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This article surveys the emergence and usage of the redefinition of man not as animal rationale (rational animal) but as animal religiosum (religious animal) by numerous English theologians between 1650 and 1700. Across the continuum of English Protestant thought, human nature was being redescribed as unique due to its religious, not primarily its rational, capabilities. This article charts said appearance as a contribution to debates over man's relationship with God; then its subsequent incorporation into the discussion over the theological consequences of arguments in favor of animal rationality, as well as its uses in anti-atheist apologetics; and then the sudden disappearance of the definition of man as animal religiosum at the beginning of the eighteenth century. In doing so, the article hopes to make a useful contribution to our understanding of changing early modern understandings of human nature by reasserting the significance of theological writing in the dispute over the relationship between humans and beasts. As a consequence, it offers a more wide-ranging account of man as animal religiosum than the current focus on “Cambridge Platonism” and “Latitudinarianism” allows.
This study used repeated measures data to identify developmental profiles of elevated risk for ADHD (i.e., six or more inattentive and/or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms), with an interest in the age at which ADHD risk first emerged. Risk factors that were measured across the first 3 years of life were used to predict profile membership. Participants included 1,173 children who were drawn from the Family Life Project, an ongoing longitudinal study of children's development in low-income, nonmetropolitan communities. Four heuristic profiles of ADHD risk were identified. Approximately two thirds of children never exhibited elevated risk for ADHD. The remaining children were characterized by early childhood onset and persistent risk (5%), early childhood limited risk (10%), and middle childhood onset risk (19%). Pregnancy and delivery complications and harsh-intrusive caregiving behaviors operated as general risk for all ADHD profiles. Parental history of ADHD was uniquely predictive of early onset and persistent ADHD risk, and low primary caregiver education was uniquely predictive of early childhood limited ADHD risk. Results are discussed with respect to how changes to the age of onset criterion for ADHD in DSM5 may affect etiological research and the need for developmental models of ADHD that inform ADHD symptom persistence and desistance.
Following stage 1 palliation, delayed sternal closure may be used as a technique to enhance thoracic compliance but may also prolong the length of stay and increase the risk of infection.
We reviewed all neonates undergoing stage 1 palliation at our institution between 2010 and 2017 to describe the effects of delayed sternal closure.
During the study period, 193 patients underwent stage 1 palliation, of whom 12 died before an attempt at sternal closure. Among the 25 patients who underwent primary sternal closure, 4 (16%) had sternal reopening within 24 hours. Among the 156 infants who underwent delayed sternal closure at 4 [3,6] days post-operatively, 11 (7.1%) had one or more failed attempts at sternal closure. Patients undergoing primary sternal closure had a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit length of stay. Patients who failed delayed sternal closure had a longer aortic cross-clamp time (123±42 versus 99±35 minutes, p=0.029) and circulatory arrest time (39±28 versus 19±17 minutes, p=0.0009) than those who did not fail. Failure of delayed sternal closure was also closely associated with Technical Performance Score: 1.3% of patients with a score of 1 failed sternal closure compared with 18.9% of patients with a score of 3 (p=0.0028). Among the haemodynamic and ventilatory parameters studied, only superior caval vein saturation following sternal closure was different between patients who did and did not fail sternal closure (30±7 versus 42±10%, p=0.002). All patients who failed sternal closure did so within 24 hours owing to hypoxaemia, hypercarbia, or haemodynamic impairment.
When performed according to our current clinical practice, sternal closure causes transient and mild changes in haemodynamic and ventilatory parameters. Monitoring of SvO2 following sternal closure may permit early identification of patients at risk for failure.
