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Kochia is one of the most problematic weeds in the United States. Field studies were conducted in five states (Wyoming, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota) over 2 yr (2010 and 2011) to evaluate kochia control with selected herbicides registered in five common crop scenarios: winter wheat, fallow, corn, soybean, and sugar beet to provide insight for diversifying kochia management in crop rotations. Kochia control varied by experimental site such that more variation in kochia control and biomass production was explained by experimental site than herbicide choice within a crop. Kochia control with herbicides currently labeled for use in sugar beet averaged 32% across locations. Kochia control was greatest and most consistent from corn herbicide programs (99%), followed by soybean (96%) and fallow (97%) herbicide programs. Kochia control from wheat herbicide programs was 93%. With respect to the availability of effective herbicide options, glyphosate-resistant kochia control was easiest in corn, soybean, and fallow, followed by wheat; and difficult to manage with herbicides in sugar beet.
The National Academies of Sciences (NAS) emphasize the need for interdisciplinary team science (TS) training, but few training resources are available. COALESCE, an open-access tool developed with National Institutes of Health support and located at teamscience.net, is considered a gold standard resource but has not previously been evaluated. COALESCE launched four learning modules in 2011. The Science of TS (SciTS) module, an interactive encyclopedia, introduces foundational concepts. Three scenario-based modules simulate TS challenges in behavioral, clinical, and basic biomedical sciences. This study examined user characteristics, usage patterns, and effects of completing the four modules on TS knowledge, attitudes, and skills.
Repeated measures ANOVA tested for pre-post changes in performance and compared learning by users with biomedical versus other disciplinary backgrounds.
From 2011 through 2017, the site attracted 16,280 new users who engaged in 6461 sessions that lasted more than 1 min. The modal registrant identified as working in a biomedical field (47%), in an academic institution (72%), and expressed greater interest in the practice than the SciTS (67%). Those completing pre- and post-tests (n = 989) showed significant improvement in knowledge, attitudes, and skills after taking all scenario-based modules (p < 0.005); knowledge and attitudes were unchanged after the SciTS encyclopedia. Biomedical and other health professionals improved comparably.
Evaluation of the TS training tool at teamscience.net indicates broad dissemination and positive TS-related outcomes. Site upgrades implemented between 2018 and 2020, including adding five new modules, are expected to increase the robustness and accessibility of the COALESCE training resource.
Dicamba-resistant (DR) kochia is an increasing concern for growers in the US Great Plains, including Kansas. Greenhouse and field experiments (Garden City and Tribune, KS, in the 2014 to 2015 growing season) were conducted to characterize the dicamba resistance levels in two recently evolved DR kochia accessions collected from fallow fields (wheat–sorghum–fallow rotation) near Hays, KS, and to determine the effectiveness of various PRE herbicide tank mixtures applied in fall or spring prior to the fallow year. Dicamba dose–response studies indicated that the KS-110 and KS-113 accessions had 5- to 8-fold resistance to dicamba, respectively, relative to a dicamba-susceptible (DS) accession. In separate field studies, atrazine-based PRE herbicide tank mixtures, dicamba + pendimethalin + sulfentrazone, and metribuzin + sulfentrazone when applied in the spring had excellent kochia control (85% to 95%) for 3 to 4 mo at the Garden City and Tribune sites. In contrast, kochia control with those PRE herbicide tank mixtures when applied in the fall did not exceed 79% at the later evaluation dates. In conclusion, the tested kochia accessions from western Kansas had evolved moderate to high levels of resistance to dicamba. Growers should utilize these effective PRE herbicide tank mixtures (multiple sites of action) in early spring to manage kochia seed bank during the summer fallow phase of this 3-yr crop rotation (wheat–corn/sorghum–fallow) in the Central Great Plains.
We test the antiquity of a dietary life history model on Tutuila, American Samoa. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in serial, age-adjusted samples of first and third molars reveal isotopic biographies of 16 individuals from five late Holocene (200–1100 RCYBP) sites. Combining this with bone collagen from a larger sample of individuals, we document a patterned dietary life history on the island. Between ages zero and two years, infants show elevated δ15N values, consistent with a diet rich in breast milk. In early childhood (two–10 years), individuals shift to a diet with higher δ13C values, suggesting greater marine protein intake. Around age 10 years, males shift to a more terrestrially focused diet, while females retain a higher marine signature. After ~20 years of age, males and females are more similar in diet, with a greater contribution from terrestrial resources. We argue that these shifts reflect diet-marked social transitions in life histories, especially social status and eating order within households, as predicted from the ethnographic model. When contextualized with other archaeological data, such as mortuary patterns and social organization, the isotopic biographic approach facilitates examination of diet-linked social transitions of individuals as they aged within ancient societies.
