Book chapters will be unavailable on Saturday 24th August between 8am-12pm BST. This is for essential maintenance which will provide improved performance going forwards. Please accept our apologies for any inconvenience caused.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Working Party has produced this report in order to prompt readers to engage at an early stage in InsurTech projects, through considering (i) the full range of risks associated with InsurTech developments, (ii) the lifecycle of an InsurTech venture and how any risk considerations may vary over this lifecycle and (iii) the extent to which InsurTech ventures align with risk strategy and risk appetite.
The report contains practical guidance for actuaries, risk professionals, insurance companies and their Boards on these considerations, and can be used to facilitate appropriate questioning, to help ensure that InsurTech-related business decisions are fully cognisant of the risk management issues and to help ensure the success of projects.
The Working Party developed this guidance having carried out an industry survey on a number of risk management topics relating to InsurTech, as well as having carried out interviews with a number of relevant senior stakeholders across the insurance industry, in order to better understand current sentiment and how risk management plays a part when considering opportunities in InsurTech. The Working Party views on the findings from these activities are summarised in the report.
Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the population regarding severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in endemic areas of Lu'an in China were assessed before and after an intervention programme. The pre-intervention phase was conducted using a sample of 425 participants from the 12 selected villages with the highest rates of endemic SFTS infection. A predesigned interview questionnaire was used to assess KAP. Subsequently, an intervention programme was designed and applied in the selected villages. KAP was re-assessed for each population in the selected villages using the same interview questionnaire. Following 2 months of the programme, 339 participants had completed the re-assessed survey. The impact of the intervention programme was evaluated using suitable statistical methods. A significant increase in the KAP and total KAP scores was noted following the intervention programme, whereas the proportion of correct knowledge, the positive attitudes and the effective practices toward SFTS of respondents increased significantly. The intervention programme was effective in improving KAP level of SFTS in populations that were resident in endemic areas.
Piglets are characteristically cold intolerant and thus susceptible to high mortality. However, browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) can induce non-shivering thermogenesis as a potential strategy to facilitate the animal’s response to cold. Whether cold exposure can induce browning of subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) in piglets in a similar manner as it can in humans remains largely unknown. In this study, piglets were exposed to acute cold (4°C, 10 h) or chronic cold exposure (8°C, 15 days), and the genes and proteins of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent and independent thermogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, lipogenic and lipolytic processes were analysed. Interestingly, acute cold exposure induced browning of porcine sWAT, smaller adipocytes and the upregulated expression of UCP1, PGC1α, PGC1β, C/EBPβ, Cidea, UCP3, CKMT1 and PM20D1. Conversely, chronic cold exposure impaired the browning process, reduced mitochondrial numbers and the expression of browning markers, including UCP1, PGC1α and PRDM16. The present study demonstrated that acute cold exposure (but not chronic cold exposure) induces porcine sWAT browning. Thus, browning of porcine sWAT could be a novel strategy to balance the body temperature of piglets, and thus could be protective against cold exposure.
This paper reports the lead concentration and flux (where accumulation rate is available) along the route of the 1990 International Trans-Antarctic Expedition. The lead concentration in Larsen Ice Shelf and Antarctic Peninsula, the western part of the route, was 7.4 ± 4.1 pg g−1. The lead concentration in East Antarctic snow (South Pole to Mirny station) was 2 3 times higher than that in West Antarctica (Larsen Ice Shelf to South Pole). Taking into account the difference in site conditions, the difference between the above value over this area in 1989 and the value of 6.3 ±3.3 pg g−1 at a site within this area in 1980 (Wolff and Peel, 1985) is not significant. Because the relative contribution of soil dust, volcanoes and the oceans to lead concentration in Antarctica is about 0.5 pg g−1 under modern climatic conditions (Boutron and Patterson, 1987), it is believed that the lead in Antarctic surface snow is dominated by pollution input. The lead-concentration increase from west to east over the trans-Antarctic route suggests that remote Antarctica has been impacted by anthropogenic activities. The lowest lead flux (0.064 ng cn-2 a−1) was on the Antarctic Plateau, mainly reflecting the background global pollution. The mean flux of 0.273 ng cnT2 a−1 in the western part of the route (Larsen Ice Shelf to the Ellsworth Mountains) may result from the pollution input from the Southern Hemisphere. In addition to the influence of global and/or hemispheric pollution, local activities (notably the use of leaded gasolene) appear to have affected the region from Pionerskaya to Mirny.
