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Parenting dimensions are associated with depressive symptoms in adolescents. We investigated the role of perceived parenting dimensions and gene-environment interactions between these perceived parenting dimensions and five well-known variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs): 5-HTTLPR, STin2, DAT1, DRD4, and MAO-A, in depressive symptoms.
From a non-clinical sample of 1111 Belgian adolescents (mean age: 13.79 years, SD = .94; 51% boys), 1103 adolescents consented for genetic research. Five VNTRs were analyzed using DNA from saliva samples. Perceived parenting dimensions (i.e., support, proactive control, psychological control, punishment, and harsh punishment) were examined using self-report scales completed by adolescents and their parents. Depressive symptoms were investigated using the CES-D self-report scale. Statistical analyses were performed in R using linear regression.
Parental support, as perceived by the adolescent, was negatively associated with depressive symptoms (CES-D) and psychological control was positively associated with these symptoms. The only interaction effect withstanding correction for multiple testing was observed for 5-HTTLPR and the difference in proactive control as perceived by adolescents in comparison to parents. Short-allele carriers showed more depressive symptoms when there was a higher discrepancy in proactive control as perceived by adolescents versus parents.
Our results suggest that perceived parenting dimensions are associated with depressive symptoms, as measured by the CES-D. We only found modest evidence for 5-HTTLPR as a moderator in the association between the difference in perception of proactive control (adolescents vs. parents) and depressive symptoms.
To investigate the association between parity and the risk of incident dementia in women.
We pooled baseline and follow-up data for community-dwelling women aged 60 or older from six population-based, prospective cohort studies from four European and two Asian countries. We investigated the association between parity and incident dementia using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age, educational level, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cohort, with additional analysis by dementia subtype (Alzheimer dementia (AD) and non-Alzheimer dementia (NAD)).
Of 9756 women dementia-free at baseline, 7010 completed one or more follow-up assessments. The mean follow-up duration was 5.4 ± 3.1 years and dementia developed in 550 participants. The number of parities was associated with the risk of incident dementia (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02–1.13). Grand multiparity (five or more parities) increased the risk of dementia by 30% compared to 1–4 parities (HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.02–1.67). The risk of NAD increased by 12% for every parity (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.02–1.23) and by 60% for grand multiparity (HR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.00–2.55), but the risk of AD was not significantly associated with parity.
Grand multiparity is a significant risk factor for dementia in women. This may have particularly important implications for women in low and middle-income countries where the fertility rate and prevalence of grand multiparity are high.
Drawing from our interdisciplinary qualitative study of LGBTI conservative Christians and their allies, we name an especially toxic form of shame—what we call sacramental shame—that affects the lives of LGBTI and other conservative Christians. Sacramental shame results from conservative Christianity's allegiance to the doctrine of gender complementarity, which elevates heteronormativity to the level of the sacred and renders those who violate it as not persons, but monsters. In dispensing shame as a sacrament, nonaffirming Christians require constant displays of shame as proof that LGBTI church members love God and belong in the community. Part of what makes this shame so harmful is that parents and pastors often dispense it with sincere expressions of care and affection, compounding the sense that one's capacity to give and receive love is damaged. We foreground LGBTI Christian movements to overcome sacramental shame by cultivating nonhubristic pride, and conclude by discussing briefly their new understandings of love and justice that could have far‐reaching benefits.
An attempt has been made to examine the nature of 3-minute umbral oscillations in order to identify their origin. For this purpose we have calculated, on the basis of Musielak and Rosner (1987), the fast-mode energy spectra generated in a typical sunspot convection zone (Yun 1968). The computed energy spectrum is fed into the lower boundary of the sub-photospheric resonant cavity to examine the characteristics of the wave propagation through the SS umbral atmosphere (Avrett 1981). The upward velocity spectra computed at various heights are presented and their behaviour compared with observations.
Manual surveillance of healthcare-associated infections is cumbersome and vulnerable to subjective interpretation. Automated systems are under development to improve efficiency and reliability of surveillance, for example by selecting high-risk patients requiring manual chart review. In this study, we aimed to validate a previously developed multivariable prediction modeling approach for detecting drain-related meningitis (DRM) in neurosurgical patients and to assess its merits compared to conventional methods of automated surveillance.
Prospective cohort study in 3 hospitals assessing the accuracy and efficiency of 2 automated surveillance methods for detecting DRM, the multivariable prediction model and a classification algorithm, using manual chart review as the reference standard. All 3 methods of surveillance were performed independently. Patients receiving cerebrospinal fluid drains were included (2012–2013), except children, and patients deceased within 24 hours or with pre-existing meningitis. Data required by automated surveillance methods were extracted from routine care clinical data warehouses.
In total, DRM occurred in 37 of 366 external cerebrospinal fluid drainage episodes (12.3/1000 drain days at risk). The multivariable prediction model had good discriminatory power (area under the ROC curve 0.91–1.00 by hospital), had adequate overall calibration, and could identify high-risk patients requiring manual confirmation with 97.3% sensitivity and 52.2% positive predictive value, decreasing the workload for manual surveillance by 81%. The multivariable approach was more efficient than classification algorithms in 2 of 3 hospitals.
