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Both childhood maltreatment and insecure attachment are known to be associated with depression in adulthood. The extent insecure attachment increases the risk of adult clinical depression over that of parental maltreatment among women in the general population is explored, using those at high risk because of their selection for parental maltreatment together with an unselected sample.
Semi-structured interviews and investigator-based measures are employed.
Insecure attachment is highly associated with parental maltreatment with both contributing to the risk of depression, with attachment making a substantial independent contribution. Risk of depression did not vary by type of insecure attachment, but the core pathways of the dismissive and enmeshed involved the whole life course in terms of greater experience of a mother's physical abuse and their own anger as an adult, with both related to adult depression being more often provoked by a severely threatening event involving humiliation rather than loss. By contrast, depression of the insecure fearful and withdrawn was more closely associated with both current low self-esteem and an inadequately supportive core relationship. In terms of depression taking a chronic course, insecure attachment was again a key risk factor, but with this now closely linked with the early experience of a chaotic life style but with this involving only a modest number of women.
Both insecure attachment and parental maltreatment contribute to an increased risk of depression with complex effects involving types of insecure attachment.
Although specific phobia is highly prevalent, associated with impairment, and an important risk factor for the development of other mental disorders, cross-national epidemiological data are scarce, especially from low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents epidemiological data from 22 low-, lower-middle-, upper-middle- and high-income countries.
Data came from 25 representative population-based surveys conducted in 22 countries (2001–2011) as part of the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys initiative (n = 124 902). The presence of specific phobia as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition was evaluated using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview.
The cross-national lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of specific phobia were, respectively, 7.4% and 5.5%, being higher in females (9.8 and 7.7%) than in males (4.9% and 3.3%) and higher in high- and higher-middle-income countries than in low-/lower-middle-income countries. The median age of onset was young (8 years). Of the 12-month patients, 18.7% reported severe role impairment (13.3–21.9% across income groups) and 23.1% reported any treatment (9.6–30.1% across income groups). Lifetime co-morbidity was observed in 60.5% of those with lifetime specific phobia, with the onset of specific phobia preceding the other disorder in most cases (72.6%). Interestingly, rates of impairment, treatment use and co-morbidity increased with the number of fear subtypes.
Specific phobia is common and associated with impairment in a considerable percentage of cases. Importantly, specific phobia often precedes the onset of other mental disorders, making it a possible early-life indicator of psychopathology vulnerability.
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
Healthcare provider hands are an important source of intraoperative bacterial transmission events associated with postoperative infection development.
To explore the efficacy of a novel hand hygiene improvement system leveraging provider proximity and individual and group performance feedback in reducing 30-day postoperative healthcare-associated infections via increased provider hourly hand decontamination events.
Randomized, prospective study.
Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center in New Hampshire and UMass Memorial Medical Center in Massachusetts.
Patients undergoing surgery.
Operating room environments were randomly assigned to usual intraoperative hand hygiene or to a personalized, body-worn hand hygiene system. Anesthesia and circulating nurse provider hourly hand decontamination events were continuously monitored and reported. All patients were followed prospectively for the development of 30-day postoperative healthcare-associated infections.
A total of 3,256 operating room environments and patients (1,620 control and 1,636 treatment) were enrolled. The mean (SD) provider hand decontamination event rate achieved was 4.3 (2.9) events per hour, an approximate 8-fold increase in hand decontamination events above that of conventional wall-mounted devices (0.57 events/hour); P<.001. Use of the hand hygiene system was not associated with a reduction in healthcare-associated infections (odds ratio, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.82–1.40], P=.626).
The hand hygiene system evaluated in this study increased the frequency of hand decontamination events without reducing 30-day postoperative healthcare-associated infections. Future work is indicated to optimize the efficacy of this hand hygiene improvement strategy.
