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In this chapter the major conservation issues bears face is reviewed and management actions that can address these conservation issues are highlighted. The future of bears across the world is bright for some species but dark for others. In some areas such as North America and in parts of Europe and Asia, bear populations have increased and stabilized because of increased management effort and increasing support for bears and their needs by the humans who share habitat with them. However, for most bear species, the future is uncertain. Andean bears continue to be threatened by habitat loss and human encroachment. In much of Asia outside Japan, Asiatic black bear, sloth bear, and sun bear populations are increasingly threatened by unmanaged excessive mortality combined with habitat loss to timber harvest, plantation agriculture, and human encroachment. The long-term future for polar bears is threatened by the unmanageable threat of climate change. Giant pandas are fragmented into small populations despite intense conservation efforts. Improving public and political support for bears is the most important need if we are to realize successful bear conservation and management.
To evaluate the effect of 70% isopropyl alcohol–impregnated central venous catheter caps on ambulatory central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in pediatric hematology-oncology patients.
This study was a 24-month, cluster-randomized, 2 period, crossover clinical trial.
The study was conducted in 15 pediatric healthcare institutions, including 16 pediatric hematology-oncology clinics.
All patients with an external central line followed at 1 of the 16 hematology-oncology clinics.
Usual ambulatory central-line care per each institution using 70% isopropyl alcohol–impregnated caps at home compared to usual ambulatory central-line care in each institution without using 70% isopropyl alcohol–impregnated caps.
Of the 16 participating clinics, 15 clinics completed both assignment periods. As assigned, there was no reduction in CLABSI incidence in clinics using 70% isopropyl alcohol–impregnated caps (1.23 per 1,000 days) compared with standard practices (1.38 per 1,000 days; adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR], 0.83; 95% CI, 0.63–1.11). In the per-protocol population, there was a reduction in positive blood culture incidence in clinics using 70% isopropyl alcohol-impregnated caps (1.51 per 1,000 days) compared with standard practices (1.88 per 1,000 days; aIRR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.52–0.99). No adverse events were reported.
Isopropyl alcohol–impregnated central-line caps did not lead to a statistically significant reduction in CLABSI rates in ambulatory hematology-oncology patients. In the per-protocol analysis, there was a statistically significant decrease in positive blood cultures. Larger trials are needed to elucidate the impact of 70% isopropyl alcohol–impregnated caps in the ambulatory setting.
Because of inconsistent findings regarding the relationship between sleep quality and cognitive function in people with age-related memory complaints, we examined how self-reports of sleep quality were related to multiple domains of both objective and subjective cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults.
A cross-sectional study involving analysis of baseline data, collected as part of a clinical trial.
Two hundred and three participants (mean age = 60.4 [6.5] years, 69.0% female) with mild memory complaints were asked to rate their sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and their memory performance using the Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ), which measures self-awareness of memory ability. Neurocognitive performance was evaluated using the Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Trail Making Test, Buschke Selective Reminding Test, and the Brief Visuospatial Test – Revised (BVMT-R).
Total PSQI scores were significantly associated with objective measures of sustained attention (CPT hit reaction time by block and standard error by block) and subjective memory loss (MFQ frequency and seriousness of forgetting). The PSQI components of (poorer) sleep quality and (greater) sleep disturbance were related to (worse) sustained attention scores while increased sleep latency and daytime sleepiness were associated with greater frequency and seriousness of forgetting.
Sleep quality is related to both objective measures of sustained attention and self-awareness of memory decline. These findings suggest that interventions for improving sleep quality may contribute not only to improving the ability to focus on a particular task but also in reducing memory complaints in middle-aged and older adults.
The perinatal period is a vulnerable time for the development of psychopathology, particularly mood and anxiety disorders. In the study of maternal anxiety, important questions remain regarding the association between maternal anxiety symptoms and subsequent child outcomes. This study examined the association between depressive and anxiety symptoms, namely social anxiety, panic, and agoraphobia disorder symptoms during the perinatal period and maternal perception of child behavior, specifically different facets of development and temperament. Participants (N = 104) were recruited during pregnancy from a community sample. Participants completed clinician-administered and self-report measures of depressive and anxiety symptoms during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 16 months postpartum; child behavior and temperament outcomes were assessed at 16 months postpartum. Child development areas included gross and fine motor skills, language and problem-solving abilities, and personal/social skills. Child temperament domains included surgency, negative affectivity, and effortful control. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that elevated prenatal social anxiety symptoms significantly predicted more negative maternal report of child behavior across most measured domains. Elevated prenatal social anxiety and panic symptoms predicted more negative maternal report of child effortful control. Depressive and agoraphobia symptoms were not significant predictors of child outcomes. Elevated anxiety symptoms appear to have a distinct association with maternal report of child development and temperament. Considering the relative influence of anxiety symptoms, particularly social anxiety, on maternal report of child behavior and temperament can help to identify potential difficulties early on in mother–child interactions as well as inform interventions for women and their families.
