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In the 2015 review paper ‘Petawatt Class Lasers Worldwide’ a comprehensive overview of the current status of high-power facilities of
was presented. This was largely based on facility specifications, with some description of their uses, for instance in fundamental ultra-high-intensity interactions, secondary source generation, and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). With the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics being awarded to Professors Donna Strickland and Gerard Mourou for the development of the technique of chirped pulse amplification (CPA), which made these lasers possible, we celebrate by providing a comprehensive update of the current status of ultra-high-power lasers and demonstrate how the technology has developed. We are now in the era of multi-petawatt facilities coming online, with 100 PW lasers being proposed and even under construction. In addition to this there is a pull towards development of industrial and multi-disciplinary applications, which demands much higher repetition rates, delivering high-average powers with higher efficiencies and the use of alternative wavelengths: mid-IR facilities. So apart from a comprehensive update of the current global status, we want to look at what technologies are to be deployed to get to these new regimes, and some of the critical issues facing their development.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Interactions at magnetic interfaces are central to the operation of virtually all magnetic heterostructures. When the interface is between two magnetic materials, the exchange interaction between spins at the interface is often a dominant force, and can dramatically change the magnetic response of the overall heterostructure. In ferromagnet (FM)/antiferromagnet (AFM) heterostructures, this interaction is often referred to as exchange anisotropy or bias and it has been widely used over the past decade in a wide array of applications such as magnetic recording heads, MRAMs, etc. The powerful implications of interactions between an AFM and a FM have been realized in a wide range of thin film heterostructure with both metallic and oxide constituents. There is, however, much less work on oxide-oxide FM/AFM systems. On the other hand, the development and understanding of functional oxide materials, especially multifunctional materials like BiFeO3 (BFO), have piqued the interest of researchers worldwide with the promise of coupling between order parameters such as ferroelectricity and antiferromagnetism. Recent research suggests that there is exchange coupling and anisotropy between the metallic ferromagnet Co0.9Fe0.1 (CoFe) and the multiferroic, antiferromagnet BFO, showing the possibility to create highly desirable multifunctional systems with new possibilities for device design. Such a result provides the driving force to create multifunctional oxide-oxide systems where exchange interactions could be much stronger then in metal/oxide structures due the added epitaxial nature of the interface. In this study, we use La0.7Sr0.3MnO3(LSMO)/BFO thin film heterostructures as a model system to explore the exchange interaction at an oxide interface. The heterostructures are grown on various vicinal cuts of SrTiO3 single crystal substrates using laser MBE. Structural analysis using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry reveals high quality films with the pristine interfaces required for exchange coupling. First results from photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) studies reveal that the magnetic LSMO domain structure mimics underneath ferroelectric BFO domain structure, i..e, it is strongly pinned by the underlying AFM structure. The coupling behavior is being characterized by magnetic measurements (SQUID, VSM), which shows a strong enhancement in the coercivity of the LSMO layer, suggesting the existence of exchange bias coupling. We are probing the strength of this coupling using a combination of careful laser MBE growth experiments and physical property measurements. In this paper, we will report results of experiments in which the LSMO layer has been grown by laser MBE in the thickness range of 2-50nm on a  BFO layer.
Several lines of evidence suggest that the x-ray spectra of quasars are not simple, exact power laws: 1. when Wilkes and Elvis (1987) analyzed quasars as power laws they found an absorption less than that due to our galaxy; 2. The mean 0.3 to 3.5 keV spectral index is steeper than the mean for the 2 to 20 keV range; 3. although several lines of evidence argue that AGN provide a significant portion (perhaps all) of the x-ray background, the diffuse background spectrum does not agree with the x-ray power-law indices measured for quasars or Seyfert galaxies. Schwartz and Tucker (1988) have suggested that all the above conflicts are reconciled if the slope in the Log(flux density) vs. Log(energy) plot flattens continuously with increasing energy. In this paper we utilize one particular parameterization suggested for the flux density, which we call the “log-slope” model:
where f is the flux density, K a normalization parameter which is not of interest here, and a and b are the two parameters of our fit.