Automated surveillance of DRM using a multivariable prediction model in multiple hospitals considerably reduced the burden for manual chart review at near-perfect sensitivity.
After an outbreak of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (pH1N1) virus, we had previously reported the emergence of a recombinant canine influenza virus (CIV) between the pH1N1 virus and the classic H3N2 CIV. Our ongoing routine surveillance isolated another reassortant H3N2 CIV carrying the matrix gene of the pH1N1 virus from 2012. The infection dynamics of this H3N2 CIV variant (CIV/H3N2mv) were investigated in dogs and ferrets via experimental infection and transmission. The CIV/H3N2mv-infected dogs and ferrets produced typical symptoms of respiratory disease, virus shedding, seroconversion, and direct-contact transmissions. Although indirect exposure was not presented for ferrets, CIV/H3N2mv presented higher viral replication in MDCK cells and more efficient transmission was observed in ferrets compared to classic CIV H3N2. This study demonstrates the effect of reassortment of the M gene of pH1N1 in CIV H3N2.
We consider the dynamics of actively entraining turbulent density currents on a conical sloping surface in a rotating fluid. A theoretical plume model is developed to describe both axisymmetric flow and single-stream currents of finite angular extent. An analytical solution is derived for flow dominated by the initial buoyancy flux and with a constant entrainment ratio, which serves as an attractor for solutions with alternative initial conditions where the initial fluxes of mass and momentum are non-negligible. The solutions indicate that the downslope propagation of the current halts at a critical level where there is purely azimuthal flow, and the boundary layer approximation breaks down. Observations from a set of laboratory experiments are consistent with the dynamics predicted by the model, with the flow approaching a critical level. Interpretation in terms of the theory yields an entrainment coefficient
$E\propto 1/\Omega $
where the rotation rate is
. We also derive a corresponding theory for density currents from a line source of buoyancy on a planar slope. Our theoretical models provide a framework for designing and interpreting laboratory studies of turbulent entrainment in rotating dense flows on slopes and understanding their implications in geophysical flows.
Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious respiratory disease in equids, with confirmed outbreaks in Europe, America, North Africa, and Asia. Although China, Mongolia, and Japan have reported equine influenza outbreaks, Korea has not. Since 2011, we have conducted a routine surveillance programme to detect EIV at domestic stud farms, and isolated H3N8 EIV from horses showing respiratory disease symptoms. Here, we characterized the genetic and biological properties of this novel Korean H3N8 EIV isolate. This H3N8 EIV isolate belongs to the Florida sublineage clade 1 of the American H3N8 EIV lineage, and surprisingly, possessed a non-structural protein (NS) gene segment, where 23 bases of the NS1-encoding region were naturally truncated. Our preliminary biological data indicated that this truncation did not affect virus replication; its effect on biological and immunological properties of the virus will require further study.
Mammalian studies report that methionine restriction (MR) as a dietary regimen extends life span, delays the onset of age-related diseases and enhances fat oxidation in obese subjects with metabolic syndromes. However, the underlying cellular signalling pathways are poorly understood. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a glucose-intolerant species, providing an excellent model for the study of carbohydrate metabolism. MR diets in combination with 12 % (+/ − ) and 22 % (+/ − ) carbohydrate-rich meals were fed to rainbow trout for a period of 8 weeks and phenotypic and transcript expression changes in the liver and white muscle were assessed. Fish fed MR diets, irrespective of carbohydrate load, were shown to abolish the glucose-intolerant phenotype 6 h post-feeding. There was a distinct switch in glucose and glycogen content in the liver of fish fed MR diets, with a significantly higher concentration of glycogen, suggesting reduced glycolytic capacity. Transcriptional responses to MR demonstrated decreased expression of hepatic fatty acid synthase, sterol regulatory binding protein 1, PPARγ coactivator 1-α and PPARα, indicative of a reduction in the de novo synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol, and a potential decrease in hepatic fat oxidative capacity. Muscle adenylate charge was depressed under MR, and increased expression of AMP-activated protein kinase α1 was detected, indicative of reduced energy availability. Total DNA methylation showed that carbohydrate load, rather than MR, dictated hypomethylation of genomic DNA. This is the first study which demonstrates that MR can abolish a glucose-intolerant phenotype in trout, and identifies trout as a suitable model for studying metabolic syndromes.
Three dimensional silica photonic crystals with the gyroid minimal surface structure have been synthesized using the butterfly Callophrys rubi as a template. The replicas are synthesized with a high degree of fidelity, which is confirmed by the spectral and morphological characterization. Further, the material is shown to be optically active.
