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The Glasgow area has a combination of highly variable superficial deposits and a legacy of heavy industry, quarrying and mining. These factors create complex foundation and hydrological conditions, influencing the movement of contaminants through the subsurface and giving rise locally to unstable ground conditions. Digital geological three-dimensional models developed by the British Geological Survey are helping to resolve the complex geology underlying Glasgow, providing a key tool for planning and environmental management. The models, covering an area of 3200km2 to a depth of 1.2km, include glacial and post-glacial deposits and the underlying, faulted Carboniferous igneous and sedimentary rocks. Control data, including 95,000 boreholes, digital mine plans and published geological maps, were used in model development. Digital outputs from the models include maps of depth to key horizons, such as rockhead or depth to mine workings. The models have formed the basis for the development of site-scale high-resolution geological models and provide input data for a wide range of other applications from groundwater modelling to stochastic lithological modelling.
Research on resilience has shown that resilient individuals possess a variety of internal characteristics (e.g., hardiness and reflectiveness) and a mixture of external characteristics (e.g., social contact and relationship recruiting) that interact to promote resilience. This research examined the relationship between social support of friends, social support of family, and resiliency to further understand the impact of social contact on psychological health and wellbeing. Study 1 showed that in the face of self-reported difficult life circumstances, friend support (but not family support) predicts most aspects of psychological wellbeing. Similarly, Study 2 found that previous reports of friend (but not family) support predicted positive affect for participants in a simulated achievement rejection experimental condition. Taken together, these studies suggest that among adults, perceived social support from friends may be more impactful than social support from family.
This paper describes a preliminary series of observations of the Sun made at a frequency of 80 MHz with the 3 km radioheliograph of the Culgoora Observatory. The instrument records, at one-second intervals, pictures of the solar image in the form of 60 (E-W) × 48 (N-S) points, each separated in angle by half the Rayleigh limit (2’ arc in the zenith). At the time of the present observations the instrument was incomplete in three main respects : (a) the facilities for recording opposite senses of circular polarization were not available; (b) the automatic image compensation for zenith-angle foreshortening was not available—hence the optical disk of the Sun appears elliptical; and (c) the phase and amplitude calibration procedures had not been fully established, resulting in a higher sidelobe level than that specified in the design—the effects are sometimes evident in the pictures as spoke-like brightenings.
Micromechanical testing of electroplated gold alloy films has been conducted using theta-like specimens. Specimens were formed by a standard combination of photolithography, electroplating, and deep reactive ion etching. Testing was performed using an instrumented indenter and the results interpreted using a finite-element model with a Ramberg–Osgood constitutive law to extract elastic and plastic material properties. The observed results were highly repeatable and appear to be sensitive to variations in both sample dimensions and material properties. These qualities suggest that the testing methodology may have significant value as a quality control technique in the fabrication of metal microelectromechanical systems.
The principles embodied by the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) view of ‘life history’ trajectory are increasingly underpinned by biological data arising from molecular-based epigenomic and transcriptomic studies. Although a number of ‘omic’ platforms are now routinely and widely used in biology and medicine, data generation is frequently confounded by a frequency distribution in the measurement error (an inherent feature of the chemistry and physics of the measurement process), which adversely affect the accuracy of estimation and thus, the inference of relationships to other biological measures such as phenotype. Based on empirical derived data, we have previously derived a probability density function to capture such errors and thus improve the confidence of estimation and inference based on such data. Here we use published open source data sets to calculate parameter values relevant to the most widely used epigenomic and transcriptomic technologies Then by using our own data sets, we illustrate the benefits of this approach by specific application, to measurement of DNA methylation in this instance, in cases where levels of methylation at specific genomic sites represents either (1) a response variable or (2) an independent variable. Further, we extend this formulation to consideration of the ‘bivariate’ case, in which the co-dependency of methylation levels at two distinct genomic sites is tested for biological significance. These tools not only allow greater accuracy of measurement and improved confidence of functional inference, but in the case of epigenomic data at least, also reveal otherwise cryptic information.
Surface adsorption represents a competition between collision and scattering processes that depend on surface energy, surface structure and temperature. The surface reactivity of the actinides can add additional complexity due to radiological dissociation of the gas and electronic structure. Here we elucidate the chemical bonding of gas molecules adsorbed on Pu metal and oxide surfaces. Atmospheric gas reactions were studied at 190 and 300 K using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Evolution of the Pu 4f and O 1s core-level states were studied as a function of gas dose rates to generate a set of Langmuir isotherms. Results show that the initial gas dose forms Pu2O3 on the Pu metal surface followed by the formation of PuO2 resulting in a layered oxide structure. This work represents the first steps in determining the activation energy for adsorption of various atmospheric gases on Pu.
