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Psychiatric disorders, including eating disorders (EDs), have clinical outcomes that range widely in severity and chronicity. The ability to predict such outcomes is extremely limited. Machine-learning (ML) approaches that model complexity may optimize the prediction of multifaceted psychiatric behaviors. However, the investigations of many psychiatric concerns have not capitalized on ML to improve prognosis. This study conducted the first comparison of an ML approach (elastic net regularized logistic regression) to traditional regression to longitudinally predict ED outcomes.
Females with heterogeneous ED diagnoses completed demographic and psychiatric assessments at baseline (n = 415) and Year 1 (n = 320) and 2 (n = 277) follow-ups. Elastic net and traditional logistic regression models comprising the same baseline variables were compared in ability to longitudinally predict ED diagnosis, binge eating, compensatory behavior, and underweight BMI at Years 1 and 2.
Elastic net models had higher accuracy for all outcomes at Years 1 and 2 [average Area Under the Receiving Operating Characteristics Curve (AUC) = 0.78] compared to logistic regression (average AUC = 0.67). Model performance did not deteriorate when the most important predictor was removed or an alternative ML algorithm (random forests) was applied. Baseline ED (e.g. diagnosis), psychiatric (e.g. hospitalization), and demographic (e.g. ethnicity) characteristics emerged as important predictors in exploratory predictor importance analyses.
ML algorithms can enhance the prediction of ED symptoms for 2 years and may identify important risk markers. The superior accuracy of ML for predicting complex outcomes suggests that these approaches may ultimately aid in advancing precision medicine for serious psychiatric disorders.
Germ plasm, a cytoplasmic factor of germline cell differentiation, is suggested to be a perspective tool for in vitro meiotic differentiation. To discriminate between the: (1) germ plasm-related structures (GPRS) involved in meiosis triggering; and (2) GPRS involved in the germ plasm storage phase, we investigated gametogenesis in the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma. The GPRS of the mitosis-to-meiosis period are similar in males and females. In both sexes, five events typically occur: (1) turning of the primary Vasa-positive germ plasm granules into the Vasa-positive intermitochondrial cement (IMC); (2) aggregation of some mitochondria by IMC followed by arising of mitochondrial clusters; (3) intramitochondrial localization of IMC-originated Vasa; followed by (4) mitochondrial cluster degradation; and (5) intranuclear localization of Vasa followed by this protein entering the nuclei (gonial cells) and synaptonemal complexes (zygotene–pachytene meiotic cells). In post-zygotene/pachytene gametogenesis, the GPRS are sex specific; the Vasa-positive chromatoid bodies are found during spermatogenesis, but oogenesis is characterized by secondary arising of Vasa-positive germ plasm granules followed by secondary formation and degradation of mitochondrial clusters. A complex type of germ plasm generation, ‘the follicle cell assigned germ plasm formation’, was found in late oogenesis. The mechanisms discovered are recommended to be taken into account for possible reconstruction of those under in vitro conditions.
This special issue considers the relationship of the life sciences to both public policy and public administration. This makes sense because the bureaucratic process and public administration are deeply involved in the policy process and the development of substantive public policy. The two subjects are intertwined. And a biological perspective can illuminate many aspects of both. That is the focus of this issue.
Although behavior therapy reduces tic severity, it is unknown whether it improves co-occurring psychiatric symptoms and functional outcomes for adults with Tourette's disorder (TD). This information is essential for effective treatment planning. This study examined the effects of behavior therapy on psychiatric symptoms and functional outcomes in older adolescents and adults with TD.
A total of 122 individuals with TD or a chronic tic disorder participated in a clinical trial comparing behavior therapy to psychoeducation and supportive therapy. At baseline, posttreatment, and follow-up visits, participants completed assessments of tic severity, co-occurring symptoms (inattention, impulsiveness, hyperactivity, anger, anxiety, depression, obsessions, and compulsions), and psychosocial functioning. We compared changes in tic severity, psychiatric symptoms, and functional outcomes using repeated measure and one-way analysis of variance.
At posttreatment, participants receiving behavior therapy reported greater reductions in obsessions compared to participants in supportive therapy (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.04, p = 0.04). Across treatments, a positive treatment response on the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement scale was associated with a reduced disruption in family life (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.05, p = 0.02) and improved functioning in a parental role (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.37, p = 0.02). Participants who responded positively to eight sessions of behavior therapy had an improvement in tic severity (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.75, p < 0.001), inattention (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.48, p < 0.02), and functioning (
$\eta _p^2 $
= 0.39–0.42, p < 0.03–0.04) at the 6-month follow-up.
