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Dust particles in an ice core from East Rongbuk Glacier on the northern slope of Qomolangma (Mount Everest; 28°01′ N, 86°58′ E; 6518 m a.s.l.), central Himalaya, have been identified as mica using a combination of scanning electron microscope-based techniques and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to identify the elements present, and electron backscatter diffraction to identify the crystal type. This technique for identifying individual crystalline dust particles in samples of glacial ice could be especially useful in the future for identifying water-soluble crystals in ice, for studying the strain history (glaciotectonics) of basal ice or in studies of ice–mica composites used as analogs of quartz-mica rocks.
We are developing practical methodologies to characterize pool sizes and residence times for fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) using radiocarbon, with a particular focus on SOM in New Zealand pasture soils that responds to global change on decadal timescales. As single mean residence times for the entire SOM pool can be misleading or uninterpretable, we focus on the use of samples collected about 7 and 40 yr after the bomb14C spike to separate SOM into at least 2 pools. These results from a box model methodology yield sensible estimates of the proportion of “passive” SOM, and the residence time of the dominant pool with approximately decadal residence times. These results are supported by chemical analysis. Approximately 45-yr residence times of light-fraction SOM in a relatively infertile soil contrast with ∼16-yr residence times in a more fertile soil, and correspond to large differences in the proportion of lignin- and polysaccharide-derived SOM in these soils measured using pyrolysis-GC/MS. To achieve greater detail and assess the degree to which “active” SOM with annual turnover rates may bias results from the simple model, we use density as a means of isolating SOM with different degrees of mineral association. Initial results from grazed pasture soils sampled in 2003–4 emphasize that isolating non-mineral-associated light fractions can improve understanding, but may be less important than identifying fractions associated with unique mineralogy. In this soil, a fraction with density ≥2.55 g/mL shows much larger proportions of passive SOM than other fractions.
A filamentary magnetic structure is produced on the plasma current sheath of a coaxial accelerator operated with deuterium. Space and time analysis of X-ray, neutron and visible-light emission indicates that the magnetic energy of the filaments is transferred to the plasma during a process of decay of the filaments. X-ray photographs show very localized regions (diameter <0.5 mm) of strong emission. Some of these regions are also located where the plasma is not subject to a maximum of compression. Similar bright spots (Hβ) are observed by 5 ns image converter photographs. The detailed analytical description of the self-consistent fields is deduced. The localized regions of strong emission may well correspond with the explosive onset of an instability at a point on a filament (single filament decay) or at a point where two filaments with opposite fields coalesce with magnetic field annihilation. The similarities with solar flares are considered.
The Committee appointed by the Council on the 20th January, 1852, to investigate the circumstances attending the recent discovery of a body in St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster, with power to have drawings made and with directions to report to the Society, beg to report, that, having obtained the necessary permission from Charles Barry, Esq., and secured the services of Mr. Scharf as draughtsman, they proceeded, on Friday the 23rd January, to the crypt under the Chapel of St. Stephen, Westminster, where the body in question had been discovered.
The intensity of X-ray sources in a focused deuterium plasma produced by a coaxial accelerator has been analysed as a function of position, X-ray energy and time of emission. The X-ray source in the axial region can be resolved (by micro- densitometer readings on X-ray pinhole camera films) as a sequence of small sources (linear dimension ∼ 0.1–0.3 mm) of hard radiation ≳ 2 ke V inside a more diffused source (cylindrical region of 1–4mm diameter) of softer X-rays. In each discharge the point sources are distributed for the most part in the general axial region of the discharge and two or more sources with different radial positions can be frequently observed for one specific value of the axial co-ordinate. Images of localized X-ray sources are also observed in the off-axis halo region. Multiple repinching of the axial plasma column or emission from metal-vapour clouds (by anode bombardment) can be ruled out in this experiment (hollow central electrode, or anode, radius 3·4 cm). The source multiplicity can be related to a complex (filamentary) structure of the plasma.
This article examines the ways in which debates on ecclesiology in the Church of England served as a venue for the examination of political precept. It argues in particular that polemical sources – whether sermons, pamphlets, or longer works – reveal that discussion of conformity, the nature of the church, and its doctrine and discipline led to a broader examination of law, sovereignty, parliament, and the political costs of religious discord. Underlying the dispute was a fundamental tension over civil and sacred authority, and the relationship between politics – the realm of human custom and history – and doctrine – the realm of the divine and immemorial. The article offers a number of revisions to current discussions of the history of political thought, while pointing to the importance of religious discourse for our understanding of the political tensions that existed in the years prior to the English civil war.