One hundred and eighteen herpes simplex virus isolates were typed in a diagnostic virology laboratory using their standard procedure by pock size on the chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) of fertile hen's eggs. Forty-three were typed as type 1 and 75 as type 2. The isolates were then sent to a research laboratory in which they were typed blind, with or without subsequent passage in tissue culture, by neutralization with type-specific antisera. Discrepant results were found with only two isolates. The isolates were then typed by the more time-consuming but unambiguous method of restriction endonuclease analysis of their DNAs. Typing by this method confirmed the typing by neutralization and established that typing by pock size on CAMs was correct in about 98% of cases.
In this article we report the results from a new survey of political scientists regarding their evaluations of journals in the political science discipline. Unlike previous research that has focused on data from the United States, we conducted an Internet survey of political scientists in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. We present data on journal evaluations, journal familiarity, and journal impact, both for our entire sample (N = 1,695) and separately for respondents from each of the three countries. We document the overall hierarchy of scholarly journals among political scientists, though we find important similarities and differences in how political scientists from these three countries evaluate the scholarly journals in the discipline. Our results suggest that there is a strong basis for cross-national integration in scholarly journal communication, though methodological differences among the three countries may be an impediment.
Texel muscling quantitative trait locus (TM-QTL) is a QTL on chromosome 18, originally identified in purebred UK Texel sheep, which was reported to increase ultrasonically measured muscle depth at the third lumbar vertebra by around 4% to 7%. The objective of the present study was to comprehensively evaluate the TM-QTL and to determine whether it could provide benefits to the UK sheep industry through increased carcass meat yield in crossbred slaughter lambs. Effects of this QTL on a range of carcass traits, including those measured in vivo and by dissection, were evaluated in heterozygous carrier and non-carrier lambs produced by crossing heterozygous carrier Texel rams with non-carrier Mule (Bluefaced Leicester × Scottish Blackface) ewes from a lowland flock. The TM-QTL was found to increase loin muscling in crossbred lambs at a given live weight or carcass weight, as measured by ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography (CT) and carcass dissection. Depth of M. longissimus lumborum (MLL) was greater in TM-QTL carrier lambs compared to non-carriers as measured by both ultrasound at the third lumbar vertebra (+4.5%; P = 0.033) and CT scanning at the fifth lumbar vertebra (+6.7%; P = 0.004). Width and area of MLL measured using CT were also greater in TM-QTL carrier lambs compared to non-carriers (+3.0%; P = 0.013 and +5.1%; P = 0.047, respectively). Loin muscle volume measured using CT was greater in TM-QTL carriers than in non-carriers (+5.9%; P = 0.005) and the dissected weight of the MLL was +7.1% greater in TM-QTL carriers compared to non-carriers (P < 0.001). The proportion of the total carcass lean meat yield (LMY) that was contained within the loin region was slightly higher in TM-QTL carriers than in non-carriers (0.154 v. 0.145; P = 0.006). However, TM-QTL was found to have no significant effect on the total weight or proportion of LMY or of saleable meat yield in the carcass measured by dissection, or on muscling in the hind leg measured by CT or dissection. This work has verified that the inheritance of TM-QTL is associated with increased loin muscling in crossbred lambs, as has previously been reported for purebred Texel lambs.
A QTL (TM-QTL) identified on ovine chromosome 18 (Walling et al., 2004), which increases loin muscle depth by 4-8% in UK Texel sheep, is of interest for the sheep industry as a potential means to increase carcass value. Since the contribution of Texel genes to the UK slaughter generation is generally through use of Texel sires to produce crossbred slaughter lambs (e.g. Texel x Mule lambs), it is necessary to verify the effects of the TM-QTL on loin muscularity and other carcass traits in such crossbred progeny of Texel sires before explotiation of the TM-QTL in commercial sheep populations.
X-ray computed tomography (CT) measurements of live sheep have been used to predict carcass composition very accurately (Macfarlane et al., 2006). The utilisation of spiral CT scans (SCTS) for quantifying muscle volumes and weights, using automatic image analysis procedures has also been shown to be very accurate in sheep (Navajas et al., 2006). Although the limiting size of the CT gantry prevents CT scanning of live beef cattle, beef primal joints are small enough to be scanned. Hence, SCTS could be used to quantify beef carcass composition, and provide valuable information for breeding programmes including composition faster than by anatomical dissection. The objective of this study was to develop a CT image analysis procedure to assess fat, muscle and bone weights of beef carcasses and to evaluate its accuracy.