Evolution and rapid spread of herbicide-resistant (HR) kochia has become a significant challenge for growers in the U.S. Great Plains. The main objectives of this research were to confirm and characterize the response of putative auxinic HR (Aux-HR) kochia accessions (designated as KS-4A, KS-4D, KS-4H, KS-10A, KS-10-G, and KS-10H) collected from two different corn fields near Garden City, KS, to dicamba and fluroxypyr and to determine the EPSPS gene copy number to detect whether those accessions were also resistant to glyphosate. Single-dose experiments indicated that putative Aux-HR kochia accessions had 78% to 100% and 85% to 100% survivors when treated with dicamba (560 g ae ha−1) and fluroxypyr (235 g ae ha−1), respectively. Whole-plant dicamba dose–response studies revealed that the selected Aux-HR accessions had 2.9- to 15.1- and 3.1- to 9.4-fold resistance to dicamba relative to two susceptible accessions (MT-SUS and KS-SUS). In a separate fluroxypyr dose–response experiment, the selected Aux-HR accessions also exhibited 3.8- to 7.3- and 3.0- to 8.6-fold resistance to fluroxypyr on the basis of shoot fresh and dry weight responses, respectively. The confirmed Aux-HR kochia accessions also had 3 to 13 EPSPS gene copies relative to MT-SUS and KS-SUS accessions (each with 1 EPSPS gene copy). These results suggest that the putative Aux-HR kochia accessions from Kansas had developed moderate to high levels of cross-resistance to dicamba and fluroxypyr and low to high levels of resistance to glyphosate. This is the first confirmation of kochia accessions with cross-resistance to dicamba and fluroxypyr in Kansas. Growers should use diverse kochia control programs, including the proper use of dicamba and fluroxypyr stewardship, use of cover crops, occasional tillage, diversified crop rotations, and alternative effective herbicides to prevent further evolution and spread of Aux-HR kochia on their fields.
Flexible piezoelectric generators (PEGs) present a unique opportunity for renewable and sustainable energy harvesting. Here, we present a low-temperature and low-energy deposition method using solvent evaporation-assisted three-dimensional printing to deposit electroactive poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-trifluoroethylene (TrFE) up to 19 structured layers. Visible-wavelength transmittance was above 92%, while ATR-FTIR spectroscopy showed little change in the electroactive phase fraction between layer depositions. Electroactivity from the fabricated PVDF-TrFE PEGs showed that a single structured layer gave the greatest output at 289.3 mV peak-to-peak voltage. This was proposed to be due to shear-induced polarization affording the alignment of the fluoropolymer dipoles without an electric field or high temperature.
Since US President Donald J. Trump took office in January 2017, the future of the global economy has looked distinctly uncertain. This is not because a process of clear and purposeful change can be said to be underway. Instead, it is because of a pattern of piecemeal, inconsistent and contradictory fragments of policy, both domestic and international in orientation, in the arenas of trade, taxation, business relations, finance and banking, social and welfare provision, immigration, and environmental protection, whose cumulative significance remains unclear. The modest task of this essay is therefore to sketch the contours, patterns, inconsistencies and confusions presented by the Trump administration's approach to shaping the US economy and, by extension, the global economic order, and on that basis to offer an interpretation of its emerging implications for inequality both within the United States and across the world.
This chapter explores whether and how genomic resources can be protected by the communities from, or countries in which they are accessed. Specifically, it asks whether the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-Sharing can be an effective mechanism to reassure communities about the sharing of gene sequencing data. These questions are of particular importance to Indigenous peoples and local communities, as many have troubling historical experiences with colonization and associated natural resource exploitation. Many Indigenous and local communities (ILCs) live in developing countries, which are particularly sensitive to access and benefit-sharing (ABS) issues. Different but equally serious challenges exist for Indigenous peoples in developed countries like Canada, Australia, New Zealand and elsewhere. Until outcomes of implementation of the Nagoya Protocol are captured, Indigenous peoples and Local Communities (IPLCs) remain in a quandary as to how to protect digitized genetic resources within their territories or under their jurisdiction. To advance our understanding of legal and regulatory options, this chapter integrates normative and positive perspectives on the mechanisms for access and benefit-sharing in the age of digital biology.
Kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A. J. Scott] is one of the most troublesome weeds throughout the North American Great Plains. Herbicides such as glyphosate and dicamba have been used widely to control B. scoparia for decades. However, many B. scoparia populations have evolved resistance to these herbicides due to selection. Especially, dicamba-resistant B. scoparia populations are often also found to be glyphosate-resistant. The objective of this research was to determine whether these two herbicide resistances are linked in B. scoparia. Reciprocal crosses were performed between glyphosate- and dicamba-resistant (GDR) and glyphosate- and dicamba-susceptible (GDS) B. scoparia to produce F1 and F2 progeny. Two F1 and seven F2 progeny families were screened with various doses of dicamba or glyphosate. All the F1 progeny survived both dicamba and glyphosate treatments. Chi-square analyses of F2 progeny suggest (1) glyphosate and dicamba resistances in B. scoparia are inherited via single, dominant nuclear genes; and (2) glyphosate- and dicamba-resistant genes are not linked. Thus, the dicamba and glyphosate resistances appear to have evolved independently due to intense selection but do not seem to spread together.
Kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A. J. Scott] is a problematic annual broadleaf weed species in the North American Great Plains. Bassia scoparia inherits unique biological characteristics that contribute to its propensity to evolve herbicide resistance. Evolution of glyphosate resistance in B. scoparia has become a serious threat to the major cropping systems and soil conservation practices in the region. Bassia scoparia populations with resistance to four different herbicide sites of action are a concern for growers. The widespread occurrence of multiple herbicide–resistant (HR) B. scoparia across the North American Great Plains has renewed research efforts to devise integrated weed management strategies beyond herbicide use. In this review, we aim to compile and document the growing body of literature on HR B. scoparia with emphasis on herbicide-resistance evolutionary dynamics, distribution, mechanisms of evolved resistance, agronomic impacts, and current/future weed management technologies. We focused on ecologically based, non-herbicidal strategies such as diverse crop rotations comprising winter cereals and perennial forages, enhanced crop competition, cover crops, harvest weed seed control (HWSC), and tillage to manage HR B. scoparia seedbanks. Remote sensing using hyperspectral imaging and other sensor-based technologies would be valuable for early detection and rapid response and site-specific herbicide resistance management. We propose research priorities based on an improved understanding of the biology, genetic diversity, and plasticity of this weed that will aid in preserving existing herbicide resources and designing sustainable, integrated HR B. scoparia mitigation plans.
Phosphorus is present in diets as naturally occurring P from raw materials or added as an inorganic salt. However, little is known about postprandial kinetics of P absorption in cats. Here, we describe several studies quantifying postprandial kinetics following the ingestion of diets of varying composition. Briefly, cats were fed a meal consisting of 50 % of their metabolic energy requirement in a randomised crossover design. A pre-meal baseline blood sample was taken via cephalic catheter and repeated measurements taken regularly up to 6 h post-meal to assess the whole blood ionised Ca, plasma P and parathyroid hormone concentrations. A diet containing 4·8 g total P/4184 kJ (1000 kcal), 3·5 g P from sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) and Ca:P 0·6 caused a marked increase in plasma P from baseline to a peak of 1·976 (95% CI 1·724, 2·266) mmol/l (P <0·001), whereas a diet containing 3·38 g total P/4184 kJ (1000 kcal), no added inorganic P and Ca:P 1·55 resulted in a postprandial decrease in plasma P (P = 0·008). Subsequent data indicate that added inorganic P salts in the diet above 0·5 g P/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) cause an increase in plasma P in cats, while diets below this do not. The data presented here demonstrate that sources of added inorganic P salts cause a temporary postprandial increase in plasma P in a dose-dependent manner, prolonged in diets with Ca:P <1·0. Dietary P derived from natural food ingredients (e.g. meat or vegetable matter) does not appear to have any effect on postprandial plasma P.
Trauma exposure is associated with development of depression and anxiety; yet, some individuals are resilient to these trauma-associated effects. Differentiating mechanisms underlying development of negative affect and resilience following trauma is critical for developing effective interventions. One pathway through which trauma could exert its effects on negative affect is reward-learning networks. In this study, we examined relationships among lifetime trauma, reward-learning network function, and emotional states in young adults.
One hundred eleven young adults self-reported trauma and emotional states and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a monetary reward task. Trauma-associated neural activation and functional connectivity were analyzed during reward prediction error (RPE). Relationships between trauma-associated neural functioning and affective and anxiety symptoms were examined.
