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Formaldehyde absorption has been observed with the Very Large Array in both the 6 cm and 2 cm transitions towards a number of ultracompact HII regions which are embedded in the dense cores of molecular clouds. Such data have been compared with the results of radiative transfer calculations to derive the distributions of the molecular hydrogen density and of the abundance of formaldehyde relative to molecular hydrogen. Results are presented for the sources DR 21 and W 3(OH).
Small clusters of recently-formed massive stars with their associated compact H II regions are often found embedded in the dense cores of molecular clouds. The H2CO opacity is correlated with the compactness of the H II region and is especially high for those with associated maser activity although additional factors are involved for the ultra-compact H II regions (UCH II). VLA observations of H2CO at 2 cm have been made towards the UCH II regions of W49-north. The highest H2CO opacity of 1.0 is found towards region A which does not have maser activity; yet one of the most compact region C, has an H2CO opacity of only 0.3, For these sources the integrated H2CO opacity (over the entire profile) may be more indicative of compactness. This may be due to the broader H2CO lines which can occur towards the maser regions. For example, large line widths of 10 to 12 km s−1 ate found towards W49-north G where the most intense water masers are located and towards W49-north B which has OH masers. The H2CO line with the highest 2 cm opacity of 2.5 and a narrow width of 2 km s−1 is found towards the UCH II region ON 3 which has only weak H2O maser emission.
Optical velocity field mapping of G292.0+1.8 in the [0III] λ5007 å line has been carried out using the IPCS with the 3.6 m ESO telescope at La Silla. Our data are not consistent with the suggestion that the [0III] emitting material in the western portion of this remnant is concentrated in an expanding ring. The existing data on G292.0+1.8 suggests that only the brightest portion of a thick shell of ejecta with high velocity spurs is observed. The expansion centroid, size, velocity and age of this SNR are derived.
The radio source Sgr A has been mapped with the Very Large Array (VLA) at 6 and 20 cm with an angular resolution of 5″ x 8″ arc. In agreement with the earlier “WORST” map, the non-thermal source Sgr A East shows a shell structure, while the thermal source Sgr A West shows a spiral-like morphology. We suggest that Sgr A East is a supernova remnant (SNR) near the galactic centre. Its surface brightness is the third largest in our galaxy after Cas A and the Crab Nebula. The diameter is 9 pc and the source fits the surface-brightness diameter relationship of Clark and Caswell (1976) if a distance of 10 kpc is assumed.
Maps with 0′.5 resolution are presented of the distribution of neutral hydrogen in two galaxies. The barred spiral NGC 5383 contains much hydrogen, in strong differential rotation, in its outer parts; some H I concentrations with possibly anomalous velocities are observed in the regions of bar and nucleus. In the giant Scd spiral M101, the H I distribution corresponds closely with the optical spiral pattern, except for a lack of hydrogen in the central region.
We have observed SgrA at 332 MHz (92 cm) with a resolution of 12 arcsec (0.6 pc) using the four configurations of the VIA. These results illustrate the dramatic and almost unique variation of radio spectral index within the central 3–4 arcmin of the galactic center. SgrA East is a non-thermal shell source that could be a supernova remnant or a very low-luminosity example of a radio component associated with the active nucleus of a spiral galaxy. The most dramatic aspect of the new 332 MHz observations is the appearance of the the SgrA West spiral features in absorption against SgrA East. Based on these results, SgrA East is situated behind SgrA West, the center of the galaxy. The halo is in front of or surrounds the former sources. The HII regions to the east of SgrA East (1 = −0°.02, b = −0°.07) are probably associated with the 50 km/s molecular cloud. The 7 arcmin halo (20 pc) has a non-thermal spectrum with turn-over below 1 GHz.
We investigate the long-term flux density variations of the compact radio source Sgr A∗ at the galactic center by combining recent VLA observations with previous Green Bank interferometer data. We present radio flux density light-curves for Sgr A∗ at 20, 11, 6 and 3.7 cm from 1974 to 1987. Long-term variability with a timescale of at least 5 years is seen at 20 cm and there is evidence for more rapid variations at the shorter wavelengths. The variability timescales at 20, 11 and 6 cm fit the λ2 scaling predicted by the theory of refractive scintillation suggesting that the variability could be due to this cause. However, the timescales are relatively short, implying an unusually high velocity in the scattering screen. The modulation index of the variability is large and relatively independent of wavelength.