While our fascination with understanding the past is sufficient to warrant an increased focus on synthesis, solutions to important problems facing modern society require understandings based on data that only archaeology can provide. Yet, even as we use public monies to collect ever-greater amounts of data, modes of research that can stimulate emergent understandings of human behavior have lagged behind. Consequently, a substantial amount of archaeological inference remains at the level of the individual project. We can more effectively leverage these data and advance our understandings of the past in ways that contribute to solutions to contemporary problems if we adapt the model pioneered by the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis to foster synthetic collaborative research in archaeology. We propose the creation of the Coalition for Archaeological Synthesis coordinated through a U.S.-based National Center for Archaeological Synthesis. The coalition will be composed of established public and private organizations that provide essential scholarly, cultural heritage, computational, educational, and public engagement infrastructure. The center would seek and administer funding to support collaborative analysis and synthesis projects executed through coalition partners. This innovative structure will enable the discipline to address key challenges facing society through evidentially based, collaborative synthetic research.
Kummerite, ideally Mn2+Fe3+A1(PO4)2(OH)2.8H2O, is a new secondary phosphate mineral belonging to the laueite group, from the Hagendorf-Süd pegmatite, Hagendorf, Oberpfalz, Bavaria, Germany. Kummerite occurs as sprays or rounded aggregates of very thin, typically deformed, amber yellow laths. Cleavage is good parallel to ﹛010﹜. The mineral is associated closely with green Zn- and Al-bearing beraunite needles. Other associated minerals are jahnsite-(CaMnMn) and Al-bearing frondelite. The calculated density of kummerite is 2.34 g cm 3. It is optically biaxial (-), α= 1.565(5), β = 1.600(5) and y = 1.630(5), with weak dispersion. Pleochroism is weak, with amber yellow tones. Electron microprobe analyses (average of 13 grains) with H2O and FeO/Fe2O3 calculated on structural grounds and normalized to 100%, gave Fe2O3 17.2, FeO 4.8, MnO 5.4, MgO 2.2, ZnO 0.5, Al2O3 9.8, P2O5 27.6, H2O 32.5, total 100 wt.%. The empirical formula, based on 3 metal apfu is (Mn2+0.37Mg0.27Zn0.03Fe2+0.33)Σ1.00(Fe3+1.06Al0. 94)Σ2.00PO4)1.91(OH)2.27(H2O)7.73. Kummerite is triclinic, P1̄, with the unit-cell parameters of a = 5.316(1) Å, b =10.620(3) Å , c = 7.118(1) Å, α = 107.33(3)°, β= 111.22(3)°, γ = 72.22(2)° and V= 348.4(2) Å3. The strongest lines in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern are [dobs in Å(I) (hkl)] 9.885 (100) (010); 6.476 (20) (001); 4.942 (30) (020); 3.988 (9) (̄110); 3.116 (18) (1̄20); 2.873 (11) (1̄21). Kummerite is isostructural with laueite, but differs in having Al and Fe3+ ordered into alternate octahedral sites in the 7.1 Å trans-connected octahedral chains.
Child conduct problems (CP) reflect a heterogeneous collection of oppositional, aggressive, norm-violating, and sometimes violent behaviors, whereas child callous–unemotional (CU) behaviors reflect interpersonal styles of interactions reflecting a lack of guilt and empathy as well as uncaring and shallow emotional responses to others. Taken together, high levels of child CP and CU behaviors are thought to identify a relatively homogenous group of children at elevated risk for persistent and more severe problem behaviors across childhood and into adulthood. Although a large body of research has examined the developmental etiology of CP behaviors, only recently has a developmental psychopathology approach been applied to early CU behaviors. The current study examines multiple levels of contextual influences during the first years of life, including family socioeconomic status, household chaos, and parenting behaviors, on CP and CU behaviors assessed during the first-grade year. Whereas previous studies found associations between parenting behaviors and child problem behaviors moderated by household chaos, the current study found no evidence of moderation. However, path analyses suggest that the associations between child CP and CU behaviors and the contextual variables of socioeconomic status (family income and parental education) and household chaos (disorganization and instability) were mediated by maternal sensitive and harsh–intrusive parenting behavior. Analyses are presented, interpreted, and discussed with respect to both bioecological and family stress models of development.
