The incorporation of carbonate in the apatite causes a decrease in crystallite size as demonstrated in precipitated apatites prepared at 37°C. Carbonate disturbs the crystallization of the growing apatite crystallites to such an extent that materials with more than 15 wt% CO3 gives an ‘amorphous’ x-ray diffraction pattern. The incorporation of carbonate in precipitates prepared at 100°C. causes a shortening of the a-axis and a lengthening of the c-axis which is proportional to the carbonate content, supporting the concept that in these apatites, CO3 substitutes for PO4 (11). X-ray diffraction linebroadening studies of CO3-apatites precipitated at 100°C and electron micrographs show that the size and shape of the crystallites change from long needles to smaller rods to tiny spheroids, depending upon the amount of CO3. Carbonate causes the bonding in the apatite to become weaker and more isotropic, which results in the small spheroidal crystals.
This paper reports the effect of carbonate on lattice parameters and morphology of carbonate-apatites which have been prepared by the conversion of rnonetite, CaHPO4 in hot carbonate solutions. The structural effects of CO3 on the apatite is further reflected by the modification of the vibrations of the PO4 groups in the infrared absorption spectra. The morphology of ‘amorphous’ CO3- containing apatitic precipitates and that of CO3∼apatite with high CO3 content (prepared at 100°C) is similar, i.e., spheroidal in shape, but greatly differing in crystallite size.