Behavior therapy has a therapeutic benefit for co-occurring obsessive symptoms in the short-term, and reduces tic severity and disability in adults with TD over time. Additional treatments may be necessary to address co-occurring symptoms and improve functional outcomes.
Technological advancements in medical devices developed for adults far outpace the development of technologies designed for pediatric patients in the USA and other countries. This technology lag was previously reflected in a lack of pediatric-specific innovation within our academic institution. To address the institutional deficit of device innovation around pediatric patients, we formed unique partnerships both within our university and extending to the medical device industry, and developed novel programmatic approaches. The Pediatric Device Innovation Consortium (PDIC) bridges the medical device community and the University of Minnesota. Since 2014, the PDIC has supported 22 pediatric medical technology innovation projects, provided funds totaling more than $500,000, licensed two technologies, and advanced two technologies to patient use. Here, we describe the PDIC model and method, the PDIC approach to common challenges that arise in the development of small-market medical technologies at an academic institution, and iterations to our collaborative, multidisciplinary approach that have matured throughout our experience. The PDIC model continues to evolve to reflect the special needs of innovation for smaller markets and the unique role of clinician innovators. Our approach serves as a successful model for other institutions interested in creating support mechanisms for pediatric or small-market technology development.
The development of laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) over the past several years has led to an interest in very compact sources of X-ray radiation – such as “table-top” free electron lasers. However, the use of conventional undulators using permanent magnets also implies system sizes which are large. In this work, we assess the possibilities for the use of novel mini-undulators in conjunction with a LWFA so that the dimensions of the undulator become comparable with the acceleration distances for LWFA experiments (i.e., centimeters). The use of a prototype undulator using laser machining of permanent magnets for this application is described and the emission characteristics and limitations of such a system are determined. Preliminary electron propagation and X-ray emission measurements are taken with a LWFA electron beam at the University of Michigan.
This study investigates relations of maternal N-3 and N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake during pregnancy with offspring body mass index (BMI), height z-score and metabolic risk (fasting glucose, C-peptide, leptin, lipid profile) during peripuberty (8–14 years) among 236 mother–child pairs in Mexico. We used food frequency questionnaire data to quantify trimester-specific intake of N-3 alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); N-6 linoleic acid and arachidonic acid (AA); and N-6:N-3 (AA:EPA+DHA), which accounts for the fact that the two PUFA families have opposing effects on physiology. Next, we used multivariable linear regression models that accounted for maternal education and parity, and child’s age, sex and pubertal status, to examine associations of PUFA intake with the offspring outcomes. In models where BMI z-score was the outcome, we also adjusted for height z-score. We found that higher second trimester intake of EPA, DHA and AA were associated with lower offspring BMI and height z-score. For example, each 1-s.d. increment in second trimester EPA intake corresponded with 0.25 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.47) z-scores lower BMI and 0.20 (0.05, 0.36) z-scores lower height. Accounting for height z-score in models where BMI z-score was the outcome attenuated estimates [e.g., EPA: −0.16 (−0.37, 0.05)], suggesting that this relationship was driven by slower linear growth rather than excess adiposity. Maternal PUFA intake was not associated with the offspring metabolic biomarkers. Our findings suggest that higher PUFA intake during mid-pregnancy is associated with lower attained height in offspring during peripuberty. Additional research is needed to elucidate mechanisms and to confirm findings in other populations.
The surface waters of the Southern Ocean play a key role in the global climate and carbon cycles by promoting growth of some of the world’s largest phytoplankton blooms. Several studies have emphasized the importance of glacial and sediment inputs of Fe that fuel the primary production of the Fe-limited Southern Ocean. Although the fertile surface waters along the shelf of the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) are influenced by large inputs of freshwater, this freshwater may take multiple pathways (e.g. calving, streams, groundwater discharge) with different degrees of water-rock interactions leading to variable Fe flux to coastal waters. During the summers of 2012–13 and 2013–14, seawater samples were collected along the WAP, near Anvers Island, to observe water column dynamics in nearshore and offshore waters. Tracers (223,224Ra, 222Rn, 18O, 2H) were used to evaluate the source and transport of water and nutrients in coastal fjords and across the shelf. Coastal waters are compared across two field seasons, with increased freshwater observed during 2014. Horizontal mixing rates of water masses along the WAP ranged from 110–3600 m2 s-1. These mixing rates suggest a rapid transport mechanism for moving meltwater offshore.