As a disconnection syndrome, schizophrenia has shown impaired resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC); however, the OFC is a rather heterogeneous region and the rsFC changes in the OFC subregions remain unknown.
A total of 98 schizophrenia patients and 102 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI using a sensitivity-encoded spiral-in imaging sequence (SENSE-SPIRAL) to reduce susceptibility-induced signal loss and distortion. The OFC subregions were defined according to a previous parcellation study that divided the OFC into the anterior (OFCa), medial (OFCm), posterior (OFCp), intermediate (OFCi), and lateral (OFCl) subregions. The rsFC was compared using two-way repeated-measures ANOVA.
Whether or not global signal regression, compared with healthy controls, schizophrenia patients consistently exhibited decreased rsFC between the left OFCi and the left middle temporal gyrus and the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), between the right OFCi and the right MFG and the left inferior frontal gyrus, between the right OFCm and the middle cingulate cortex and the left Rolandic operculum. These rsFC changes still remained significant even after cortical atrophy correction.
These findings suggest a selective functional disconnection of the OFC subregions in schizophrenia, and provide more precise information about the functional disconnections of the OFC in this disorder.
Measurements of crystal size have been made on seven firn cores drilled at sites covering a range of mean annual temperature from –12.6° to –52.5°C and a range of accumulation rate from 52 to 315 kg m−2 a−1. The sorting coefficient, which gives a measure of the dispersion of crystal sizes within a sample, shows an overall pattern when data from all cores are grouped together as a function of depth. The values are generally small near the surface, increasing to a maximum around 8 m depth, then decreasing but becoming more diffuse at greater depths. Below about 5 m depth, the crystal size increases at an essentially constant rate, which depends on temperature, but in the upper 5 or 7 m the size increases at 1.5 to 2 times this rate. The seasonal variation in temperature enhances the effective mean growth rate of crystals in the near-surface layers compared to conditions with a constant mean temperature and accounts for a part of that increase. But it is likely that vapour diffusion along strong vertical temperature gradients causes the greater part of the observed increase in growth rate. The dependence of crystal-growth rate on temperature is consistent with the Arrhenius-type relation found by other studies.
Fourteen shallow snow/firn cores were drilled with the Polar Ice Coring Office light-weight hand-coring auger in Wilkes Land, along a line approximately long. 111°E between lat. 66° and 74°S. Five of these cores, all between 20 and 30 m deep, are studied in detail in this paper: LJ, BJ, GC30, GC40 and GC46. The physical geographical conditions differ at these five stations, but the general trend is for mean annual accumulation rate and mean annual temperature to decrease farther south, with increasing elevation. At the southernmost station, GC46, the mean annual temperature is –52.5°C, and accumulation rate is 52 kg m−2 a−1.
The density measurements of the snow/firn were made in a cold-room at temperatures from –14− to –18−C, by taking consecutive samples from the core and measuring the mass of each sample of known volume. The characteristics of the initial densification (to a density of 550 kg m−3) – variation in snow/firn density with depth, the densification rate of snow/firn, and the compactive viscosity coefficient of snow/firn – are studied, and the factors affecting this initial densification process are discussed.
The following observations were made and conclusions reached:
1.Plots of all the measurements, from each core, of density against depth showed three different patterns. The first type, typical of the coastal areas, shows a very great variability of density at shallow depth, reducing with an increase in depth. The second, typical of the high inland stations, shows a smaller scatter of densities at shallow depth, again reducing with an increase in depth. The third type is a pattern intermediate between these two. So, the range of density fluctuation with a depth range in any core is greater at the top of the core than at the bottom, and at the same depth in different cores the variation in density is greater where the mean annual temperature is higher.
2.The snow/firn density increases with an increase in depth at all stations, and the densification rate is higher at stations with higher mean annual temperature.
3.The mean density of snow/firn in the top 1 m decreases farther inland, and this decrease appears to be closely related to the decrease in temperature.
4.The mean densification rate is compared with the mean annual temperature and the mean annual accumulation rate over the past 40 years in the most southerly cores. The mean annual temperature is found to be the more important factor affecting the densification rate in the surface snow/firn on the cold ice sheet.