The capabilities of metal additive manufacturing (AM) are evolving rapidly thanks to both increasing industry demand and improved scientific understanding of the process. This article provides an overview of AM of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, which has essentially been used as a yardstick to gauge the capability of each metal AM process developed to date. It begins by summarizing the metal AM processes existing today. This is followed by a discussion of the macro- and microstructural characteristics, defects, and tensile and fatigue properties of AM Ti-6Al-4V by selective laser melting, laser metal deposition (both powder and wire), and selective electron-beam melting compared to non-AM Ti-6Al-4V. The tensile and fatigue properties of as-built AM Ti-6Al-4V (with machined or polished surfaces) can be made comparable, or even superior, to those of Ti-6Al-4V in the most commonly used mill-annealed condition. However, these properties can exhibit a large degree of scatter and are often anisotropic, affected by AM build orientations. Post-AM surface treatments or both the post-AM surface and heat treatments are necessary to ensure the minimum required properties and performance consistency. Future directions to further unlock the potential of AM of Ti-6Al-4V for superior and consistent mechanical properties are also discussed.
We developed a kinematic jet model for the motion and flux density evolution of the high frequency VLBI jet components C4 and C5 in the quasar 3C345 (Zensus et al. 1994) assuming the conservation of three basic quantities: the Lorentz factor, the angular momentum, and the opening angle of the jet. This model is a simplified description of the helical motion in a conical jet expected from the magnetodynamical model of Camenzind (1986) which is based on a black hole surrounded by a magnetized accretion disc. Our best fit yields Lorentz factors of 5.7 and 5.0 for components C4 and C5, respectively, and an angle between the jet axis and the observer's line of sight of 7.5°. These values are very close to those obtained by Unwin & Wehrle (1992) from component motion further out. An intrinsic bending of the jet axis is necessary to account for the common bent path of all jet components at core separations larger than about 4 mas. We found that differential Doppler boosting alone is not able to explain the flux density variations of component C4. A non-adiabatic expansion model of an inhomogeneous plasma cloud combined with differential Doppler boosting on a helical path fits the flux density evolution (Steffen et al. 1994). We find that the expansion in the decreasing part of the lightcurve is slower than expected from adiabatic expansion.
We present the optical emission line properties of a sample of 155 bright X-ray selected ROSAT Seyfert 1 type AGN. The measured properties are gathered for correlation analysis. The strong correlations between Hβ redshift, flux ratios of Fe II to Hβ broad component and [O III] to Hβ narrow component are found.
In recent years, the effect of Toxoplasma gondii infection on the cerebrum and neuropsychiatric patients has been increasingly highlighted. However, there is limited information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in psychiatric patients in Shandong province, eastern China. Therefore, through a case-control study, 445 patients hospitalized for diacrisis or treatment in Weihai, eastern China, and 445 control subjects from the general population of the same region matched by gender, age, and residence were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies to T. gondii and associated sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics in a population of psychiatric patients. Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to T. gondii in psychiatric patients (77/445, 17·30%) was significantly higher than in control subjects (55/445, 12·36%) (P = 0·038). Fourteen (3·15%) psychiatric patients and 10 (2·25%) control subjects had IgM antibodies to T. gondii (P = 0·408). Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with cats at home and consumption of raw/undercooked meat in psychiatric patients. Considering that most psychiatric patients usually have lower cognitive functioning and additional transmission routes related to their inappropriate behaviours that could enhance the risk of infection, psychiatric patients should be considered as a specific group of T. gondii infection.
Deploying resistant cultivars can reduce the prohibitive cost associated with managing Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in rapeseed production worldwide. The present paper reports the results of an analysis of inheritance of leaf and stem resistance involving a single inter-specific cross between Brassica incana and Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra. Detached leaves and stems of parental lines, F1, F2 and the backcrosses were obtained from Southwest University, Chongqing Field Station, Chongqing China in the 2009/10 and 2010/11 field seasons and inoculated with S. sclerotiorum to determine resistance. Significant differences were detected across the two growing seasons between parents and some of the progeny for measures of both leaf and stem resistance. Continuous variation patterns among the segregating generations suggest the quantitative nature of resistance in both leaf and stem. Dominant and additive × additive epistatic interactions controlled the genetic effects for both traits. Broad- and narrow-sense heritability estimates were moderately high for leaf resistance, but were intermediate to high for stem resistance in the two field seasons. Low estimates of the minimum number of genes for leaf and stem resistance were recorded in the two field seasons. The results indicate that selection gains and the identification of quantitative trait loci can be maximized in marker-assisted-selection through differential selection (tissue-based selection) on a replicated plot basis.