Immediately before and after the Hampton Court conference, English Protestants debated how the Church should be ordered, and while conformists advanced the arguments discussed in the previous chapter, their opponents offered an alternative definition of the Church as a purely spiritual association, patterned on scripture and confirmed in the writings of approved Fathers of the Church. It was this proposition that led them, in turn, to attack the programme of clerical subscription that followed Hampton Court. Subscription, the argument ran, was a political means to enforce a spiritual end; it was a policy of human devising, carried out by bishops whose offices themselves had no scriptural warrant; the imperative of civil order was being promoted at the cost of the purity of doctrine, and this moved the Church away from its proper form. Against these claims, conformists advanced arguments that emphasised the freedom of the Church, under the Crown, to regulate governance, worship, doctrine, and discipline, and situated the case within Apostolic and common law interpretations of history. In short, the debate was a continuation of the theme, examined in the previous chapter, of the compatibility of the historical narratives that testified to the relationship between civil and ecclesiastical authority.
This chapter examines the tension between doctrinal and legal conceptions of the Church of England, and situates them within the larger question of the nature of authority over the Church.
The chief intellectual tension that underlay Jacobean ecclesiological debates is illustrated by disputes about the proper relationship between civil and ecclesiastical authority. These disputes stemmed from the decision – taken first under Henry VIII and subsequently refined under Elizabeth I – to define the Church of England as the Church authorised by Christ to continue His earthly ministry; this claim served as the basis for the proposition that since the Church of England was so authorised, it retained within itself power and discretion over matters of doctrine and discipline. This authority did not come solely from the Word, but also from statutes that established the Church. After this initial ‘founding’, conformists were obliged to make an articulate case for why a Church established in law could also agree with scripture and the practice of the Apostolic church. As later chapters will show, the retention of certain ceremonies and episcopal governance drew, from Protestant critics, arguments fleshed out with doctrinal or historical criticism, and designed to undermine the authority of the Church and its human governors. At the root of the debate was a difficult question: how could a church so evidently grounded in the realm of human creation, of culture and custom, also take part in the world of the divine creation, that is, the community of believers joined to Christ and one another in a spiritual association that was by its very nature free from the direction of human agents? This question absorbed contemporary defenders of the established Church and others interested in the development of a theory of ecclesiastical polity.
Thus far, the debates that this study has surveyed have been confined to the polemical world of English Protestantism. The present chapter expands this purview to an examination of tensions within ‘British’ Protestant thought, for common to the debates surveyed thus far has been the sporadic contribution of Scottish writers, against whom some of the principal conformist works were directed. It is to be remembered that James was King of Scotland before he became King of England, and so when he arrived in London in 1603 he also assumed jurisdiction over the Church of England, while retaining jurisdiction over the Kirk. The problem (as the foregoing sentence suggests) was an extremely complex one, and has yet to receive the attention it deserves. One perspective that may prove useful for our understanding of the complexity of ‘British’ ecclesiology is that of doctrinal dispute. For as we have seen at some length, the Church of England proclaimed itself to be the one ‘true’ church, both ancient and reformed. However, an examination of polemical debates reveals that the Kirk also claimed to exemplify the ‘best reformed’ church and, crucially, a national Church. The contemporary literature in which these questions were explored illustrates tensions within two of the three kingdoms from the point of view of ecclesiology: either the Kirk would remain sovereign over itself, or it would be comprehended by the jurisdiction of Canterbury.
As was the case with episcopacy, the evidence of scripture and the history of the early church were central to both defences and criticisms of ceremonial practice. Conformists sought to differentiate between the ceremonies of the English Church and the ceremonies described in scripture and the history of early Christianity. In addition to arguing that there was no necessary link between the two, they suggested that the Church held the power to establish ceremonial practices it deemed edifying, but yet were adiaphora. These arguments defined a church based partly in scripture and partly on ‘custom’ and the example of history; the Church was partly spiritual and partly temporal, and in its temporal aspect it could be shaped by the design of human agents. Reformists promoted a view of an institution derived from scripture and emulating it perfectly in all forms of rites and governance – a spiritual association. Hence, they stressed the perfection of the ‘first institution’ – the church established by Christ and handed to the Apostles. Writers like Henry Ainsworth condemned their opponents for reproaching ‘the faith and witnesses’ of the true church, and sought reform governed by its example. They maintained that the ceremonial practice of the English Church should be based on that described in scripture, and confirmed by the practice of the Apostolic church. Clearly, then, the reformist stance on ceremonial practice was rooted in a firm sense of historical understanding.