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In the 2015 review paper ‘Petawatt Class Lasers Worldwide’ a comprehensive overview of the current status of high-power facilities of
was presented. This was largely based on facility specifications, with some description of their uses, for instance in fundamental ultra-high-intensity interactions, secondary source generation, and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). With the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics being awarded to Professors Donna Strickland and Gerard Mourou for the development of the technique of chirped pulse amplification (CPA), which made these lasers possible, we celebrate by providing a comprehensive update of the current status of ultra-high-power lasers and demonstrate how the technology has developed. We are now in the era of multi-petawatt facilities coming online, with 100 PW lasers being proposed and even under construction. In addition to this there is a pull towards development of industrial and multi-disciplinary applications, which demands much higher repetition rates, delivering high-average powers with higher efficiencies and the use of alternative wavelengths: mid-IR facilities. So apart from a comprehensive update of the current global status, we want to look at what technologies are to be deployed to get to these new regimes, and some of the critical issues facing their development.
The capabilities of metal additive manufacturing (AM) are evolving rapidly thanks to both increasing industry demand and improved scientific understanding of the process. This article provides an overview of AM of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, which has essentially been used as a yardstick to gauge the capability of each metal AM process developed to date. It begins by summarizing the metal AM processes existing today. This is followed by a discussion of the macro- and microstructural characteristics, defects, and tensile and fatigue properties of AM Ti-6Al-4V by selective laser melting, laser metal deposition (both powder and wire), and selective electron-beam melting compared to non-AM Ti-6Al-4V. The tensile and fatigue properties of as-built AM Ti-6Al-4V (with machined or polished surfaces) can be made comparable, or even superior, to those of Ti-6Al-4V in the most commonly used mill-annealed condition. However, these properties can exhibit a large degree of scatter and are often anisotropic, affected by AM build orientations. Post-AM surface treatments or both the post-AM surface and heat treatments are necessary to ensure the minimum required properties and performance consistency. Future directions to further unlock the potential of AM of Ti-6Al-4V for superior and consistent mechanical properties are also discussed.
In recent years, the effect of Toxoplasma gondii infection on the cerebrum and neuropsychiatric patients has been increasingly highlighted. However, there is limited information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in psychiatric patients in Shandong province, eastern China. Therefore, through a case-control study, 445 patients hospitalized for diacrisis or treatment in Weihai, eastern China, and 445 control subjects from the general population of the same region matched by gender, age, and residence were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies to T. gondii and associated sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics in a population of psychiatric patients. Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to T. gondii in psychiatric patients (77/445, 17·30%) was significantly higher than in control subjects (55/445, 12·36%) (P = 0·038). Fourteen (3·15%) psychiatric patients and 10 (2·25%) control subjects had IgM antibodies to T. gondii (P = 0·408). Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with cats at home and consumption of raw/undercooked meat in psychiatric patients. Considering that most psychiatric patients usually have lower cognitive functioning and additional transmission routes related to their inappropriate behaviours that could enhance the risk of infection, psychiatric patients should be considered as a specific group of T. gondii infection.
Deploying resistant cultivars can reduce the prohibitive cost associated with managing Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in rapeseed production worldwide. The present paper reports the results of an analysis of inheritance of leaf and stem resistance involving a single inter-specific cross between Brassica incana and Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra. Detached leaves and stems of parental lines, F1, F2 and the backcrosses were obtained from Southwest University, Chongqing Field Station, Chongqing China in the 2009/10 and 2010/11 field seasons and inoculated with S. sclerotiorum to determine resistance. Significant differences were detected across the two growing seasons between parents and some of the progeny for measures of both leaf and stem resistance. Continuous variation patterns among the segregating generations suggest the quantitative nature of resistance in both leaf and stem. Dominant and additive × additive epistatic interactions controlled the genetic effects for both traits. Broad- and narrow-sense heritability estimates were moderately high for leaf resistance, but were intermediate to high for stem resistance in the two field seasons. Low estimates of the minimum number of genes for leaf and stem resistance were recorded in the two field seasons. The results indicate that selection gains and the identification of quantitative trait loci can be maximized in marker-assisted-selection through differential selection (tissue-based selection) on a replicated plot basis.