In this paper we study the problem of passive walking for a compass-gait biped with gait asymmetries. In particular, we identify and classify bifurcations leading to chaos caused by the gait asymmetries because of unequal leg masses. We present bifurcation diagrams showing step period versus the ratio of leg masses at various walking slopes. The cell mapping method is used to find stable limit cycles as the parameters are varied. It is found that a variety of bifurcation diagrams can be grouped into six stages that consist of three expanding and three contracting stages. The analysis of each stage shows that marginally stable limit cycles exhibit period-doubling, period-remerging, and saddle-node bifurcations. We also show qualitative changes regarding chaos, i.e., generation and extinction of chaos follow cyclic patterns in passive dynamic walking.
Chemical Mechanical Polish (CMP) is one of the key technologies for the development of modern high performance integrated circuits. The requirements for the CMP uniformity get extremely demanding in order to meet the litho requirements for 32nm technology node and beyond. In this paper, two kinds of orders related to the stressor films that affect the CMP uniformity are revealed. The first is the stressor films deposition order according to the CMP polish rate of each stressor film. The second is the stress gradients order that formed inside the films sitting on top of the stressors. Through the optimization of the order, we show successfully removal of couple hundreds angstroms stressor step heights within 300mm wafer range. The method developed here can also find applications in microelectromechanical systems and 3D integration circuits.
Cryptosporidium parvum is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes cryptosporidiosis in mammals including humans. In the current study, the gene encoding the cysteine protease of C. parvum (cryptopain-1) was identified and the biochemical properties of the recombinant enzyme were characterized. Cryptopain-1 shared common structural properties with cathepsin L-like papain family enzymes, but lacked a typical signal peptide sequence and contained a possible transmembrane domain near the amino terminus and a unique insert in the front of the mature domain. The recombinant cryptopain-1 expressed in Escherichia coli and refolded to the active form showed typical biochemical properties of cathepsin L-like enzymes. The folding determinant of cryptopain-1 was characterized through multiple constructs with or without different lengths of the pro-domain of the enzyme expressed in E. coli and assessment of their refolding abilities. All constructs, except one that did not contain the full-length mature domain, successfully refolded into the active enzymes, suggesting that cryptopain-1 did not require the pro-domain for folding. Western blot analysis showed that cryptopain-1 was expressed in the sporozoites and the enzyme preferentially degraded proteins, including collagen and fibronectin, but not globular proteins. This suggested a probable role for cryptopain-1 in host cell invasion and/or egression by the parasite.
In this paper, a novel nano-scale conductive film which combines the advantages of both traditional anisotropic conductive adhesives/films (ACAs/ACFs) and nonconductive adhesives/films (NCAs/NCFs) is introduced and developed for next generation high performance ultra-fine pitch packaging applications. This novel interconnect film possesses the properties of electrical conduction along the z-direction with relatively low bonding pressure (ACF-like) and the ultra-fine pitch (< 100 nm) capability (NCF-like). Unlike typical ACF which requires 1–5 vol% of conductive fillers, the novel nano-scale conductive film only needs less than 0.1 vol% conductive fillers to achieve good electrical conductance in the z direction. The nano-scale conductive film also allows a lower bonding pressure than NCF to achieve a much lower joint resistance (over two orders of magnitude lower than typical ACF joints) and higher current carrying capability. With low temperature sintering of nano-silver fillers, the joint resistance of the nano-scale conductive film could be as low as 10−5 Ohm, even lower than the NCF and lead-free solder joints. The reliability of the nano-scale conductive film after high temperature and humidity test (85°C/85%RH) was also improved compared to the NCF joints. As such, a high performance, fine pitch conductive film was developed.
Eric W. Welch, Associate Professor in the graduate programme in public administration University of Illinois at Chicago,
M. Jae Moon, Faculty member at the Department of Public Administration Korea University,
Wilson Wong, Associate professor of the Department of Government and Public Administration Chinese University of Hong Kong
Perceived to be a technological solution for a better, more efficient and more effective government, e-government has been presented and implemented in nations around the world as one of the most compelling advances for government since the mid-1990s (OECD 2003). Many governments, including those at both the national and sub-national levels, have begun various e-government initiatives to develop and advance their online functions by providing public information and services to citizens and businesses and by interacting with citizens to obtain policy inputs (Demchak et al. 1998; Demchak et al. 2000; Welch and Wong 2001; Wong and Welch 2004). E-government has often been hailed as a means of promoting more effective intra- and intergovernmental relations (Ho 2002; Moon 2002). However, efforts to measure e-government performance have tended to out-distance the conceptual and theoretical work necessary to justify the measures and explain the results.
So what is e-government performance? Recent work by Stowers (2004) proposes a multi-dimensional framework based on different levels of government performance: input measures, output measures, intermediate outcome measures and ultimate outcome measures. Input measures represent various resources used for e-government efforts to develop and maintain e-government applications. The input measures might be operationalized in terms of personnel and financial costs. Output measures reflect specific ‘immediate actions’ and visible indicators resulting from e-government initiatives such as the number of hits, completed downloads, number of e-mail requests and completed financial service/financial transactions.