During a 12-month longitudinal study, bulk-tank milk was collected from organic (n=17) and conventional (n=19) dairy farms in the UK. Milk samples were analysed for vitamin A (retinol), vitamin E (α-tocopherol) and β-carotene content. The farming system type, herd production level and nutritional factors affecting the milk fat vitamin content were investigated by use of mixed model analyses. Conventionally produced milk fat had a higher mean content of vitamin A than organically produced milk fat, although there were no significant differences in the vitamin E or β-carotene contents between the two types of milk fat. Apart from farming system, other key factors that affected milk fat vitamin content were season, herd yield and concentrate feeding level. Milk vitamin content increased in the summer months and in association with increased concentrate feeding, whilst higher-yielding herds had a lower milk vitamin E and β-carotene content. Thus, conventional dairy farms in the UK produced milk with a higher vitamin A content, possibly owing to increased vitamin A supplementation in concentrate feeds. However, knowledge of the effects of season, access to fresh grazing or specific silage types and herd production level may also be used by all producers and processors to enhance the vitamin content in milk.
A subjective cow cleanliness scoring system was validated and used to assess the cleanliness score of dairy cows at different times in the year. A longitudinal study followed a number of farms from summer to winter, and a larger, cross-sectional study assessed a greater number of farms during the housed winter period. The scoring system was demonstrated to be both a repeatable and practical technique to use on-farm and showed that cows become dirtier in the transition from summer grazing to winter housing. Although farming system (organic or conventional) had no effect on cow cleanliness when cows were at grass, when housed in the winter, organic cows were significantly more likely to be cleaner. There was a link between cow cleanliness scores and milk quality, with herds having lower bulk tank somatic cell counts (BTSCC) tending to have a lower (cleaner) median cow cleanliness score; with this relationship strongest for the organic herds. There was no significant link between cleanliness score and Bactoscan (BS) count or clinical mastitis incidence. No major mastitis pathogens were cultured from bulk tank milk samples from the quartile of herds with the cleanest cows in contrast to the quartile of herds with the dirtiest cows, where significant mastitis pathogens were cultured. Based on this study, all farms, especially organic systems, should attempt to keep cows clean as part of subclinical mastitis control.
We report a longitudinal, prospective, multicentre cohort study designed to measure the outcomes of gastrostomy tube feeding in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Fifty-seven children with CP (28 females, 29 males; median age 4y 4mo, range 5mo to 17y 3mo) were assessed before gastrostomy placement, and at 6 and 12 months afterwards. Three-quarters of the children enrolled (43 of 57) had spastic quadriplegia; other diagnoses included mixed CP (6 of 57), hemiplegia (3 of 57), undiagnosed severe neurological impairment (3 of 57), ataxia (1 of 57), and extrapyramidal disorder (1 of 57). Only 7 of 57 (12%) could sit independently, and only 3 of 57 (5%) could walk unaided. Outcome measures included growth/anthropometry, nutritional intake, general health, and complications of gastrostomy feeding. At baseline, half of the children were more than 3SD below the average weight for their age and sex when compared with the standards for typically-developing children. Weight increased substantially over the study period; the median weight z score increased from –3 before gastrostomy placement to –2.2 at 6 months and –1.6 at 12 months. Almost all parents reported a significant improvement in their child's health after this intervention and a significant reduction in time spent feeding. Statistically significant and clinically important increases in weight gain and subcutaneous fat deposition were noted. Serious complications were rare, with no evidence of an increase in respiratory complications.
Background. It is now accepted that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists into adulthood. However, relative to the considerable literature concerning the profile of neurocognitive deficits associated with this disorder in childhood, equivalent investigations in adult populations have been less common. The current study examined cognitive function in adults diagnosed with ADHD employing well-validated neuropsychological tasks.
Method. Nineteen adult patients who satisfied DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and 19 matched (gender, age and verbal IQ), non-clinical control subjects were recruited. Patients were either unmedicated or had abstained from a psychostimulant medication regime for at least 24 h prior to neurocognitive assessment. A functionally wide-ranging test battery was administered.
Results. Relative to controls, ADHD adults performed significantly worse on spatial working memory, planning, and attentional-set shifting tests and were significantly slower to respond to target stimuli on the go/no-go task. In contrast, the two subject groups performed equivalently on decision-making and pattern/spatial recognition memory assessments.
