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The set of all adjacency-preserving automorphisms of the vertex set of a graph form a group which is called the (automorphism) group of the graph. In 1938 Frucht (2) showed that every finite group is isomorphic to the group of some graph. Since then Frucht, Izbicki, and Sabidussi have considered various other properties that a graph having a given group may possess. (For pertinent references and definitions not given here see Ore (4).) The object in this paper is to treat by similar methods a corresponding problem for a class of oriented graphs. It will be shown that a finite group is isomorphic to the group of some complete oriented graph if and only if it has an odd number of elements.
A graph G = G(n, e) consists of a set of n nodes e pairs of which are joined by a single edge; we assume that no edge joins a node to itself. A graph with modes is called a complete -graph if each pair of its nodes is joined by an edge. The graphs belonging to some collection of graphs are independent if no two of them have a node in common. The maximum number of independent complete -graphs contained in a given graph G will be denoted by Ik(G).
f(n, k) sera l'entier maximum t tel qu'il existe un graphe G ayant les propriétés suivantes:
(a) G possède n sommets;
(b) le nombre chromatique de G est égal à k;
(c) Gest minimal par rapport à la propriété (b); c'est-à-dire, la suppression ede n'importe quelle arête rend G(k – 1)-colorable;
(d) il existe t sommets indépendants de G, c'est-à-dire dont nulle paire ne se joigne par une arête.
Un graphe sera k-minimal s'il possède les propriétés (b) et (c). Puisque les graphes 3-minimaux sont tous des polygones impairs, il s'ensuit que f(n, 3) = [n/2] (n = 3, 5, 7, …), Il y a quelque temps T. Gallai a posé la conjecture:
M. Simonovits a réfuté l'inégalité stricte dans (1.1) en prouvant que
An attempt has been made to examine the nature of 3-minute umbral oscillations in order to identify their origin. For this purpose we have calculated, on the basis of Musielak and Rosner (1987), the fast-mode energy spectra generated in a typical sunspot convection zone (Yun 1968). The computed energy spectrum is fed into the lower boundary of the sub-photospheric resonant cavity to examine the characteristics of the wave propagation through the SS umbral atmosphere (Avrett 1981). The upward velocity spectra computed at various heights are presented and their behaviour compared with observations.
Manual surveillance of healthcare-associated infections is cumbersome and vulnerable to subjective interpretation. Automated systems are under development to improve efficiency and reliability of surveillance, for example by selecting high-risk patients requiring manual chart review. In this study, we aimed to validate a previously developed multivariable prediction modeling approach for detecting drain-related meningitis (DRM) in neurosurgical patients and to assess its merits compared to conventional methods of automated surveillance.
Prospective cohort study in 3 hospitals assessing the accuracy and efficiency of 2 automated surveillance methods for detecting DRM, the multivariable prediction model and a classification algorithm, using manual chart review as the reference standard. All 3 methods of surveillance were performed independently. Patients receiving cerebrospinal fluid drains were included (2012–2013), except children, and patients deceased within 24 hours or with pre-existing meningitis. Data required by automated surveillance methods were extracted from routine care clinical data warehouses.
In total, DRM occurred in 37 of 366 external cerebrospinal fluid drainage episodes (12.3/1000 drain days at risk). The multivariable prediction model had good discriminatory power (area under the ROC curve 0.91–1.00 by hospital), had adequate overall calibration, and could identify high-risk patients requiring manual confirmation with 97.3% sensitivity and 52.2% positive predictive value, decreasing the workload for manual surveillance by 81%. The multivariable approach was more efficient than classification algorithms in 2 of 3 hospitals.
Automated surveillance of DRM using a multivariable prediction model in multiple hospitals considerably reduced the burden for manual chart review at near-perfect sensitivity.
After an outbreak of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (pH1N1) virus, we had previously reported the emergence of a recombinant canine influenza virus (CIV) between the pH1N1 virus and the classic H3N2 CIV. Our ongoing routine surveillance isolated another reassortant H3N2 CIV carrying the matrix gene of the pH1N1 virus from 2012. The infection dynamics of this H3N2 CIV variant (CIV/H3N2mv) were investigated in dogs and ferrets via experimental infection and transmission. The CIV/H3N2mv-infected dogs and ferrets produced typical symptoms of respiratory disease, virus shedding, seroconversion, and direct-contact transmissions. Although indirect exposure was not presented for ferrets, CIV/H3N2mv presented higher viral replication in MDCK cells and more efficient transmission was observed in ferrets compared to classic CIV H3N2. This study demonstrates the effect of reassortment of the M gene of pH1N1 in CIV H3N2.