We studied seasonal patterns of swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in China. From 2008 to 2011, 4200 swine bile specimens were collected for the detection of HEV RNA. A total of 92/2400 (3·83%) specimens in eastern China and 47/1800 (2·61%) specimens in southwestern China were positive for HEV. Seasonal patterns differing by geographical area were suggested. In eastern China, the major peak of HEV RNA prevalence was during March–April, with a minor peak during September–October, and a dip during July–August. In southwestern China, the peak was during September–October and the dip during March–April. The majority of subtype 4a cases (63/82, 76·83%) were detected in the first half of the year, while the majority of subtype 4b cases (26/29, 89·66%) were concentrated in the second half of the year, suggesting that different subtypes contribute to different peaks. Our results indicate that the distribution of HEV subtypes is associated with seasonal patterns.
Transoral rigid laryngoscopy with videostroboscopy is the most practical method to visualise the vocal folds. The optimal topical anaesthesia regimen for transoral rigid laryngoscopy has not yet been established.
To compare patient comfort and compliance with various topical anaesthetics for transoral rigid laryngoscopy.
Each of 10 patients received a random topical administration of either 2 per cent lidocaine gel, 1 per cent tetracaine gel or 1 per cent tetracaine solution, 10 minutes before undergoing rigid laryngoscopy with videostroboscopy. During follow-up laryngoscopies, the agent with the lowest mean visual analogue scale score for discomfort was then used to study the timing of topical anaesthetic application: the agent was given to the patient 5, 10 or 15 minutes before laryngoscopy (with the timing randomly selected).
Compared with lidocaine gel or tetracaine gel, laryngoscopy with topical tetracaine solution was more comfortable. There was a statistically significant difference in discomfort score between the 5 and 10 minute application groups, but not between the 10 and 15 minute groups.
This study examined whether participation in a variety of lifestyle activities was comparable to frequent participation in cognitively challenging activities in mitigating impairments in cognitive abilities susceptible to aging in healthy, community-dwelling older women. Frequencies of participation in various lifestyle activities on the Lifestyle Activities Questionnaire (LAQ) were divided according to high (e.g., reading), moderate (e.g., discussing politics), and low (e.g., watching television) cognitive demand. We also considered the utility of participation in a variety of lifestyle activities regardless of cognitive challenge. Immediate and delayed verbal recall, psychomotor speed, and executive function were each measured at baseline and at five successive exams, spanning a 9.5-year interval. Greater variety of participation in activities, regardless of cognitive challenge, was associated with an 8 to 11% reduction in the risk of impairment in verbal memory and global cognitive outcomes. Participation in a variety of lifestyle activities was more predictive than frequency or level of cognitive challenge for significant reductions in risk of incident impairment on measures sensitive to cognitive aging and risk for dementia. Our findings offer new perspectives in promoting a diverse repertoire of activities to mitigate age-related cognitive declines. (JINS, 2012, 18, 286–294)
In order to investigate the dynamics of Septin4 (Sept4) expression and its function in the formation of fibrotic livers in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum, we constructed the mouse model of S. japonicum egg-induced liver fibrosis for 24 weeks. Immunohistochemical staining, qRT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of Sept4 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). We found Sept4 localized in the perisinusoidal space where hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) distribute in the periphery of circumoval granulomas and the portal venule. The expression of Sept4 and α-SMA had a similar significant tendency of an up-regulation to a peak at 12 weeks post-infection (p.i.) followed by a down-regulation. At 24 weeks p.i. both were at a low level. These results suggest that Sept4 and α-SMA may interact together in HSCs. Based on this evidence, we hypothesize that Sept4 seems to be involved in the formation of inflammatory granulomata and subsequent liver fibrosis by regulating HSCs activation.