5.At each station, for ρ = 550 kg m−3, a linear relationship is found between log compactive-viscosity coefficient of snow/firn and mean annual temperature for a constant density. If only stations with a mean annual temperature below –25°C (i.e. no melt features are present in the stratigraphy) are considered, then these results from Wilkes Land are very similar to the results obtained by Nishimura and others (1983) from Mizuho Plateau, East Antarctica.
Through-Silicon-Via (TSV) is considered to be the most potential solution for 3D electronic packaging, and the mechanical properties of TSV-Cu are critical for TSV reliability improving. In this paper, to make deeply understand the creep behavior of TSV-Cu, nanoindentation creep tests were conducted to obtain its creep parameters. At first, the TSV specimens were fabricated by means of a typical TSV manufacturing process. Then a combination programmable procedure of the constant indentation strain rate method and the constant load method was employed to study the creep behavior of TSV-Cu. To understand the influence of the previous loading schemes, including the different values of the indentation strain and the maximum depths, the nanoindentation creep tests under different loading conditions were conducted. The values of creep strain rate sensitivity m were derived from the corresponding displacement-holding time curves, and the mean value of m finally determined was 0.0149. The value of m is considered no obvious correlation with the different indentation strain rates and the maximum depths by this method. Furthermore, the mechanism for the room temperature creep was also discussed, and the grain boundaries might play an significant role in this creep behavior.
At the end of 2013, China reported a countrywide outbreak of measles. From January to May 2014, we investigated the clinical and immunological features of the cases of the outbreak admitted to our hospital. In this study, all 112 inpatients with clinically diagnosed measles were recruited from the 302 Military Hospital of China. The virus was isolated from throat swabs from these patients, and cytokine profiles were examined. By detecting the measles virus of 30 of the 112 patients, we found that this measles outbreak was of the H1 genotype, which is the major strain in China. The rates of complications, specifically pneumonia and liver injury, differed significantly in patients aged <8 months, 8 months to 18 years, and >18 years: pneumonia was more common in children, while liver injury was more common in adults. Pneumonia was a significant independent risk factor affecting measles duration. Compared to healthy subjects, measles patients had fewer CD4+IL-17+, CD4+IFN-γ+, and CD8+IFN-γ+ cells in both the acute and recovery phases. In contrast, measles patients in the acute phase had more CD8+IL-22+ cells than those in recovery or healthy subjects. We recommend that future studies focus on the age-related distribution of pneumonia and liver injury as measles-related complications as well as the association between immunological markers and measles prognosis.
Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DGI-II) lacks intrafibrillar mineral with severe compromise of dentin mechanical properties. A Dspp knockout (Dspp–/–) mouse, with a phenotype similar to that of human DGI-II, was used to determine if poly-L-aspartic acid [poly(ASP)] in the “polymer-induced liquid-precursor” (PILP) system can restore its mechanical properties. Dentin from six-week old Dspp–/– and wild-type mice was treated with CaP solution containing poly(ASP) for up to 14 days. Elastic modulus and hardness before and after treatment were correlated with mineralization from Micro x-ray computed tomography (Micro-XCT). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were used to compare matrix mineralization and crystallography. Mechanical properties of the Dspp–/– dentin were significantly less than wild-type dentin and recovered significantly (P < 0.05) after PILP-treatment, reaching values comparable to wild-type dentin. Micro-XCT showed mineral recovery similar to wild-type dentin after PILP-treatment. TEM/SAED showed repair of patchy mineralization and complete mineralization of defective dentin. This approach may lead to new strategies for hard tissue repair.