Human-computer hybrid teams can meet challenges in designing complex engineered systems. However, the understanding of interaction in the hybrid teams is lacking. We review the literature and identify four key attributes to construct design research platforms that support multi-phase design, hybrid teams, multiple design scenarios, and data logging. Then, we introduce a platform for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) design embodying these attributes. With the platform, experiments can be conducted to study how designers and intelligent computational agents interact, support, and impact each other.
To evaluate total usual intakes and biomarkers of micronutrients, overall dietary quality and related health characteristics of US older adults who were overweight or obese compared with a healthy weight.
Two 24-h dietary recalls, nutritional biomarkers and objective and subjective health characteristic data were analysed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2014. We used the National Cancer Institute method to estimate distributions of total usual intakes from foods and dietary supplements for eleven micronutrients of potential concern and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 score.
Older adults aged ≥60 years (n 2969) were categorised by sex and body weight status, using standard BMI categories. Underweight individuals (n 47) were excluded due to small sample size.
A greater percentage of obese older adults compared with their healthy-weight counterparts was at risk of inadequate Mg (both sexes), Ca, vitamin B6 and vitamin D (women only) intakes. The proportion of those with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 40 nmol/l was higher in obese (12 %) than in healthy-weight older women (6 %). Mean overall HEI-2015 scores were 8·6 (men) and 7·1 (women) points lower in obese than in healthy-weight older adults. In addition, compared with healthy-weight counterparts, obese older adults were more likely to self-report fair/poor health, use ≥ 5 medications and have limitations in activities of daily living and cardio-metabolic risk factors; and obese older women were more likely to be food-insecure and have depression.
Our findings suggest that obesity may coexist with micronutrient inadequacy in older adults, especially among women.
Field trials were conducted in North Carolina in 2017 and Louisiana and Mississippi in 2018 to determine the effect of pretransplanting applications of diquat on sweetpotato crop tolerance, yield, and storage root quality. In North Carolina treatments consisted of two rates of diquat (560 or 1,120 g ai ha−1) alone or mixed with 107 g ai ha−1 flumioxazin and applied 1 d before transplanting (DBP), sequential applications of diquat (560 or 1,120 g ha−1) 1 and 17 DBP, 107 g ha−1 flumioxazin alone, and a nontreated check. In Louisiana and Mississippi treatments consisted of diquat (560 or 1,120 g ha−1) applied 1 DBP either alone or followed by (fb) rehipping rows or 107 g ha−1 flumioxazin immediately prior to transplanting. Additional treatments included 546 g ha−1 paraquat applied 1 DBP and a nontreated check. In North Carolina injury was ≤3% for all treatments through 23 d after transplanting (DAP), and no injury was observed after 23 DAP. Visual sweetpotato stunting pooled across the Mississippi and Louisiana trials ranged from 1% to 14%, 0% to 6%, and 0% to 3% at 2, 4, and 6 wk after planting (WAP), respectively, and no crop injury was observed after 6 WAP. Diquat applied 1 DBP and not fb rehipping resulted in greater crop injury (12%) than comparable treatments that were rehipped (2%). In North Carolina single and sequential diquat applications resulted in reduced No. 1 sweetpotato yield (24,230 and 24,280 kg ha−1, respectively) compared with the nontreated check, but No. 1 yield when diquat plus flumioxazin (26,330 kg ha−1) was used was similar to that of the nontreated check. No. 1 yield did not differ by treatment in Louisiana and Mississippi.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
Field trials were conducted near Pontotoc, Mississippi; Chase, Louisiana; and Clinton, North Carolina, in 2017 and 2018 to determine the effect of pendimethalin rate and timing application on sweetpotato crop tolerance, yield, and storage root quality. Treatments consisted of five pendimethalin rates (266, 532, 1,065, 1,597, and 2,130 g ai ha−1) by two application timings (0 to 1 or 10 to 14 d after transplanting). Additionally, a nontreated check was included for comparison. Crop injury (stunting) was minimal (≤4%) through 6 wk after transplanting (WAP) and no injury was observed from 8 to 14 WAP, regardless of application timing or rate. The nontreated check yielded 6.6, 17.6, 5.5, and 32.1 × 103 kg ha−1 of canner, no. 1, jumbo, and total grades, respectively. Neither pendimethalin application timing nor rate influenced jumbo, no. 1, marketable, or total sweetpotato yield. Overall, these results indicate that pendimethalin will be a valuable addition to the toolkit of sweetpotato growers.