In traditional transit timing variations (TTVs) analysis of multi-planetary systems, the individual TTVs are first derived from transit fitting and later modelled using n-body dynamic simulations to constrain planetary masses. We show that fitting simultaneously the transit light curves with the system dynamics (photo-dynamical model) increases the precision of the TTV measurements and helps constrain the system architecture. We exemplify the advantages of applying this photo-dynamical model to a multi-planetary system found in K2 data very close to 3:2 mean motion resonance, K2-19. In this case the period of the larger TTV variations (libration period) is much longer (>1.5 years) than the duration of the K2 observations (80 days). However, our method allows to detect the short period TTVs produced by the orbital conjunctions between the planets that in turn permits to uniquely characterise the system. Therefore, our method can be used to constrain the masses of near-resonant systems even when the full libration curve is not observed.
EMU is a wide-field radio continuum survey planned for the new Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The primary goal of EMU is to make a deep (rms ∼ 10 μJy/beam) radio continuum survey of the entire Southern sky at 1.3 GHz, extending as far North as +30° declination, with a resolution of 10 arcsec. EMU is expected to detect and catalogue about 70 million galaxies, including typical star-forming galaxies up to z ∼ 1, powerful starbursts to even greater redshifts, and active galactic nuclei to the edge of the visible Universe. It will undoubtedly discover new classes of object. This paper defines the science goals and parameters of the survey, and describes the development of techniques necessary to maximise the science return from EMU.
Common genetic variants, such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor
(BDNF) Val/66/Met polymorphism (rs6265), are known to interact with
environmental factors such as early adversity to increase the risk of
subsequent major depression. Much less is known about how they interact
with individual differences in cortisol, although these also represent a
risk for major depression.
To determine whether this BDNF variant moderated the risk represented by
higher levels of morning salivary cortisol in adult women.
We recruited 279 premenopausal women who were at high risk of major
depressive disorder because of either negative self-evaluation,
unsupportive core relationship or chronic subclinical symptoms of
depression or anxiety. Morning salivary cortisol was measured daily for
up to 10 days at entry. Participants were followed up for about 12 months
by telephone calls at 3–4 monthly intervals. Major depression and severe
life events were assessed through interviews at baseline and follow-up;
DNA was obtained from the saliva.
There were 53 onsets (19%) of depressive episodes during follow-up. There
was a significant U-shaped relationship between adjusted morning cortisol
levels at baseline and the probability of depression onset during
follow-up. In total, 51% experienced at least one severe life
event/difficulty, and this strongly predicted subsequent onsets of
depressive episodes. The BDNF Val/66/Met genotype was
not directly associated with onsets of depression or with cortisol
levels, but there was significant interaction between Val/66/Met and
cortisol: the association between baseline cortisol and depression was
limited to those with the Val/66/Val variant. There was no interaction
between life events and either this BDNF polymorphism or cortisol
Morning salivary cortisol interacts with the BDNF Val/66/Met polymorphism
in predicting new depressive episodes. This paper adds to the evidence
that single gene polymorphisms interact with endogenous factors to
In an epidemiological survey from South India, 936 serum samples were tested for IgG against recombinant baculovirus-expressed VP6 proteins from human group A and group C rotaviruses. The overall seroprevalence for group A was 100% and for group C was 25·32% (95% CI 22·64–28·21). The lowest seroprevalence for group C was in children aged <10 years (16·79%). An age-related rise in seroprevalence in group C, but not group A, suggests different patterns of exposure. Seroprevalence was similar in rural and urban subjects, unlike the higher prevalence in rural subjects in studies elsewhere.