Legionnaires’ disease (LD) is a globally distributed systemic infectious disease. The burden of LD in many regions is still unclear, especially in Asian countries including China. A survey of Legionella infection using real-time PCR and nested sequence-based typing (SBT) was performed in two hospitals in Shanghai, China. A total of 265 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) specimens were collected from hospital A between January 2012 and December 2013, and 359 sputum specimens were collected from hospital B throughout 2012. A total of 71 specimens were positive for Legionella according to real-time PCR focusing on the 5S rRNA gene. Seventy of these specimens were identified as Legionella pneumophila as a result of real-time PCR amplification of the dotA gene. Results of nested SBT revealed high genetic polymorphism in these L. pneumophila and ST1 was the predominant sequence type. These data revealed that the burden of LD in China is much greater than that recognized previously, and real-time PCR may be a suitable monitoring technology for LD in large sample surveys in regions lacking the economic and technical resources to perform other methods, such as urinary antigen tests and culture methods.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease that was caused by a novel bunyavirus, SFTSV. The study aimed to disclose the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of SFTSV infection in China so far. An integrated clinical database comprising 1920 SFTS patients was constructed by combining first-hand clinical information collected from SFTS sentinel hospitals (n = 1159) and extracted data (n = 761) from published literature. The considered variables comprised clinical manifestations, routine laboratory tests of acute infection, hospitalization duration and disease outcome. SFTSV-IgG data from 19 119 healthy subjects were extracted from the published papers. The key clinical variables, case-fatality rate (CFR) and seroprevalence were estimated by meta-analysis. The most commonly seen clinical manifestations of SFTSV infection were fever, anorexia, myalgia, chill and lymphadenopathy. The major laboratory findings were elevated lactate dehydrogenase, aminotransferase, followed by thrombocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, elevated alanine transaminase and creatine kinase. A CFR of 12·2% was estimated, significantly higher than that obtained from national reporting data, but showing no geographical difference. In our paper, the mortality rate was about 1·9 parts per million. Older age and longer delay to hospitalization were significantly associated with fatal outcome. A pooled seroprevalence of 3·0% was obtained, which increased with age, while comparable for gender. This study represents a clinical characterization on the largest group of SFTS patients up to now. A higher than expected CFR was obtained. A wider spectrum of clinical index was suggested to be used to identify SFTSV infection, while the useful predictor for fatal outcome was found to be restricted.
A microcompressor is a precision mechanical device that flattens and immobilizes living cells and small organisms for optical microscopy, allowing enhanced visualization of sub-cellular structures and organelles. We have developed an easily fabricated device, which can be equipped with microfluidics, permitting the addition of media or chemicals during observation. This device can be used on both upright and inverted microscopes. The apparatus permits micrometer precision flattening for nondestructive immobilization of specimens as small as a bacterium, while also accommodating larger specimens, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, for long-term observations. The compressor mount is removable and allows easy specimen addition and recovery for later observation. Several customized specimen beds can be incorporated into the base. To demonstrate the capabilities of the device, we have imaged numerous cellular events in several protozoan species, in yeast cells, and in Drosophila melanogaster embryos. We have been able to document previously unreported events, and also perform photobleaching experiments, in conjugating Tetrahymena thermophila.
We studied seasonal patterns of swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in China. From 2008 to 2011, 4200 swine bile specimens were collected for the detection of HEV RNA. A total of 92/2400 (3·83%) specimens in eastern China and 47/1800 (2·61%) specimens in southwestern China were positive for HEV. Seasonal patterns differing by geographical area were suggested. In eastern China, the major peak of HEV RNA prevalence was during March–April, with a minor peak during September–October, and a dip during July–August. In southwestern China, the peak was during September–October and the dip during March–April. The majority of subtype 4a cases (63/82, 76·83%) were detected in the first half of the year, while the majority of subtype 4b cases (26/29, 89·66%) were concentrated in the second half of the year, suggesting that different subtypes contribute to different peaks. Our results indicate that the distribution of HEV subtypes is associated with seasonal patterns.
The use of plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) as a novel method for the treatment of polymer surfaces is investigated. The effect of PIII treatment on the coefficient of friction, contact angle modification, and surface energy of silicone and EPDM (ethylene-propylene-diene monomer) rubber are investigated as a function of pulse voltage, treatment time, and gas species. Low energy (0 - 8 keV) and high dose (∼1017 - 1018 ions/cm2) implantation of N2, Ar, and CF4 is performed using an inductively coupled plasma source (ICP) at low pressure (0.2 mTorr). PIII treatment reduces the coefficient of friction (μ) of silicone rubber from μ = 0.464 to the range μ = 0.176 – 0.274, and μ of EPDM rubber decreases from 0.9 to the range μ = 0.27 – 0.416 depending on processing conditions. The contact angle of water and diiodomethylene decreases after implantation and increases at higher doses for both silicone and EPDM rubber.
PH3 SDS (safe delivery system) gas was used for the first time in P11 doping experiments to fabricate n+p junctions and NMOS devices. Two gas recipes (PH3 diluted in H2 and He) were investigated. Under lower pressure, a minimum etching effect was observed. A 4x1015/cm2 phosphorus dose and a 22 Ω/□ sheet resistance were achieved in 4 seconds. Very low contamination level was involved. An anomalous tail of P profile in Si substrate was observed using SIMS measurements.