The foetal mammary gland is sensitive to maternal weight and nutrition during gestation, which could affect offspring milk production. It has previously been shown that ewes born to dams offered maintenance nutrition during pregnancy (day 21 to 140 of gestation) produced greater milk, lactose and CP yields in their first lactation when compared with ewes born to dams offered ad libitum nutrition. In addition, ewes born to heavier dams produced greater milk and lactose yields when compared with ewes born to lighter dams. The objective of this study was to analyse and compare the 5-year lactation performance of the previously mentioned ewes, born to heavy or light dams that were offered maintenance or ad libitum pregnancy nutrition. Ewes were milked once per week, for the first 6 weeks of their lactation, for 5 years. Using milk yield and composition data, accumulated yields were calculated over a 42-day period for each year for milk, milk fat, CP, true protein, casein and lactose using a Legendre orthogonal polynomial model. Over the 5-year period, ewes born to heavy dams produced greater average milk (P=0.04), lactose (P=0.01) and CP (P=0.04) yields than offspring born to light dams. In contrast, over the 5-year period dam nutrition during pregnancy did not affect average (P>0.05) offspring milk yields or composition, but did increase milk and lactose accumulated yield (P=0.03 and 0.01, respectively) in the first lactation. These results indicate that maternal gestational nutrition appears to only affect the first lactational performance of ewe offspring. Neither dam nutrition nor size affected grand-offspring live weight gain to, or live weight at weaning (P>0.05). Combined these data indicate that under the conditions of the present study, manipulating dam weight or nutrition in pregnancy can have some effects of offspring lactational performance, however, these effects are not large enough to alter grand-offspring growth to weaning. Therefore, such manipulations are not a viable management tool for farmers to influence lamb growth to weaning.
We conducted two studies to test the validity, reliability, feasibility and acceptability of using video chat technology to quantify dietary and pill-taking (i.e. supplement and medication) adherence. In study 1, we investigated whether video chat technology can accurately quantify adherence to dietary and pill-taking interventions. Mock study participants ate food items and swallowed pills, while performing randomised scripted ‘cheating’ behaviours to mimic non-adherence. Monitoring was conducted in a cross-over design, with two monitors watching in-person and two watching remotely by Skype on a smartphone. For study 2, a twenty-two-item online survey was sent to a listserv with more than 20 000 unique email addresses of past and present study participants to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the technology. For the dietary adherence tests, monitors detected 86 % of non-adherent events (sensitivity) in-person v. 78 % of events via video chat monitoring (P=0·12), with comparable inter-rater agreement (0·88 v. 0·85; P=0·62). However, for pill-taking, non-adherence trended towards being more easily detected in-person than by video chat (77 v. 60 %; P=0·08), with non-significantly higher inter-rater agreement (0·85 v. 0·69; P=0·21). Survey results from study 2 (n 1076 respondents; ≥5 % response rate) indicated that 86·4 % of study participants had video chatting hardware, 73·3 % were comfortable using the technology and 79·8 % were willing to use it for clinical research. Given the capability of video chat technology to reduce participant burden and outperform other adherence monitoring methods such as dietary self-report and pill counts, video chatting is a novel and promising platform to quantify dietary and pill-taking adherence.
Since its discovery and initial commercialization in the 1940s, 2,4-D has been an important tool for weed control in a wide variety of crop and noncrop uses. Work studying its chemistry, physiology, mode of action, toxicology, environmental behavior, and efficacy has not only helped elucidate the characteristics of 2,4-D but also provided basic methods that have been used to investigate the properties of hundreds of herbicides that followed it. Much of the information published by researchers over 60 yr ago is still pertinent to understanding the performance of 2,4-D today. Further, new studies continue to be published, especially regarding the mechanisms of 2,4-D action at the molecular level. New uses for 2,4-D, sometimes enabled by biotechnology, continue to be developed. This review strives to provide an overall understanding of 2,4-D activity in plants, plant sensitivity to 2,4-D, toxicological impacts, and current and future uses.
Experiments on the National Ignition Facility show that multi-dimensional effects currently dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a one-dimensional (1D) implosion platform where 1D means measured yield over the 1D clean calculation. A high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed using beryllium capsules enabling larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the implosion convergence can be controlled via the initial vapor pressure set by the target fielding temperature. The last method is double shell targets. For double shells, the smaller inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. However, double shell targets have a different set of trade-off versus advantages. Details for each of these approaches are described.
