To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
2K+ to K + K2+ and K to K3+ provide a reaction with a net
enthalpy equal to one and three times the potential energy of atomic
hydrogen, respectively. The presence of these gaseous ions or atoms with
thermally dissociated hydrogen formed a so-called resonance transfer
(rt)-plasma having strong VUV emission with a stationary inverted Lyman
population. Significant line broadening of the Balmer
lines of 18 eV was observed, compared to 3–4 eV from a
hydrogen microwave plasma. Emission from rt-plasmas occurred even when the
electric field applied to the plasma was zero. The reaction was exothermic
since excess power of 20 mW cm−3 was measured by Calvet
calorimetry. An energetic catalytic reaction was proposed involving a
resonant energy transfer between hydrogen atoms and 2K+ or K to form
very stable novel hydride ions H−(1/p) called hydrino hydrides having a
fractional principal quantum numbers p = 2 and p = 4, respectively.
Characteristic emission was observed from K2+ and K3+ that
confirmed the resonant nonradiative energy transfer of 27.2 eV and 3 × 27.2 eV from atomic hydrogen to 2K+ and K, respectively. The product
hydride ion H−(1/4) was observed spectroscopically at 110 nm
corresponding to its predicted binding energy of 11.2 eV. The 1H MAS
NMR spectrum of novel compound KH*Cl relative to external tetramethylsilane
(TMS) showed a large distinct upfield resonance at −4.4 corresponding to an
absolute resonance shift of −35.9 ppm that matched the theoretical
prediction of p = 4. A novel peak of KH*I at −1.5 ppm relative to TMS
corresponding to an absolute resonance shift of –33.0 ppm matched the
theoretical prediction of p = 2. The predicted catalyst reactions, position
of the upfield-shifted NMR peaks for H−(1/4) and H−(1/2), and
spectroscopic data for H−(1/4) were found to be in agreement with the
experimental observations as well as previously reported spectroscopic data
for H−(1/2) and analysis of KH*Cl and KH*I containing these hydride
We investigate the crystalline and electrical quality of thin layers epitaxially grown on polycrystalline substrates from metallic solution by the method of electron beam induced current, transmission electron microscopy and etching experiments. We observe a reduced recombination strength of dislocations and small angle grain boundaries, i.e. an improved electrical quality of the epitaxial layer compared to the substrate. The improved quality can be attributed (i) to an altered structure of grain boundaries and dislocations and (ii) to a reduced defect density in the epitaxial layer.
An in vitro feeding method using rabbit or cattle skin membranes, applied successfully to all stages (larvae, nymphae and adults) of the ixodid tick, Amblyomma variegatum, is described. The feeding apparatus consisted of a blood container with a membrane placed on top of a tick containment unit. A carbon dioxide atmosphere of between 5 and 10% and a temperature of 37 °C were used as stimulants for the attachment of the ticks. High CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere improved the feeding success of all instars. The effect of anticoagulation methods for the bloodmeal was investigated, and heparinized blood was found to be the most suitable for tick feeding. When the bloodmeal was replaced by tissue culture medium for feeding nymphs the subsequent moulting success was reduced. Adult ticks of both sexes remained attached for up to 16 days, until completion of their bloodmeals. All stages of the tick fed on whole blood in the artificial feeding system and all reached engorged weights less than those achieved by control ticks fed on experimental animals. A large proportion of ticks, fed artificially on whole blood, moulted or laid eggs successfully. The method was successfully applied for the transmission of Theileria mutans and Cowdria ruminantium to cattle.
The temporal and spatial arrival patterns of Ips plastographus maritimus and some of its important insect associates on freshly felled Pinus radiata within the native stands of California was studied. A total of 36 insect species was collected on sticky traps placed along tree boles for 85 days after felling. These species were placed in one of four chronological groups: (I) insects initially attacking the phloem–cambium region; (II) initial predators; (III) secondary xylophagous insects and secondary predators; (IV) parasites. Only four species showed distinct spatial arrival patterns along the tree bole.
One hundred and ten species of insects together with unidentified spiders and pseudoscorpions were collected in foliage samples of Pinus radiata taken from the three natural mainland populations and two planted populations in California. The diversity of the arthropod community in the crowns of P. radiata D.Don was low with 76% of the total number of individuals accounted for by five species groups and 88% by 11 species groups. Spiders were the most abundant species group, comprising 33% of the total number of individuals. The most abundant insect groups were Homoptera, Hemiptera and Coleoptera, respectively. The natural stands supported more species at higher population levels than the planted stands which supported only two species at very high population levels and the rest at low levels. The arthropod communities at the borders of the natural stands were more diverse than at the centers of the stands. The degree of similarity between the natural stands seemed to reflect their geographic distribution; Ano Nuevo and Monterey were most alike and the differences between Ano Nuevo and Cambria were greater than those between Monterey and Cambria. Differences in insect communities within and between the natural and planted stands are discussed in detail.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.