Theory suggests that early experiences may calibrate the “threshold activity” of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis in childhood. Particularly challenging or particularly supportive environments are posited to manifest in heightened physiological sensitivity to context. Using longitudinal data from the Family Life Project (N = 1,292), we tested whether links between maternal sensitivity and hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis activity aligned with these predictions. Specifically, we tested whether the magnitude of the within-person relation between maternal sensitivity and children's cortisol levels, a proxy for physiological sensitivity to context, was especially pronounced for children who typically experienced particularly low or high levels of maternal sensitivity over time. Our results were consistent with these hypotheses. Between children, lower levels of mean maternal sensitivity (7–24 months) were associated with higher mean cortisol levels across this period (measured as a basal sample collected at each visit). However, the magnitude and direction of the within-person relation was contingent on children's average levels of maternal sensitivity over time. Increases in maternal sensitivity were associated with contemporaneous cortisol decreases for children with typically low-sensitive mothers, whereas sensitivity increases were associated with cortisol increases for children with typically high-sensitive mothers. No within-child effects were evident at moderate levels of maternal sensitivity.
Stress control (SC), a brief psycho-education course, was implemented to increase access to psychological therapies in line with Northern Irish mental health service statutory drivers. The first aim of this study was to gauge the efficacy of SC in a robust manner with clinical significance testing. The second aim was to assess whether demographics traditionally ‘hard-to-reach’ – males, younger adults and those from deprived areas – accessed SC. The third aim was to elucidate what prompted their access and the experiences of attendees at SC.
Attendees at SC were 170 adults over six iterations of the course. Pre- and post-questionnaires included the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales – 21, captured demographic details and qualitative feedback, which was subject to a mixed-methods analysis.
SC attendees reported significant decreases on depression, anxiety and stress sub-scales post-intervention. Moreover, 38.71% (n=36) of attendees who completed SC exhibited clinically significant improvement afterwards on one or more sub-scale. Attendance figures for males, younger adults and those classified as socioeconomically deprived were modest. Patterns within the data suggested prospective success for targeting these cohorts.
SC attracted people in need of mental healthcare input and affected quantifiable change within those people’s lives, while satisfying statutory demands for service delivery in an accessible community context. Recommendations to increase engagement with those traditionally ‘hard-to-reach’ for psychological services are provided, which, if implemented, have the potential to achieve further compliance with Northern Irish mental health statutory drivers.
When allocating distributive benefits, bureaucrats must balance their own policy preferences with requests from members of Congress. The elimination of earmarking may provide agency personnel with greater discretion in the allocation of distributive benefits. Using a novel data set of congressional letters written in support of their community’s air traffic control towers, we estimate a model that explores the Federal Aviation Administration’s decision to issue national interest exemptions to continue operations at towers slated for closure as a result of budget sequestration. Our analysis suggests that members of Congress do not enjoy the influence they possessed under earmarking when using a new method, letter-marking, to influence how agencies distribute benefits.
The study objective was to determine the relative validity and reproducibility of a modified FFQ for ranking the nutrient intakes of New Zealand toddlers aged 12–24 months.
Dunedin, New Zealand.
One hundred and fifty-two participants completed a ninety-five-item FFQ twice, and five days of weighed diet recording (WDR), over one month. Validity and reproducibility were assessed for crude data and for data that were weighted for total fruit and vegetable intake (FV-adjusted).
De-attenuated correlations between FV-adjusted FFQ data and WDR data ranged from 0·45 (Zn) to 0·77 (Ca). The percentage classified to the correct WDR quartile by the FV-adjusted FFQ data ranged from 34·6 % (total fat, Zn) to 50·3 % (Fe). Average gross misclassification was 3 %. Bland–Altman statistics showed crude data had a range of 128–178 % agreement with the WDR and mean FV-adjusted intakes had 112–160 % agreement. FV-adjusted intra-class correlations, assessing reproducibility, ranged from 0·65 (vitamin C) to 0·75 (Ca).