Number of traumatic events was associated with greater ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) activation, and lower vACC connectivity with the right insula, frontopolar, inferior parietal, and temporoparietal regions, during RPE. Lower trauma-associated vACC connectivity with frontoparietal regions implicated in regulatory and decision-making processes was associated with heightened affective and anxiety symptoms; lower vACC connectivity with insular regions implicated in interoception was associated with lower affective and anxiety symptoms.
In a young adult sample, two pathways linked the impact of trauma on reward-learning networks with higher v. lower negative affective and anxiety symptoms. The disconnection between vACC and regions implicated in decision-making and self-referential processes may reflect aberrant regulatory but appropriate self-focused mechanisms, respectively, conferring risk for v. resilience against negative affective and anxiety symptoms.
Indigenous women and children experience some of the most profound health disparities globally. These disparities are grounded in historical and contemporary trauma secondary to colonial atrocities perpetuated by settler society. The health disparities that exist for chronic diseases may have their origins in early-life exposures that Indigenous women and children face. Mechanistically, there is evidence that these adverse exposures epigenetically modify genes associated with cardiometabolic disease risk. Interventions designed to support a resilient pregnancy and first 1000 days of life should abrogate disparities in early-life socioeconomic status. Breastfeeding, prenatal care and early child education are key targets for governments and health care providers to start addressing current health disparities in cardiometabolic diseases among Indigenous youth. Programmes grounded in cultural safety and co-developed with communities have successfully reduced health disparities. More works of this kind are needed to reduce inequities in cardiometabolic diseases among Indigenous women and children worldwide.
Dicamba-resistant (DR) kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A. J. Scott] has been reported in six U.S. states and one Canadian province. To develop effective B. scoparia control tactics, it is necessary to understand the seed germination pattern of DR B. scoparia. The objective of this study was to compare the germination characteristics of DR versus dicamba-susceptible (DS) B. scoparia populations from Montana and Kansas under constant (5 to 35 C) and/or alternating temperatures (5/10 to 30/35 C). DR B. scoparia lines from Montana were generated after three generations of recurrent selection of field-collected populations with dicamba. Seeds of DR or DS lines from Kansas were obtained after one generation of restricted self-pollination. DR B. scoparia lines from both Montana and Kansas had a lower maximum cumulative germination than the DS lines across all temperature treatments. A majority of DR B. scoparia lines from Montana showed a temperature-mediated seed germination response, with a higher thermal requirement (30 to 35 C or 25/30 to 30/35 C) to attain the maximum cumulative germination compared with DS lines. Germination rates at 5 to 30 C were lower for DR versus DS B. scoparia lines from Kansas. All DR lines from Montana took more time than DS lines to initiate germination at 5 and 10 C or 5/10 and 20/25 C. Similarly, there was a delayed onset of germination of the DR versus DS line from Kansas at 5, 10, 15, and 20 C. Furthermore, the DR B. scoparia from both Kansas and Montana had a slower germination pattern relative to the DS B. scoparia. Diversified crop rotations using winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), fall-sown cover crops, or early-spring planted crops (e.g., wheat or barley [Hordeum vulgare L.]) that are competitive against late-emerging B. scoparia in conjunction with strategic tillage and late-season weed control tactics should be used to facilitate depletion of DR B. scoparia seedbanks.
Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been used to study the defect levels in thin film copper indium diselenide (CuInSe2, CIS) which we are developing as the absorber layer for the bottom cell of a monolithically grown perovskite/CuInSe2 tandem solar cell. Temperature and laser power dependent PL measurements of thin film CIS for two different Cu/In ratios (0.66 and 0.80) have been performed. The CIS film with Cu/In = 0.80 shows a prominent donor-to-acceptor peak (DAP) involving a shallow acceptor of binding energy ∼22 meV, with phonon replica at ∼32 meV spacing. In contrast, PL measurement of CIS film for Cu/In = 0.66 taken at 20 K exhibited an asymmetric and broad PL spectrum with peaks at 0.845 eV and 0.787 eV. Laser intensity dependent PL revealed that the observed peaks 0.845 eV and 0.787 eV shift towards higher energy (aka j-shift) at ∼11.7 meV/decade and ∼ 8 meV/decade with increase in laser intensity respectively. The asymmetric and broad spectrum together with large j-shift suggests that the observed peaks at 0.845 eV and 0.787 eV were related to band-to-tail (BT) and band-to-impurity (BI) transition, respectively. Such a band-tail-related transition originates from the potential fluctuation of defect states at low temperature. The appearance of band related transition in CIS film with Cu/In = 0.66 is the indicator of the presence of large number of charged defect states.
Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.