The association between lower birth weight and increased disease risk in adulthood has drawn attention to the physiological processes that shape the gestational environment. We implement genome-wide transcriptional profiling of maternal blood samples to identify subsets of genes and associated transcription control pathways that predict offspring birth weight. Female participants (N = 178, mean = 27.0 years) in a prospective observational birth cohort study were contacted between 2009 and 2014 to identify new pregnancies. An in-home interview was scheduled for early in the third trimester (mean = 30.3 weeks) to collect pregnancy-related information and a blood sample, and birth weight was measured shortly after delivery. Transcriptional activity in white blood cells was determined with a whole-genome gene expression direct hybridization assay. Fifty transcripts were differentially expressed in association with offspring birth weight, with 18 up-regulated in relation to lower birth weight, and 32 down-regulated. Examination of transcription control pathways identified increased activity of NF-κB, AP-1, EGR1, EGR4, and Gfi families, and reduced the activity of CEBP, in association with lower birth weight. Transcript origin analyses identified non-classical CD16+ monocytes, CD1c+ myeloid dendritic cells, and neutrophils as the primary cellular mediators of differential gene expression. These results point toward a systematic regulatory shift in maternal white blood cell activity in association with lower offspring birth weight, and they suggest that analyses of gene expression during gestation may provide insight into regulatory and cellular mechanisms that influence birth outcomes.
Identifying routes of transmission among hospitalized patients during a healthcare-associated outbreak can be tedious, particularly among patients with complex hospital stays and multiple exposures. Data mining of the electronic health record (EHR) has the potential to rapidly identify common exposures among patients suspected of being part of an outbreak.
We retrospectively analyzed 9 hospital outbreaks that occurred during 2011–2016 and that had previously been characterized both according to transmission route and by molecular characterization of the bacterial isolates. We determined (1) the ability of data mining of the EHR to identify the correct route of transmission, (2) how early the correct route was identified during the timeline of the outbreak, and (3) how many cases in the outbreaks could have been prevented had the system been running in real time.
Correct routes were identified for all outbreaks at the second patient, except for one outbreak involving >1 transmission route that was detected at the eighth patient. Up to 40 or 34 infections (78% or 66% of possible preventable infections, respectively) could have been prevented if data mining had been implemented in real time, assuming the initiation of an effective intervention within 7 or 14 days of identification of the transmission route, respectively.
Data mining of the EHR was accurate for identifying routes of transmission among patients who were part of the outbreak. Prospective validation of this approach using routine whole-genome sequencing and data mining of the EHR for both outbreak detection and route attribution is ongoing.
Externalizing disorders are known to be partly heritable, but the biological pathways linking genetic risk to the manifestation of these costly behaviors remain under investigation. This study sought to identify neural phenotypes associated with genomic vulnerability for externalizing disorders.
One-hundred fifty-five White, non-Hispanic veterans were genotyped using a genome-wide array and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Genetic susceptibility was assessed using an independently developed polygenic score (PS) for externalizing, and functional neural networks were identified using graph theory based network analysis. Tasks of inhibitory control and psychiatric diagnosis (alcohol/substance use disorders) were used to measure externalizing phenotypes.
A polygenic externalizing disorder score (PS) predicted connectivity in a brain circuit (10 nodes, nine links) centered on left amygdala that included several cortical [bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) pars triangularis, left rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC)] and subcortical (bilateral amygdala, hippocampus, and striatum) regions. Directional analyses revealed that bilateral amygdala influenced left prefrontal cortex (IFG) in participants scoring higher on the externalizing PS, whereas the opposite direction of influence was observed for those scoring lower on the PS. Polygenic variation was also associated with higher Participation Coefficient for bilateral amygdala and left rACC, suggesting that genes related to externalizing modulated the extent to which these nodes functioned as communication hubs.
Findings suggest that externalizing polygenic risk is associated with disrupted connectivity in a neural network implicated in emotion regulation, impulse control, and reinforcement learning. Results provide evidence that this network represents a genetically associated neurobiological vulnerability for externalizing disorders.
The stellar winds of hot stars have an important impact on both stellar and galactic evolution, yet their structure and internal processes are not fully understood in detail. One of the best nearby laboratories for studying such massive stellar winds is the O4I(n)fp star ζ Pup. After briefly discussing existing X-ray observations from Chandra and XMM, we present a simulation of X-ray emission line profile measurements for the upcoming 840 kilosecond Chandra HETGS observation. This simulation indicates that the increased S/N of this new observation will allow several major steps forward in the understanding of massive stellar winds. By measuring X-ray emission line strengths and profiles, we should be able to differentiate between various stellar wind models and map the entire wind structure in temperature and density. This legacy X-ray spectrum of ζ Pup will be a useful benchmark for future X-ray missions.