The Eating Assessment in Toddlers (EAT) FFQ showed acceptable to good relative validity, and good reproducibility, for ranking participants’ nutrient intake and is able to identify toddlers at extremes of the nutrient intake distribution. It will be a useful tool for investigating toddlers’ nutrient intakes in studies that require a method of dietary assessment with low respondent burden.
Analyzing historical trajectories of social interactions at varying scales can lead to complementary interpretations of relationships among archaeological settlements. We use social network analysis combined with geographic information systems at three spatial scales over time in the western U.S. Southwest to show how the same social processes affected network dynamics at each scale. The period we address, A.D. 1200–1450, was characterized by migration and demographic upheaval. The tumultuous late thirteenth-century interval was followed by population coalescence and the development of widespread religious movements in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. In the southern Southwest these processes resulted in a highly connected network that drew in members of different settlements within and between different valleys that had previously been distinct. In the northern Southwest networks were initially highly connected followed by a more fragmented social landscape. We examine how different network textures emerged at each scale through 50-year snapshots. The results demonstrate the usefulness of applying a multiscalar approach to complex historical trajectories and the potential for social network analysis as applied to archaeological data.
The goals of these experiments were to describe the morphology and synaptic
connections of amacrine cells in the baboon retina that contain immunoreactive
vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (vGluT3). These amacrine cells had the
morphology characteristic of knotty bistratified type 1 cells, and their
dendrites formed two plexuses on either side of the center of the inner
plexiform layer. The primary dendrites received large synapses from amacrine
cells, and the higher-order dendrites were both pre- and postsynaptic to other
amacrine cells. Based on light microscopic immunolabeling results, these include
AII cells and starburst cells, but not the polyaxonal amacrine cells
tracer-coupled to ON parasol ganglion cells. The vGluT3 cells received input
from ON bipolar cells at ribbon synapses and made synapses onto OFF bipolar
cells, including the diffuse DB3a type. Many synapses from vGluT3 cells onto
retinal ganglion cells were observed in both plexuses. At synapses where vGluT3
cells were presynaptic, two types of postsynaptic densities were observed; there
were relatively thin ones characteristic of inhibitory synapses and relatively
thick ones characteristic of excitatory synapses. In the light microscopic
experiments with Neurobiotin-injected ganglion cells, vGluT3 cells made contacts
with midget and parasol ganglion cells, including both ON and OFF types. Puncta
containing immunoreactive gephyrin, an inhibitory synapse marker, were found at
appositions between vGluT3 cells and each of the four types of labeled ganglion
cells. The vGluT3 cells did not have detectable levels of immunoreactive
γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or immunoreactive glycine transporter 1.
Thus, the vGluT3 cells would be expected to have ON responses to light and make
synapses onto neurons in both the ON and the OFF pathways. Taken with previous
results, these findings suggest that vGluT3 cells release glycine at some of
their output synapses and glutamate at others.
Cytokines and vitamin D both have a role in modulating the immune system, and are also potentially useful biomarkers in mental illnesses such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia. Studying the variability of cytokines and vitamin D in a healthy population sample may add to understanding the association between these biomarkers and mental illness. To assess genetic and environmental contributions to variation in circulating levels of cytokines and vitamin D (25-hydroxy vitamin D: 25(OH)D3), we analyzed data from a healthy adolescent twin cohort (mean age 16.2 years; standard deviation 0.25). Plasma cytokine measures were available for 400 individuals (85 MZ, 115 DZ pairs), dried blood spot sample vitamin D measures were available for 378 individuals (70 MZ, 118 DZ pairs). Heritability estimates were moderate but significant for the cytokines transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), 0.57 (95% CI 0.26–0.80) and tumor necrosis factor-receptor type 1 (TNFR1), 0.50 (95% CI 0.11–0.63) respectively. Measures of 25(OH)D3 were within normal range and heritability was estimated to be high (0.86, 95% CI 0.61–0.94). Assays of other cytokines did not generate meaningful results. These potential biomarkers may be useful in mental illness, with further research warranted in larger sample sizes. They may be particularly important in adolescents with mental illness where diagnostic uncertainty poses a significant clinical challenge.