To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To examine the quantitative relationship between sugar intake and the progressive development of dental caries.
A critical in-depth review of international studies was conducted. Methods included reassessing relevant studies from the most recent systematic review on the relationship between levels of sugars and dental caries. Reanalysis of dose–response relationships between dietary sugars and caries incidence in teeth with different levels of caries susceptibility in children was done using data from Japanese studies conducted by Takeuchi and co-workers.
Global, with emphasis on marked differences in both national sugar intake and fluoride use and preferably where one factor such as sugar intake changed progressively without changes in other factors over a decade or more.
Children aged 6 years or more and adults.
Caries occurred in both resistant and susceptible teeth of children when sugar intakes were only 2–3 % of energy intake, provided that the teeth had been exposed to sugars for >3 years. Despite increased enamel resistance after tooth eruption, there was a progressive linear increase in caries throughout life, explaining the higher rates of caries in adults than in children. Fluoride affects progression of caries development but there still is a pandemic prevalence of caries in populations worldwide.
Previous analyses based on children have misled public health analyses on sugars. The recommendation that sugar intakes should be ≤10 % of energy intake is no longer acceptable. The much greater adult burden of dental caries highlights the need for very low sugar intakes throughout life, e.g. 2–3 % of energy intake, whether or not fluoride intake is optimum.
The syntheses of the first single-source precursors to gold-colored titanium nitride films are reported. The precursors have the empirical formula [TiCl2(NHR)2(NH2R)0–2] and [TiCl4(NH3)2] and are obtained upon treatment of titanium tetrachloride with alkylamines or ammonia in nonpolar organic solvents. Both precursors sublime without decomposition between 80–120 °C and 0.01–0.1 mmHg. Deposition of titanium nitride films on glass and silicon substrates was achieved using either precursor at substrate temperatures of 475–600 °C. The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, resistivity measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In particular, low levels of carbon and chlorine contaminants were observed in the films.
To establish the school eating habits of Mexican children, who are prone to obesity and later to high rates of adult chronic diseases.
Questionnaires for students and parents with staff questionnaires and interviews.
Randomly sampled schools in a socio-economically representative district of Mexico City.
Subjects were 1504 adolescents aged 10–19 years attending schools in Mexico City, 27 teachers and seven headmasters, sampled from both public and private schools and from the full range of socio-economic groups.
Foods brought from home were of a higher nutritional quality than those purchased at school, where purchases were dominated by crisps, soft drinks and other items with high energy density. Girls were more inclined to purchase inappropriately; those from poorer homes purchased less. Private-school students irrespective of socio-economic grade brought more food from home and purchased more expensive food at school. School policies allowed food and drink vendors to market any products within the schools, which benefited financially from these activities.
Current school food policies are conducive to amplifying the current epidemic of obesity and related adult chronic diseases, and need to change.