Based on observations of the extended supernova remnant CTB 80 carried out with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT, India) at 240 and 618 MHz we have analyzed the spectral behavior of the ∼ 10′ nebula formed near the pulsar PSR B1951+32, finding signatures of the interaction of the pulsar with the surrounding plasma.
We have carried out an H I survey towards X-ray central compact objects (CCOs) inside supernova remnants (SNRs), which shows that many of them are placed within local H I minimA. The nature of these minima is not clear, but the most likely explanation is that the CCOs have evacuated the neighboring gas. This survey also allowed us to detect a weak, diffuse radio nebula inside the SNR G266.2−1.2, probably created by the winds of its associated CCO.
An extensive survey of HI absorption in the spectra of discrete radio sources has been in progress for the past three years at the Parkes radio observatory. One part of the survey comprising sources along the galactic plane north of declination —50° has recently been completed. In this communication we discuss some conclusions concerning the distances of 10 sources drawn from a preliminary analysis of the data.
During 1968 we have found at Parkes several types of emission in the lines of the 18 cm quadruplet of the ground-state OH molecule. This note describes a strong source of 1612 MHz emission near galactic longitude 331°.
OH emission was originally detected in the vicinity of HII regions, and a search of a large number of HII regions showed that about a third had associated OH emission. This type of emission is usually strongest at 1665 MHz, and is also seen at 1667 MHz and weakly on one of the satellite lines.
Time variations in both the NGC 6334 and Orion OH sources have been reported by the Berkeley group. The variations in NGC 6334 have been partially confirmed by the group at the Lincoln Laboratory, who show that the variations are confined to the southern source, NGC 6334B. These latter authors find variable components at —6.6 and —7.9 km/s at 1665 MHz and at —8.9 km/s at 1667 MHz. Both features at 1665 MHz appear to vary, both up and down, with time; during 1966 October the characteristic rise time was nine days or less. The Berkeley results show that the linear polarization was constant during a two-week period in 1965 October. The Lincoln Laboratory results from 1966 October to 1967 June show that both the degree and sense of circular polarization remain constant as the three features vary with time.
Observations of galactic HII regions in the longitude range 280° to 300° have recently been made at the OH-line frequencies 1612.231, 1665.402 and 1667.358 MHz using the Parkes radio telescope. Strong emission was observed at 1612 and 1665 MHz from a source near the regions of Hα emission RCW 48 and RCW 49 (Rodgers, Campbell and Whiteoak).
The Circinus galaxy (CG) was discovered on a plate of an atlas of the nebulae of the southern Milky Way (Lyngå and and Hansson 1972). The detailed optical properties of this galaxy have been investigated by Freeman, Karlsson, Lyngå and Burrell and will be published in a paper by Freeman et al. (1976). The coordinates of the optical nucleus are (1950).
Pulse arrival time measurements allow the determination of accurate pulsar periods, period derivatives and, provided the data span is at least one year, precise pulsar positions. If observations are frequent and reasonably regular, irregularities in the period can also be investigated. To minimize the effect of possible variations in dispersion measure, it is important that these observations be made at a relatively high frequency, preferably above 1 GHz. To eliminate pulse shape variations due to variable ionospheric Faraday
rotation, the pulse total intensity or one of the circular polarizations must be recorded.
In 1966 McGee, Gardner and Robinson carried out an exploratory search at 1665 MHz for OH in 26 thermal sources in the southern Milky Way and reported emission in 12 sources. Subsequent measurements by Robinson, Goss and Manchester confirmed emission from six of these and detected four additional OH emitters.
Most of the known 1.35 cm water vapour masers have been detected in the direction of known 18 cm OH masers. However, a small number have been found in the direction of HII regions where no OH maser is known. Several new examples of H20 masers with no known OH counterparts have recently been published by Kaufmann et d. (1976), who suggest that these constitute a new class of H20 maser.