We consider the dynamics of actively entraining turbulent density currents on a conical sloping surface in a rotating fluid. A theoretical plume model is developed to describe both axisymmetric flow and single-stream currents of finite angular extent. An analytical solution is derived for flow dominated by the initial buoyancy flux and with a constant entrainment ratio, which serves as an attractor for solutions with alternative initial conditions where the initial fluxes of mass and momentum are non-negligible. The solutions indicate that the downslope propagation of the current halts at a critical level where there is purely azimuthal flow, and the boundary layer approximation breaks down. Observations from a set of laboratory experiments are consistent with the dynamics predicted by the model, with the flow approaching a critical level. Interpretation in terms of the theory yields an entrainment coefficient
$E\propto 1/\Omega $
where the rotation rate is
. We also derive a corresponding theory for density currents from a line source of buoyancy on a planar slope. Our theoretical models provide a framework for designing and interpreting laboratory studies of turbulent entrainment in rotating dense flows on slopes and understanding their implications in geophysical flows.
Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious respiratory disease in equids, with confirmed outbreaks in Europe, America, North Africa, and Asia. Although China, Mongolia, and Japan have reported equine influenza outbreaks, Korea has not. Since 2011, we have conducted a routine surveillance programme to detect EIV at domestic stud farms, and isolated H3N8 EIV from horses showing respiratory disease symptoms. Here, we characterized the genetic and biological properties of this novel Korean H3N8 EIV isolate. This H3N8 EIV isolate belongs to the Florida sublineage clade 1 of the American H3N8 EIV lineage, and surprisingly, possessed a non-structural protein (NS) gene segment, where 23 bases of the NS1-encoding region were naturally truncated. Our preliminary biological data indicated that this truncation did not affect virus replication; its effect on biological and immunological properties of the virus will require further study.
An investigation into the SiC surface and its interaction with aluminum, in particular, focusing on the effect of ion bombardment and adsorption of oxygen, is described. Stoichiometric and carbon rich and SiC surfaces were produced and analyzed “in situ” by Auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cubic SiC shows preferential sputtering under Ar ion bombardment, leading to carbon rich surface, whereas high temperature annealing also causes carbon rich surface. Activity of these surfaces was compared with oxygen and aluminum adsorption. Stoichiometrically sputtered surface showed vastly increased oxygen affinity, whereas carbon-rich sputtered surfaces did not. Aluminum deposition caused significant Al-C interaction for the stoichometric ion-bombarded surface. Aluminum carbide was induced catalytically upon heating in the presence of oxygen. Carbon-rich surfaces had, however, no significant interactions with as-deposited Al due to strong surface C-C bonds.
Mammalian studies report that methionine restriction (MR) as a dietary regimen extends life span, delays the onset of age-related diseases and enhances fat oxidation in obese subjects with metabolic syndromes. However, the underlying cellular signalling pathways are poorly understood. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a glucose-intolerant species, providing an excellent model for the study of carbohydrate metabolism. MR diets in combination with 12 % (+/ − ) and 22 % (+/ − ) carbohydrate-rich meals were fed to rainbow trout for a period of 8 weeks and phenotypic and transcript expression changes in the liver and white muscle were assessed. Fish fed MR diets, irrespective of carbohydrate load, were shown to abolish the glucose-intolerant phenotype 6 h post-feeding. There was a distinct switch in glucose and glycogen content in the liver of fish fed MR diets, with a significantly higher concentration of glycogen, suggesting reduced glycolytic capacity. Transcriptional responses to MR demonstrated decreased expression of hepatic fatty acid synthase, sterol regulatory binding protein 1, PPARγ coactivator 1-α and PPARα, indicative of a reduction in the de novo synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol, and a potential decrease in hepatic fat oxidative capacity. Muscle adenylate charge was depressed under MR, and increased expression of AMP-activated protein kinase α1 was detected, indicative of reduced energy availability. Total DNA methylation showed that carbohydrate load, rather than MR, dictated hypomethylation of genomic DNA. This is the first study which demonstrates that MR can abolish a glucose-intolerant phenotype in trout, and identifies trout as a suitable model for studying metabolic syndromes.
Three dimensional silica photonic crystals with the gyroid minimal surface structure have been synthesized using the butterfly Callophrys rubi as a template. The replicas are synthesized with a high degree of fidelity, which is confirmed by the spectral and morphological characterization. Further, the material is shown to be optically active.