We evaluated the effectiveness of a measles vaccine campaign in rural Kenya, based on oral-fluid surveys and mixture-modelling analysis. Specimens were collected from 886 children aged 9 months to 14 years pre-campaign and from a comparison sample of 598 children aged 6 months post-campaign. Quantitative measles-specific antibody data were obtained by commercial kit. The estimated proportions of measles-specific antibody negative in children aged 0–4, 5–9 and 10–14 years were 51%, 42% and 27%, respectively, pre- campaign and 18%, 14% and 6%, respectively, post-campaign. We estimate a reduction in the proportion susceptible of 65–78%, with ~85% of the population recorded to have received vaccine. The proportion of ‘weak’ positive individuals rose from 35% pre-campaign to 54% post-campaign. Our results confirm the effectiveness of the campaign in reducing susceptibility to measles and demonstrate the potential of oral-fluid studies to monitor the impact of measles vaccination campaigns.
This study investigates the distribution of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles within Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type (PT) 4 and S. Typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 104, from cases of human infection in nine European countries from 2000 to 2004. Isolates were subtyped using standardized methods and gel images submitted by each participating country to the coordinating centre (Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, UK), where they were entered into a central database, developed within BioNumerics software, and designated using an agreed nomenclature. S. Enteritidis PT4 (n=3637) was differentiated into 38 different profiles. Simpson's index of diversity (D) of profiles ranged from 0·2 to 0·4. Profile SENTXB.0001 represented at least 80% of all profiles in each country. S. Typhimurium DT104 (n=1202) was differentiated into 28 different profile types. Simpson's D was at least 0·6 in all countries except in Austria and Italy. In both these countries over 74% of S. Typhimurium DT104 profiles were STYMXB.0013. Profile STYMXB.0061, was predominant in Denmark, Spain, Finland and England & Wales where it represented between 36% and 45% of profiles. Profile STYMXB.0001 represented nearly half of all profiles in Scotland and 23% in England & Wales. PFGE is proving useful for further discrimination within S. Enteritidis PT4 and S. Typhimurium DT104. Ascertainment of international outbreaks involving common serotypes and phage types may be increased by the timely pooling of PFGE profiles within a central database readily accessible to all participating countries.
Nutrigenomics is the study of how constituents of the diet interact with genes, and their products, to alter phenotype and, conversely, how genes and their products metabolise these constituents into nutrients, antinutrients, and bioactive compounds. Results from molecular and genetic epidemiological studies indicate that dietary unbalance can alter gene–nutrient interactions in ways that increase the risk of developing chronic disease. The interplay of human genetic variation and environmental factors will make identifying causative genes and nutrients a formidable, but not intractable, challenge. We provide specific recommendations for how to best meet this challenge and discuss the need for new methodologies and the use of comprehensive analyses of nutrient–genotype interactions involving large and diverse populations. The objective of the present paper is to stimulate discourse and collaboration among nutrigenomic researchers and stakeholders, a process that will lead to an increase in global health and wellness by reducing health disparities in developed and developing countries.
Silica sinter masses in the southern portion of the Pliocene Puhipuhi geothermal field of Northland, New Zealand, have recrystallized to microcrystalline quartz and moganite but many primary depositional fabrics of the sinters can still be recognized. Finely disseminated cinnabar, acicular stibnite, pyrite framboids and minor livingstonite are distributed through both massive sinter and stromatolitic fabrics with sulphide mineralization extending from fractured rocks about former spring vents into less disturbed sinter layers. The deposition of sulphides in the sinters is part of a continuum of mineralization resulting from the former hydrothermal regime and which extends to depth in the extinct geothermal system. Periodic changes in the hydrology, such as repeated fracturing following fracture sealing facilitated episodic sulphide deposition. Mercury is considered to have travelled in the liquid phase with antimony and precipitated directly as cinnabar. Remobilization of the sulphides, along with the recrystallization of the sinter masses, have produced complex textural relations. The multifaceted paragenesis of the sulphides is reflected in the range of their minor and trace element compositions revealed by electron microprobe analyses.