We studied seasonal patterns of swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in China. From 2008 to 2011, 4200 swine bile specimens were collected for the detection of HEV RNA. A total of 92/2400 (3·83%) specimens in eastern China and 47/1800 (2·61%) specimens in southwestern China were positive for HEV. Seasonal patterns differing by geographical area were suggested. In eastern China, the major peak of HEV RNA prevalence was during March–April, with a minor peak during September–October, and a dip during July–August. In southwestern China, the peak was during September–October and the dip during March–April. The majority of subtype 4a cases (63/82, 76·83%) were detected in the first half of the year, while the majority of subtype 4b cases (26/29, 89·66%) were concentrated in the second half of the year, suggesting that different subtypes contribute to different peaks. Our results indicate that the distribution of HEV subtypes is associated with seasonal patterns.
Transoral rigid laryngoscopy with videostroboscopy is the most practical method to visualise the vocal folds. The optimal topical anaesthesia regimen for transoral rigid laryngoscopy has not yet been established.
To compare patient comfort and compliance with various topical anaesthetics for transoral rigid laryngoscopy.
Each of 10 patients received a random topical administration of either 2 per cent lidocaine gel, 1 per cent tetracaine gel or 1 per cent tetracaine solution, 10 minutes before undergoing rigid laryngoscopy with videostroboscopy. During follow-up laryngoscopies, the agent with the lowest mean visual analogue scale score for discomfort was then used to study the timing of topical anaesthetic application: the agent was given to the patient 5, 10 or 15 minutes before laryngoscopy (with the timing randomly selected).
Compared with lidocaine gel or tetracaine gel, laryngoscopy with topical tetracaine solution was more comfortable. There was a statistically significant difference in discomfort score between the 5 and 10 minute application groups, but not between the 10 and 15 minute groups.
Nanoclusters of Ag metal in MgO(100) single crystals was formed by implantation of 1.5 MeV silver ions at fluences of 6 x 1016 ion/cm2 and at 1.2 x 1017 ion/cm2, and subsequent annealing at temperatures between 600°C to 1100°C. The formation of the Ag metallic clusters was confirmed using optical absorption spectrophotometry by the absorption band at 430 nm. This is in agreement with the theoretical prediction using Mie's theory, with calculated average nanocluster size about 3 nm. Using ion channeling we confirmed that the orientation of the Ag nanoclusters was in the same direction of the host crystal. Using Z-scan we found the nonlinear refractive index of Ag implanted MgO to be 4.9 x 10-8 esu.
This study examined whether participation in a variety of lifestyle activities was comparable to frequent participation in cognitively challenging activities in mitigating impairments in cognitive abilities susceptible to aging in healthy, community-dwelling older women. Frequencies of participation in various lifestyle activities on the Lifestyle Activities Questionnaire (LAQ) were divided according to high (e.g., reading), moderate (e.g., discussing politics), and low (e.g., watching television) cognitive demand. We also considered the utility of participation in a variety of lifestyle activities regardless of cognitive challenge. Immediate and delayed verbal recall, psychomotor speed, and executive function were each measured at baseline and at five successive exams, spanning a 9.5-year interval. Greater variety of participation in activities, regardless of cognitive challenge, was associated with an 8 to 11% reduction in the risk of impairment in verbal memory and global cognitive outcomes. Participation in a variety of lifestyle activities was more predictive than frequency or level of cognitive challenge for significant reductions in risk of incident impairment on measures sensitive to cognitive aging and risk for dementia. Our findings offer new perspectives in promoting a diverse repertoire of activities to mitigate age-related cognitive declines. (JINS, 2012, 18, 286–294)