Group-3 medulloblastoma (MBL) is highly resistant to radiation (IR) and chemotherapy and has the worst prognosis. Hence, there is an urgent need to elucidate targets that sensitize these tumors to chemotherapy and IR. Employing standard assays for viability and sensitization to IR, we identified PRDX1 as a therapeutic target in Group-3 MBL. Specifically, targeting PRDX1 by RNAi or inhibition by Adenanthin led to specific killing and sensitization to IR of Group-3 MBL cells. We rescued sensitization of Daoy and UW228 cells by hypermorphic expression of PRDX1. PRDX1 knockdown caused oxidative DNA damage and induced apoptosis. We correlated PRDX1 expression to patient outcomes in a validated MBL tumor-microarray. Whole genome sequencing identified pathways/genes that were dysregulated with PRDX1 inhibition or silencing. Our in vivo studies in mice employing flank/orthotopic tumors from patient derived xenografts/Group-3 MBL cells confirmed in vitro observations. Animals with tumors in which PRDX1 was targeted by RNAi or Adenanthin (using mini osmotic pumps) showed decreased tumor burden and increased survival when compared to controls. Since, Adenanthin does not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) we used HAV6 peptide to transiently disrupt the BBB and deliver Adenanthin to the tumor. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that targeting PRDX1 resulted in increased oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis and decreased proliferation. In summary, we have validated PRDX1 as a therapeutic target in group-3 MBL, identified Adenanthin as a potent chemical inhibitor of PRDX1 and confirmed the role of HAV peptide (in the transient modulation of BBB permeability) in an orthotopic model of group-3 MBL.
The profitability of pig production is constrained by high incidences of peri-parturient and pre-weaning piglet mortality. Supplementing sows with either progesterone or caffeine during the last week of gestation can reduce stillbirths and improve piglet performance. However, the consequences of combining these two substances has not been investigated. The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of oral supplementation of sows with progesterone (regumate) and caffeine at the end of gestation on the timing and progression of farrowing, as well as piglet survival and growth to weaning. From days 111 to 113 of gestation, 20 Large White pregnant sows (parity 3.0±0.45) received 5 ml of Regumate Porcine (0.4 w/v oral solution; MSD Animal Health) daily on top of their morning ration. Sows were stratified according to parity and predicted farrowing date, and allocated at random to receive a diet supplemented with either 0 g caffeine/kg diet (CONT) or 2.4 g of caffeine/kg diet (CAFF) from day 113 of gestation until parturition (n=10 sows/treatment). Treatment did not affect total litter size; however, CONT sows gave birth to more live and fewer dead piglets compared with CAFF sows; 14.5±0.73 v. 11.7±1.03 and 0.7±0.20 v. 3.2±0.77; P<0.05). Mean, minimum and maximum piglet birthweight were unaffected by treatment. Compared with the control, caffeine increased the proportion of piglets with a birthweight <1 kg (0.16±0.05 v. 0.05±0.02; P=0.072) and decreased the proportion of live born piglets surviving to day 5 postpartum (0.77±0.06 v. 0.90±0.02; P<0.05) and to weaning (0.74±0.06 v. 0.90±0.02; P<0.05). Overall, the current data provided the first evidence that caffeine supplementation of sows receiving progesterone to prevent premature farrowing impaired piglet survival during, and shortly after parturition. This negative outcome may be linked to extended farrowing durations and an increase in the proportion of very light piglets at birth. These data provide compelling, albeit preliminary, evidence that caffeine and progesterone should not be used together at the end of gestation.
While striving to succeed in the face of adversity may provide individuals with outward benefits, it may come at a cost to individuals’ physical health. The current study examines whether striving predicts greater physiological or psychosocial costs among those who experienced child maltreatment, a stressor that disrupts the caregiving environment and threatens relationship security. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we tested whether greater striving after childhood maltreatment would come at a cost, increasing underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and depressive symptoms despite showing outward success via income and college degree attainment. The study included 13,341 Black, Hispanic, and White adolescents who self-reported striving and their experiences of childhood neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. As young adults, participants reported depressive symptoms, income, and college degree attainment and completed a health assessment from which a 30-year Framingham-based CVD risk score was calculated. Higher striving was associated with lower CVD risk and depressive symptoms, and higher income and college degree attainment, regardless of maltreatment history. These findings highlight the potential for striving as a target for interventions and support the need to examine multiple biological and behavioral outcomes to understand the multifaceted nature of resilience.