The emission from bias voltage driven In0.06Al0.08Ga0.86As/Al0.3Ga0.7As edge-emitting diode lasers with cavity lengths of 0.6 and 0.9 mm was measured at 290 K using a high resolution Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer. The light-current (L-I) characteristic curves showed that a threshold current of ∼ 0.5 and 0.8 A was needed to reach the stimulated emission in laser diodes with cavity lengths of 0.6 and 0.9 mm, respectively. The laser diode longitudinal modes were observed in the stimulated emission spectrum for each of the devices. These spectra enabled us to calculate the refractive index, total loss, and gain of the active region. On the other hand, the cavity length was determined by utilizing the interferogram spectrum, longitudinal modes spacing, and direct measurements of the laser dimensions. A good agreement between the cavity length values obtained from the three methods was achieved.
We present an approach for spectroscopic strain analysis in semiconductor quantum-well devices. This approach is applicable to all types of semiconductor materials, and to spectroscopic techniques which employ the electronic band-structure of the material, such as photoluminescence, photoreflection, photocurrent, and transmittance. The approach is based on two components, namely the theoretical calculation of the strain-sensitivity of the spectral positions of the relevant quantum-confined optical transitions within a particular quantum-well, and the spatially resolved measurement of a substantial part of the optical transition sequence within the quantum-well. The primary experimental technique applied in our approach is photocurrent spectroscopy. InAlGaAs/GaAlAs/GaAs, high-power lasers serve as the model species.
Knowledge of the prevalence and correlates of personality disorders in the community is important for identifying treatment needs and for provision of psychiatric services.
To estimate the prevalence of personality disorders in a community sample and to identify demographic subgroups with especially high prevalence.
Clinical psychologists used the International Personality Disorder Examination to assess DSM-IV and ICD-10 personality disorders in a sample of 742 subjects, ages 34–94 years, residing in Baltimore, Maryland. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between demographic characteristics and DSM — IV personality disorder clusters.
The estimated overall prevalence of DSM — IV personality disorders was 9%. Cluster A disorders were most prevalent in men who had never married. Cluster B disorders were most prevalent in young men without a high school degree, and cluster C disorders in high school graduates who had never married.
Approximately 9% of this community sample has a DSM-IV personality disorder. Personality disorders are over-represented in certain demographic subgroups of the community
The microstructure of materials (grain orientation, grain boundaries, grain size distribution, local strain/stress gradients, defects, …) is very important in defining the electromigration resistance of interconnect lines in modern integrated circuits. Recently, techniques have been developed for using submicrometer focused white and monochromatic x-ray beams at synchrotrons to obtain local orientation and strain information within individual grains of thin film materials. In this work, we use the x-ray microdiffraction beam line (7.3.3) at the Advanced Light Source to map the orientation and local stress variations in passivated Al(Cu) test structures (width: 0.7, 4.1 μm) as well as in Al(Cu) blanket films. The temperature effects on microstructure and stress were studied in those same structures by in-situ orientation and stress mapping during a temperature cycle between 25°C and 345°C. Results show large local variations in the different stress components which significantly depart from their average values obtained by more conventional techniques, yet the average stresses in both cases agree well. Possible reasons for these variations will be discussed.
Whether individual differences in cortisol contribute to subsequent major depressive disorder (MDD) is unknown.
To determine whether premorbid levels of salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were associated with subsequent MDD and how these related to psychosocial factors known to increase the risk for MDD.
Adult women (n=116) were recruited from general practices. None was currently depressed; 83 were ‘psychosocially vulnerable’ to MDD, 33 were not. Salivary steroids (cortisol and DHEA at 08.00 h and 20.00 h), recent life events, current mood and social support were assessed at entry. Onset of MDD was recorded during 13 months' follow-up.
There were no associations between salivary cortisol or DHEA and recent life events or vulnerability. Twenty-eight onsets of MDD occurred during the follow-up period. This was associated with: severe adverse life events and difficulties during the follow-up period; mean morning cortisol levels at entry; and the presence of any of three vulnerability factors.
Individual differences in morning salivary cortisol levels may represent an independent risk factor for subsequent MDD. The origin of these differences in cortisol is not yet understood.