Conclusions. The demonstration of neuropsychological dysfunction in the adult ADHD cohort provides some support for the validity of this diagnosis in adulthood. In particular, there is broad consistency between the cognitive profile revealed in the current investigation and that previously demonstrated in a study of medication-naïve ADHD children. There is evidence that frontostriatal function is especially disrupted.
We have undertaken an adaptive optics imaging survey of extra-solar planetary systems and stars showing interesting radial velocity trends from high precision radial velocity searches. Adaptive Optics increases the resolution and dynamic range of an image, substantially improving the detectability of faint close companions. This survey is sensitive to objects less luminous than the bottom of the main sequence at separations as close as 1″. We have detected stellar companions to the planet bearing stars HD 114762 and Tau Boo. We have also detected a companion to the non-planet bearing star 16 Cyg A.
This paper presents the results of a laboratory study on the influence of heterotrophic bacteria on dissolution of a silicate mineral (K-feldspar) under a variety of growth conditions. Twenty seven strains of heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from a feldspar-rich soil (Shap, NW England). Liquid and solid minimal aerobic media (C/N-sufficient, K-limited, Fe-limited, N-limited and glucose/NH4Cl only) at 26ºC were used for isolation of the bacteria. The media selected bacterial isolates that were fastgrowing aerobic heterotrophs able to use glucose as the sole source of carbon and energy. The extent of mineral dissolution (in the presence of the isolates) was assessed after 48 h of incubation by measuring the release of Al from the K-feldspar by ICP-AES. More detailed dissolution experiments were carried out with one of the strains, Serratia marcescens, an isolate that was very effective in enhancing feldspar dissolution. The main conclusions of this study are: (1) the degree of enhancement of K-feldspar dissolution varied with bacterial isolate and growth conditions; (2) enhancement of dissolution began during stationary phase growth; (3) the production of chelating compounds (exopolymers, siderophores, pigments) during the stationary phase might be a possible mechanism for bacterially enhanced K-feldspar dissolution; (4) the frequent sub-culturing of isolates can have a significant effect on their physiological characteristics and may possibly influence their capacity to enhance mineral dissolution.
Field studies were conducted near Archer, FL, and Vienna, GA, in 1995 and 1996 to investigate the effects of pyridate formulation and adjuvants on broadleaf weed control in peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Pyridate formulations SAN 319H 450EC 361LZ, SAN 319H 450EC 216LZ, and SAN 319H 600EC 418LZ were evaluated at two rates, 1.07 and 2.14 kg/ha. Pyridate at 1.07 kg/ha plus 2,4-DB at 0.23 kg/ha were evaluated alone and with five adjuvants. The adjuvants included a crop oil concentrate, a nonionic surfactant, a nonionic surfactant with organosilicone blend, urea ammonium nitrate plus a nonionic surfactant, and chlorothalonil (a fungicide) plus a nonionic surfactant. No pyridate treatment injured peanut. Pyridate formulation did not affect broadleaf weed control. Increasing pyridate rate increased weed control and yield. Mixing 2,4-DB with pyridate generally enhanced sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) and common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) control. Florida beggarweed (Desmodium tortuosum), smallflower morningglory (Jacquemontia tamnifolia), hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta), sicklepod, and common cocklebur control with pyridate was not enhanced by adjuvants. Adding chlorothalonil to pyridate plus 2,4-DB did not affect weed control or peanut injury.
Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine yellow nutsedge response to selective placement of a 5-cm layer of norflurazon-treated soil above, below, or above plus below pregerminated nutsedge tubers. Norflurazon at 1.68 kg ai/ha applied postemergence (POST) as a foliar, soil, or foliar plus soil treatment was also evaluated. Soil concentrations of norflurazon at 1.5 mg/kg (w/w) applied below or above plus below nutsedge tubers reduced yellow nutsedge shoot numbers at least 69%, shoot height at least 71%, shoot dry weights at least 77%, and root tuber dry weights at least 89%. Yellow nutsedge growth reduction with norflurazon was greatest when norflurazon was placed in the soil profile below or above plus below the yellow nutsedge tubers. Placement of norflurazon above yellow nutsedge tubers did not reduce shoot number, height, or dry weight until the foliar portion of plants were removed 39 d after treatment. POST application of norflurazon did not reduce initial yellow nutsedge shoot number regardless of application method. Foliar-only POST application of norflurazon was less effective for reducing numbers of emerged yellow nutsedge than application to soil only or soil plus foliage.