Waterhemp is an increasingly problematic weed in the U.S. Midwest, having now evolved resistances to herbicides from six different site-of-action groups. Glyphosate-resistant waterhemp in the Midwest is especially concerning given the economic importance of glyphosate in corn and soybean production. Amplification of the target-site gene, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) was found to be the mechanism of glyphosate resistance in Palmer amaranth, a species closely related to waterhemp. Here, the relationship between glyphosate resistance and EPSPS gene amplification in waterhemp was investigated. Glyphosate dose response studies were performed at field sites with glyphosate-resistant waterhemp in Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, and Nebraska, and relative EPSPS copy number of survivors was determined via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Waterhemp control increased with increasing glyphosate rate at all locations, but no population was completely controlled even at the highest rate (3,360 g ae ha−1). EPSPS gene amplification was present in plants from four of five locations (Illinois, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska) and the proportion of plants with elevated copy number was generally higher in survivors from glyphosate-treated plots than in plants from the untreated control plots. Copy number magnitude varied by site, but an overall trend of increasing copy number with increasing rate was observed in populations with gene amplification, suggesting that waterhemp plants with more EPSPS copies are more resistant. Survivors from the Kentucky population did not have elevated EPSPS copy number. Instead, resistance in this population was attributed to the EPSPS Pro106Ser mutation. Results herein show a quantitative relationship between glyphosate resistance and EPSPS gene amplification in some waterhemp populations, while highlighting that other mechanisms also confer glyphosate resistance in waterhemp.
Bacterial biofilms relieve themselves from external stresses through internal rearrangement, as mathematically modeled in many studies, but never microscopically visualized for their underlying microbiological processes. The aim of this study was to visualize rearrangement processes occurring in mechanically deformed biofilms using confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy after SYTO9 (green-fluorescent) and calcofluor-white (blue-fluorescent) staining to visualize bacteria and extracellular-polymeric matrix substances, respectively. We apply 20% uniaxial deformation to Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and fix deformed biofilms prior to staining, after allowing different time-periods for relaxation. Two isogenic P. aeruginosa strains with different abilities to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were used. By confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy all biofilms showed intensity distributions for fluorescence from which rearrangement of EPS and bacteria in deformed biofilms were derived. For the P. aeruginosa strain producing EPS, bacteria could not find new, stable positions within 100 s after deformation, while EPS moved toward deeper layers within 20 s. Bacterial rearrangement was not seen in P. aeruginosa biofilms deficient in production of EPS. Thus, EPS is required to stimulate bacterial rearrangement in mechanically deformed biofilms within the time-scale of our experiments, and the mere presence of water is insufficient to induce bacterial movement, likely due to its looser association with the bacteria.
Research reveals mixed results regarding the utility of standardized cognitive and academic tests to predict educational outcomes in youth following a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Yet, deficits in everyday school-based outcomes are prevalent after pediatric TBI. The current study used path modeling to test the hypothesis that parent ratings of adolescents’ daily behaviors associated with executive functioning (EF) would predict long-term functional educational outcomes following pediatric TBI, even when injury severity and patient demographics were included in the model. Furthermore, we contrasted the predictive strength of the EF behavioral ratings with that of a common measure of verbal memory. A total of 132 adolescents who were hospitalized for moderate to severe TBI were recruited to participate in a randomized clinical intervention trial. EF ratings and verbal memory were measured within 6 months of the injury; functional educational outcomes were measured 12 months later. EF ratings and verbal memory added to injury severity in predicting educational competence post injury but did not predict post-injury initiation of special education. The results demonstrated that measurement of EF behaviors is an important research and clinical tool for prediction of functional outcomes in pediatric TBI. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–9)
Kochia is a troublesome weed throughout the western United States. Although
glyphosate effectively controls kochia, poor control was observed in several
no-till fields in Kansas. The objectives of this research were to evaluate
kochia populations response to glyphosate and examine the mechanism that
causes differential response to glyphosate. Glyphosate was applied at 0, 54,
109, 218, 435, 870, 1305, 1740, 3480, and 5220 g ae ha−1 on 10
kochia populations. In general, kochia populations differed in their
response to glyphosate. At 21 d after treatment, injury from glyphosate
applied at 870 g ha−1 range from 4 to 91%. In addition,
glyphosate rate required to cause 50% visible injury (GR50)
ranged from 470 to 2149 g ha−1. Differences in glyphosate
absorption and translocation and kochia mineral content were not sufficient
to explain differential kochia response to glyphosate.
We have developed a 350 μm radiometer to perform automated site testing in remote regions of Antarctica. In summer 2000–2001 the instrument operated at Concordia, a new station under construction at Dome C on the Antarctic Plateau. We present the results, and compare them with the atmospheric opacity measured at the South Pole in the same five-week period. During these five weeks, observing conditions at Dome C were, on average, substantially better than those at the South Pole.