Rapid growth of single-layer graphene using laser-induced chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) with a visible CW laser (λ = 532 nm) irradiation at room temperature was investigated. In this study, an optically-pumped solid-state laser with a wavelength of 532 nm irradiates a thin nickel foil to induce a local temperature rise, thereby allowing the direct writing of graphene patterns about ~10 μm in width with high growth rate on precisely controlled positions. It is demonstrated that the fabrication of graphene patterns can be achieved with a single scan for each graphene pattern using LCVD with no annealing or preprocessing of the substrate. The scan speed reaches to about ~50 um/s, which indicates that the graphene pattern with 1:1 aspect ratio (x:y) can be grown in 0.2 sec. The patterned graphene on nickel was transferred to SiO2/Si substrate for fabrication of electrical circuits and sensor devices.
Saunders's Gull Larus saundersi is a breeding endemic of Common Seepweed Suaeda glauca habitats on the east coast of China and south-west coast of South Korea. Much of this habitat has been lost and degraded due to human land use and expansion of the introduced Smooth Cordgrass Spartina alterniflora. Yancheng National Nature Reserve (NNR) is one of three breeding and wintering areas in China. We used satellite images from 1992 to 2007 and visual interpretation combined with ground truthing to classify the land cover and quantify changes in land use and land cover (LULC) in areas of Yancheng NNR used by Saunders's Gull. The Common Seepweed habitat, in which this species nests, decreased in area by 79.1% (27,358 ha) over 15 years, predominantly as a result of conversion to aquaculture ponds (18,929 ha), and is now centred in the south-east of Yancheng NNR. The total population size of Saunders's Gull was maintained at over 900 individuals from 1999 to 2006 in Yancheng NNR, but was only 575 in 2007, and the number of breeding sites decreased from eight in 1992 and 1994 to a single site in 2000–2006 and two sites in 2007. From 1999 to 2007, the breeding population in the core area of Yancheng NNR accounted for 94.93% of the total population, and its nest-site spatial turnover rate was 0.84 ± 0.08 (n = 7 years), but it tended to decrease by about 40% in 2007 because of degradation of the Common Seepweed community. The conversion of Common Seepweed habitats to other habitat types and expansion of introduced Smooth Cordgrass were the major and direct reasons for the loss and degradation of breeding habitats of Saunders's Gull. Smooth Cordgrass habitats increased in area by 321.9% (11,057 ha) during this period and centred on the east, gradually occupying the mudflats, except the beach from Liangduo River to the south of Yancheng NNR, where potential breeding sites for the Saunders's Gull could be located. We discuss the implications of our results for the conservation this species and management of its habitats.
Neospora caninum infection is a significant cause of abortion in cattle. We investigated the tissue distribution of N. caninum in aborted bovine fetuses and dam blood samples by a nested PCR assay, and compared the nested PCR with ELISA in the diagnosis of N. caninum infection. In total, 26 aborted fetuses and 813 blood samples were collected from 8 dairy herds in Beijing (n=212) and Tianjin (n=601), China. Fifteen fetuses (57·7%) were tested N. caninum-positive by the nested PCR. N. caninum DNA was detected from the brain of 52%, kidneys of 22%, skeletal muscle of 18%, and heart of 4% of the aborted fetuses. The PCR-positive cases (55%, 11/20) were higher than seropositive cows (40%, 8/20) in a subset of 20 fetuses, but the PCR results of blood samples of the 20 cows were all negative. The seroprevalence of the 813 samples was 15·5% (43·4% of samples from Beijing, 5·7% of samples from Tianjin), compared to the PCR-positive blood samples of 0·9%. Our study showed that the nested PCR is a valuable diagnostic tool for the primary diagnosis of N. caninum in aborted fetuses, while ELISA is the preferred assay for testing blood samples collected from cows. The two assays are complementary in determining whether abortions are associated with N. caninum infection in cattle.