasks of mental health care are undertaken by a wide range of non-specialist health workers, including those responsible for primary health care; and (ii) services are directed initially at a very limited range of priority conditions. The method of priority selection is discussed, and the process required for translation of priority decisions into health action is exemplified by two illustrations.
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