Chemical Mechanical Polish (CMP) is one of the key technologies for the development of modern high performance integrated circuits. The requirements for the CMP uniformity get extremely demanding in order to meet the litho requirements for 32nm technology node and beyond. In this paper, two kinds of orders related to the stressor films that affect the CMP uniformity are revealed. The first is the stressor films deposition order according to the CMP polish rate of each stressor film. The second is the stress gradients order that formed inside the films sitting on top of the stressors. Through the optimization of the order, we show successfully removal of couple hundreds angstroms stressor step heights within 300mm wafer range. The method developed here can also find applications in microelectromechanical systems and 3D integration circuits.
In this paper we study the problem of passive walking for a compass-gait biped with gait asymmetries. In particular, we identify and classify bifurcations leading to chaos caused by the gait asymmetries because of unequal leg masses. We present bifurcation diagrams showing step period versus the ratio of leg masses at various walking slopes. The cell mapping method is used to find stable limit cycles as the parameters are varied. It is found that a variety of bifurcation diagrams can be grouped into six stages that consist of three expanding and three contracting stages. The analysis of each stage shows that marginally stable limit cycles exhibit period-doubling, period-remerging, and saddle-node bifurcations. We also show qualitative changes regarding chaos, i.e., generation and extinction of chaos follow cyclic patterns in passive dynamic walking.
We have investigated the electrical characteristics, junction depth and defect of ultrashallow junctions formed by using a plasma doping procedure. Compared with ultralow energy boron ion implantation at 500eV, the plasma doping process exhibits both a shallow junction depth and a low sheet resistance. The junction depths of the plasma doped samples were 15 nm and 33 nm after annealing for 10s at 900 °C and 950 °C, respectively. For the same junction depth, the sheet resistance of the B2H6 plasma doped sample is an order of magnitude less than that of the 500eV B ion implanted sample. Based on cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) analysis, the defects formed by the B2H6 plasma doping process can be completely removed by annealing at 950 °C for 10s.
To reduce the defect density inherent in conventional heteroepitaxial growth of SiC on Si, selective epitaxy followed by lateral epitaxial growth was performed in a conventional atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) system. The source gas was primarily hexamethyldisilane (HMDS). Hydrogen was used as the carrier gas and small amounts of hydrogen chloride (HCl) were added to improve the selectivity. Si(001) wafers, with an oxide layer (∼ 700 nm thick) as a mask, were used as substrates. The grown films were analyzed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In earlier work, we had demonstrated the problems associated with the application of this technique – viz., oxide degradation and high growth temperature. Using HMDS, the growth temperature has been considerably reduced allowing the continued use of an oxide mask. Selective growth was demonstrated in films grown at 1250° and below.
In order to clarify the relationship between excimer laser fluence gradient and the length of lateral grain growth, the laser fluence is modulated by a beam mask. The fluence distribution is measured by using a negative UV photoresist. The lateral growth length and the grain directionality are improved with increasing fluence gradient. Lateral growth length of about 1.5 [.proportional]m is achieved by using a single laser pulse without substrate heating on a 50 nm-thick a-Si film by enforcing high fluence gradient. Electrical conductance measurement is used to probe the solidification dynamics. The lateral solidification velocity is found to be about 7 m/s.
The effect of magnetic fields to 15T on the electrical resistance (R) of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors has been measured at precise temperatures during the transition to the superconducting state. The results show that the temperature at which the externally-applied magnetic field causes a divergence of resistance (R) as a function of inverse temperature is approximately at the same temperature where the positive Hall coefficient begins its steep descent to zero. At slightly higher temperature the Hall coefficient shows a singularity peak akin to a delta function. Internal electric field calculations show that the structure of the superconducting oxides, having more than a single building block polyhedron, gives rise to strong electrostatic fields in the unit cell which in turn causes charge separation or polarization. The charge separation is in accord with the importance of high oxidation states of the multivalence cations and suggests the use of high oxygen overpressure during processing. The magnitude of Tc scales closely with the number of bound holes (associated with the charge transfer excitations) per unit cell. Extensive computer calculations using this model indicate attractive pairing of electrons at inter-electron separations of about 10–15A.
Y-Ba-Cu-o fine powders were prepared by coprecipitating in the oxalate form from metal nitrates solution. The stoichiometry of metals in the precipitate was adjusted by systematic change of copper nitrate (or yttrium nitrate) concentration for a fixed concentration of barium nitrate in the ruactant. Approximately one micron size powders, with a uniform size distribution, were obtained by this new approach. The optimum condition for calcination and sintering was studied by thermal gravimetric analysis(TGA), X-ray powder diffraction(XRD) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM).