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White matter abnormalities have been repeatedly reported in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) diseases from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies respectively, while the empirical evidences about the diagnostic specificity of white matter abnormalities in these disorders are still limited.
25 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 18 patients with bipolar mania were recruited from the in-patient unit of the Mental Health Centre, West China Hospital, China.
Patients were diagnosed according to the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Version IV (DSM- IV). 30 healthy controls were recruited from the community by means of leaflets distributed throughout Chengdu city.
This study sought to investigate the alterations in fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter throughout the entire brain of patients from Chengdu, China with paranoid schizophrenia and bipolar mania.
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to assess white matter integrity in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and bipolar mania, as well as in normal controls. The differences in FA were measured by use of voxel-based analysis.
Reduced FA was found in the left posterior corona radiate (PCR) in patients with bipolar mania and paranoid schizophrenia compared to the controls. Patients with bipolar mania also showed a significant reduction in FA in right posterior corona radiate and in right anterior thalamic radiation (ATR).
Common abnormalities in the left PCR might imply an overlap in white matter pathology of both diseases and might be related to the shared risk factors for both disorders.
Although the deviations of brain volume deficits in sporadic and familial first-episode schizophrenia patients (FEP) had been presented, the difference of brain asymmetries remained unidentified.
To assess the potential differences of volumetric asymmetries of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) between groups.
To find out the different injury alteration of sporadic FEP and familial FEP.
42 sporadic and 30 familiar drug-naïve FEP with and 72 matched normal controls (NC) were recruited. Participants were assessed with neuropsychological tests and scanned by a 3.0T MRI to obtain T1-weighted and DTI images. Lateralization distribution maps of GM and WM volume were generated by employing optimized voxel-based morphometry. The asymmetries were analyzed by comparing calculating Laterality Index (LI) voxel by voxel.
All three groups showed similar overall brain torque. Familiar FEP have more regional extensive GM asymmetry brain lesions compared to sporadic FEP. There was no shared regional lesion between two groups. LIGM and LIWM in right superior temporal were negatively correlated. Significant negative correlations were also found between LIGM of left superior parietal lobule and LIWM of right superior parietal lobule, and between LIGM of right inferior parietal lobule and LIWM of left inferior parietal lobule. The asymmetry in distinct brain regions were related to cognitive deficits especially in the domains of language and memory.
The two patient groups had different alteration in injuries of brain asymmetry. Familiar FEP has more GM extensive asymmetry brain region, which may correlate with their high genetic burdens.
Increasing evidence indicates that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with cognitive as well as mood disturbances.
To evaluate cognitive function and white matter structure, resting-state brain function in first-episode, treatmentnaive patients with MDD.
To explore brain structure and function mechanisms of cognitive impairment in MDD.
46 Han Chinese MDD patients aged 18–45 year and 46 controls were assessed by a series of validated test procedures.Then, 30 patients and 30 controls were obtained by MRI scan.White matter abnormalities evaluated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were analyzed using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) and resting-state brain function was evaluated using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis.
Cognitive impairment in patients with MDD was demonstrated by reduced accuracy in the Wisconsin Card Sorting test (WSCT) and to a lesser extent the Continuous Performance test (CPT) and Trail Making tests (TMT). White matter abnormalities found in the left cerebellum, and resting-state abnormalities present in the left inferior parietal gyrus, left anterior cingulate nucleus and left hippocampal gyrus were associated with impaired performance in the WSCT and CPT tests. We also showed that poor WSCT performance was associated with increased interconnectivity between the left ventral anterior cingulate nucleus and the medial frontal lobe areas.
The present study indicates cognitive disturbances in patients with MDD are associated with white matter and resting-state changes and altered interconnections in specific brain areas.
In this study, we aimed to identify protein molecules in the hypothalamus in the female rats injected exogenous androgen before sexual differentiation.
Neonatal female SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group and control female group. Four neonatal male SD rats were control male group. All animals were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of testosterone propionate as experimental group or aseptic oil as control. The rats were sacrificed 90 days after the injection and the brains were collected. 2-DE were performed in order to establish profiles of proteome from rat hypothalamus and followed by MALDITOF- TOF mass spectrometry was used to identify proteins differentially expressed in rat hypothalamus from experimental group as compared to normal control group.
11 differential spots were cut off from the Silver stained gel, and 9 of the spots were identified, which were Dihydropyrimidinase-like 3 (DPYSL3), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K(hnRNP K), Profilin2, Triosephosphate isomerase 1(Tpi 1), Carbonic anhydrase II(CA II), Annexin A3, Protein disulfide isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3), Creatine kinase-B and Secernin 1.
The results of the present study indicate that the development of sexual differentiation may be associated with the alteration in the expression of a large number of cytosolic proteins in the hypothalamus.
The analysis of the aerodynamic environment of the re-entry vehicle attaches great importance to the design of the novel drag reduction strategies, and the combinational spike and jet concept has shown promising application for the drag reduction in supersonic flows. In this paper, the drag force reduction mechanism induced by the combinational spike and lateral jet concept with the freestream Mach number being 5.9332 has been investigated numerically by means of the two-dimensional axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the shear stress transport (SST) k-ω turbulence model, and the effects of the lateral jet location and its number on the drag reduction of the blunt body have been evaluated. The obtained results show that the drag force of the blunt body can be reduced more profoundly when employing the dual lateral jets, and its maximum percentage is 38.81%, with the locations of the first and second lateral jets arranged suitably. The interaction between the leading shock wave and the first lateral jet has a great impact on the drag force reduction. The drag force reduction is more evident when the interaction is stronger. Due to the inclusion of the lateral jet, the pressure intensity at the reattachment point of the blunt body decreases sharply, as well as the temperature near the walls of the spike and the blunt body, and this implies that the multi-lateral jet is beneficial for the drag reduction.
Flow over aligned and staggered cube arrays is a classic model problem for rough-wall turbulent boundary layers. Earlier studies of this model problem mainly looked at rough surfaces with a moderate coverage density, i.e.
is the surface coverage density and is defined to be the ratio between the area occupied by the roughness and the total ground area. At lower surface coverage densities, i.e.
, it is conventionally thought that cubical roughness acts like isolated roughness elements; and that the single-cube drag coefficient, i.e.
is the drag force on one cubical roughness element,
is the fluid density,
is the height of the cube,
is the spatially and temporally averaged wind speed at the cube height, and
is the drag coefficient of an isolated cube. In this work, we conduct large-eddy simulations and direct numerical simulations of flow over wall-mounted cubes with very low surface coverage densities, i.e.
. The large-eddy simulations are at nominally infinite Reynolds numbers. The results challenge the conventional thinking, and we show that, at very low surface coverage densities, the single-cube drag coefficient may increase as a function of
. Our analysis suggests that this behaviour may be attributed to secondary turbulent flows. Secondary turbulent flows are often found above spanwise-heterogeneous roughness. Although the roughness considered in this work is nominally homogeneous, the secondary flows in our simulations are very similar to those observed above spanwise-heterogeneous surface roughness. These secondary vortices redistribute the fluid momentum in the outer layer, leading to high-momentum pathways above the wall-mounted cubes and low-momentum pathways at the two sides of the wall-mounted cubes. As a result, the spatially and temporally averaged wind speed at the cube height, i.e.
, is an underestimate of the incoming flow to the cubes, which in turn leads to a large drag coefficient
Laser-based compact MeV X-ray sources are useful for a variety of applications such as radiography and active interrogation of nuclear materials. MeV X rays are typically generated by impinging the intense laser onto ~mm-thick high-Z foil. Here, we have characterized such a MeV X-ray source from 120 TW (80 J, 650 fs) laser interaction with a 1 mm-thick tantalum foil. Our measurements show X-ray temperature of 2.5 MeV, flux of 3 × 1012 photons/sr/shot, beam divergence of ~0.1 sr, conversion efficiency of ~1%, that is, ~1 J of MeV X rays out of 80 J incident laser, and source size of 80 m. Our measurement also shows that MeV X-ray yield and temperature is largely insensitive to nanosecond laser contrasts up to 10−5. Also, preliminary measurements of similar MeV X-ray source using a double-foil scheme, where the laser-driven hot electrons from a thin foil undergoing relativistic transparency impinging onto a second high-Z converter foil separated by 50–400 m, show MeV X-ray yield more than an order of magnitude lower compared with the single-foil results.
Introduction: With the increasing volume of medical literature published each year, it is difficult for clinicians to translate the latest research into practice. Awareness is the first step of knowledge translation and journals have begun using social media to increase the dissemination and awareness of their publications. Infographics can describe research findings visually, are shared broadly on social media, and may be a more effective way to convey information. We hypothesized that infographic abstracts would increase the social media dissemination and online readership of research articles relative to traditional abstracts. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 24 original research articles were chosen from the six issues of the Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine (CJEM) published between July 2016 and May 2017 (4 articles per issue). Half were randomized to the infographic and control groups within each issue. Infographic articles were promoted using a visual infographic outlining the findings of the article. Control articles were promoted using a screen capture image of each articles abstract. Both were disseminated through the journals social media accounts (Twitter and Facebook) along with the link to the selected article. Infographics were also published on CanadiEM.org. Abstract views, full text views, and the change in Altmetric score were tracked for 30 days and compared between groups. Unpaired two-tailed t-tests were used to detect significant differences. Results: Abstract views (mean, SD) were significantly higher for infographic articles (378.9, 162.0) than control articles (175.5, 69.2, p<0.001). Mean Altmetric scores were significantly higher for infographic articles (26.4, 13.8) than control articles (3.4, 1.7, p<0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in full-text views between infographic (49.7, 90.4) and control articles (25.3, 12.3). Conclusion: CJEM articles promoted on social media using infographics had higher abstract viewership and Altmetric scores than those promoted with traditional abstracts. Although there was no difference in full-text readership, our results suggest that infographic abstracts may have a role in increasing the dissemination of medical literature.
Four complete platysiagid fish specimens are described from the Luoping Biota, Anisian (Middle Triassic), Yunnan Province, southwest China. They are small fishes with bones and scales covered with ganoine. All characters observed, such as nasals meeting in the midline, a keystone-like dermosphenotic, absence of post-rostral bone, two infraorbitals between dermosphenotic and jugal, large antorbital, and two postcleithra, suggest that the new materials belong to a single, new Platysiagum species, P. sinensis sp. nov. Three genera are ascribed to Platysiagidae: Platysiagum, Helmolepis and Caelatichthys. However, most specimens of the first two genera are imprints or fragmentary. The new, well-preserved specimens from the Luoping Biota provide more detailed anatomical information than before, and thus help amend the concept of the Platysiagidae. The Family Platysiagidae was previously classed in the Perleidiformes. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Platysiagidae is a member of basal Neopterygii, and its origin seems to predate that of Perleidiformes. Moreover, platysiagid fishes are known from the Middle Triassic of the western Tethys region. The newly found specimens of platysiagids from Luoping provide additional evidence that both eastern and western sides of the Tethys Ocean were biogeographically more connected than previously thought.
TAOS II is a next-generation occultation survey with the goal of measuring the size distribution of the small end of the Kuiper Belt (objects with diameters 0.5–30 km). Such objects have magnitudes r > 30, and are thus undetectable by direct imaging. The project will operate three telescopes at San Pedro Mártir Observatory in Baja California, México. Each telescope will be equipped with a custom-built camera comprised of a focal-plane array of CMOS imagers. The cameras will be capable of reading out image data from 10,000 stars at a cadence of 20 Hz. The telescopes will monitor the same set of stars simultaneously to search for coincident occultation detections, thus minimising the false-positive rate. This talk described the project, and reported on the progress of the development of the survey infrastructure.
Background: A significant part of the developmental delay (DD) population has epilepsy (26-70%) and live in an institution. These patients tend to have atypical presentation of epileptic seizures with higher risk of misdiagnosis. Distinguishing their ictal events from paroxysmal behaviors can be challenging.There often is a lack of description of the spells or inadequate history from the caregivers or the patients. These patients often have drug resistant epilepsy requiring polypharmacy with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine usefulness of Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (EMU) in diagnosis and management of these patients. Methods: This is a retrospective observational study of the patients with epilepsy and DD living in institutions that were admitted to the EMU. Results: Four patients met the inclusion criteria for this study. The mean age was 45(29-71), 3/4 (N=3) were male and 3/4 had focal epilepsy. All patients had mood disorders and 2 were taking antipsychotic medication. The mean admission-time was 6,25 days
(2-15) and there was a correlation with the events and seizures in 2/4 of the patients and the rest had a combination of behavioural-changes and seizures. Conclusions: EMU admission can provide an accurate diagnosis of spells in patients with DD and epilepsy, and improve their quality of life.
Using the spectroscopic distances of over 0.12 million A-type stars selected from the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anti-center (LSS-GAC), we map their three-dimensional number density distributions in the Galaxy. These stellar number density maps allow an investigation of the Galactic young age thin disk structure with no a priori assumptions about the functional form of its components. The data show strong evidence for a significant flaring young disk. A more detail analysis show that the stellar flaring have different behaviours between the Northern and the Southern Galactic disks. The maps also reveal spatially coherent, kpc-scale stellar substructure in the thin disk. Finally, we detect the Perseus arm stellar overdensity at R ~ 10 kpc.
Using the data from the LAMOST Galactic spectroscopic surveys and some other surveys, we have started a series of work to measure the mass distribution of our Galaxy. As a result of the first-stage, we have constructed the Galactic rotation curve out to 100 kpc and the Galactic escape velocity curve between 5 and 14 kpc. From the two curves, we have built parametrized mass models for our Galaxy, respectively. Both models yield a similar result for the Milky Way's virial mass: ~ 0.9 × 1012 M⊙.
Although specific phobia is highly prevalent, associated with impairment, and an important risk factor for the development of other mental disorders, cross-national epidemiological data are scarce, especially from low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents epidemiological data from 22 low-, lower-middle-, upper-middle- and high-income countries.
Data came from 25 representative population-based surveys conducted in 22 countries (2001–2011) as part of the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys initiative (n = 124 902). The presence of specific phobia as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition was evaluated using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview.
The cross-national lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of specific phobia were, respectively, 7.4% and 5.5%, being higher in females (9.8 and 7.7%) than in males (4.9% and 3.3%) and higher in high- and higher-middle-income countries than in low-/lower-middle-income countries. The median age of onset was young (8 years). Of the 12-month patients, 18.7% reported severe role impairment (13.3–21.9% across income groups) and 23.1% reported any treatment (9.6–30.1% across income groups). Lifetime co-morbidity was observed in 60.5% of those with lifetime specific phobia, with the onset of specific phobia preceding the other disorder in most cases (72.6%). Interestingly, rates of impairment, treatment use and co-morbidity increased with the number of fear subtypes.
Specific phobia is common and associated with impairment in a considerable percentage of cases. Importantly, specific phobia often precedes the onset of other mental disorders, making it a possible early-life indicator of psychopathology vulnerability.
Pertussis epidemics have displayed substantial spatial heterogeneity in countries with high socioeconomic conditions and high vaccine coverage. This study aims to investigate the relationship between pertussis risk and socio-environmental factors on the spatio-temporal variation underlying pertussis infection. We obtained daily case numbers of pertussis notifications from Queensland Health, Australia by postal area, for the period January 2006 to December 2012. A Bayesian spatio-temporal model was used to quantify the relationship between monthly pertussis incidence and socio-environmental factors. The socio-environmental factors included monthly mean minimum temperature (MIT), monthly mean vapour pressure (VAP), Queensland school calendar pattern (SCP), and socioeconomic index for area (SEIFA). An increase in pertussis incidence was observed from 2006 to 2010 and a slight decrease from 2011 to 2012. Spatial analyses showed pertussis incidence across Queensland postal area to be low and more spatially homogeneous during 2006–2008; incidence was higher and more spatially heterogeneous after 2009. The results also showed that the average decrease in monthly pertussis incidence was 3·1% [95% credible interval (CrI) 1·3–4·8] for each 1 °C increase in monthly MIT, while average increase in monthly pertussis incidences were 6·2% (95% CrI 0·4–12·4) and 2% (95% CrI 1–3) for SCP periods and for each 10-unit increase in SEIFA, respectively. This study demonstrated that pertussis transmission is significantly associated with MIT, SEIFA, and SCP. Mapping derived from this work highlights the potential for future investigation and areas for focusing future control strategies.
A number of laser facilities coming online all over the world promise the capability of high-power laser experiments with shot repetition rates between 1 and 10 Hz. Target availability and technical issues related to the interaction environment could become a bottleneck for the exploitation of such facilities. In this paper, we report on target needs for three different classes of experiments: dynamic compression physics, electron transport and isochoric heating, and laser-driven particle and radiation sources. We also review some of the most challenging issues in target fabrication and high repetition rate operation. Finally, we discuss current target supply strategies and future perspectives to establish a sustainable target provision infrastructure for advanced laser facilities.
Public controversy regarding the potential overdiagnosis and overmedication of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has continued for decades. This study used the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan (NHIRD-TW) to explore trends in ADHD diagnosis in youths and the proportion of those receiving medication, with the aim of determining whether ADHD is overdiagnosed and overmedicated in Taiwan.
Youths (age ≤18 years) who had at least two NHIRD-TW claims records with ADHD diagnosis between January 2000 and December 2011 were selected as the subject cohort. In total, the study sample comprised 145 018 patients with ADHD (mean age at a diagnosis of ADHD: 7.7 ± 3.1 years; 21.4% females). The number of cases of ADHD were calculated annually for each year (from 2000 to 2011), and the number of cases per year who received medication was determined as those with at least one record of pharmacotherapy (immediate-release methylphenidate, osmotic controlled-release formulation of methylphenidate, and atomoxetine) in each year.
The prevalence rates of a diagnosis of ADHD in the youths ranged from 0.11% in 2000 to 1.24% in 2011. Compared with children under 6 years of age, the ADHD diagnosis rates in children aged between 7 and 12 years (ratio of prevalence rates = 4.36) and in those aged between 13 and 18 years (ratio of prevalence rates = 1.42) were significantly higher during the study period. The prevalence in males was higher than that in females (ratio of prevalence rates = 4.09). Among the youths with ADHD, 50.2% received medications in 2000 compared with 61.0% in 2011. The probability of receiving ADHD medication increased with age. More male ADHD patients received medications that females patients (ratio of prevalence rates = 1.16).
The rate of ADHD diagnosis was far lower than the prevalence rate (7.5%) identified in a previous community study using face-to-face interviews. Approximately 40–50% of the youths with ADHD did not receive any medications. These findings are not consistent with a systematic public opinion about overdiagnosis or overmedication of ADHD in Taiwan.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a type of pathogenic bacteria that cause diarrhea in piglets through colonizing pig small intestine epithelial cells by their surface fimbriae. Different fimbriae type of ETEC including F4, F18, K99 and F41 have been isolated from diarrheal pigs. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study to map the loci associated with the susceptibility of pigs to ETEC F41 using 39454 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 667 F2 pigs from a White Duroc×Erhualian F2 cross. The most significant SNP (ALGA0022658, P=5.59×10−13) located at 6.95 Mb on chromosome 4. ALGA0022658 was in high linkage disequilibrium (r2>0.5) with surrounding SNPs that span a 1.21 Mb interval. Within this 1.21 Mb region, we investigated ZFAT as a positional candidate gene. We re-sequenced cDNA of ZFAT in four pigs with different susceptibility phenotypes, and identified seven coding variants. We genotyped these seven variants in 287 unrelated pigs from 15 diverse breeds that were measured with ETEC F41 susceptibility phenotype. Five variants showed nominal significant association (P<0.05) with ETEC F41 susceptibility phenotype in International commercial pigs. This study provided refined region associated with susceptibility of pigs to ETEC F41 than that reported previously. Further works are needed to uncover the underlying causal mutation(s).
The community burden of enterovirus is often monitored through syndromic monitoring systems based on reported cases of enterovirus-related infection (EVI) diagnoses. The extent to which this is affected by under- and over-diagnosis has not been reported. In Taiwan, children often make more than one healthcare visit during an episode of infection. We used change of diagnosis within an episode of infection as a guide of diagnostic uncertainty in a nationally representative cohort of Taiwanese children (n = 13 284) followed from birth to the 9th birthday through electronic health records. We conducted a nested case-control analysis and estimated cross-diagnosis ratios (CDRs) as the observed proportion of acute respiratory infection (ARI) diagnoses following an EVI diagnosis in excess of background ARI burdens. With 19 357 EVI diagnoses in this cohort, the CDR within 7 days was 1·51 (95% confidence interval 1·45–1·57), confirming a significant excess of ARI diagnoses within the week following an EVI diagnosis. We used age-specific CDRs to calibrate the weekly EVI burden in children aged 3–5 years in 2008, and the difference between observed and calibrated weekly EVI burdens was small. Therefore, there was evidence suggesting a small uncertainty in EVI diagnosis, but the observed EVI burdens through syndromic monitoring were not substantially affected by the small uncertainty.
In many jurisdictions, legislation requires long-term care (LTC) facilities to have a registered nurse on duty 24 hours a day, seven days per week. Although considerable research exists on LTC nurse staffing intensity, no empirical research on this requirement exists. Our retrospective observational study in Saskatchewan compared facilities with 24/7 RN coverage to facilities with less coverage supplemented with various night-shift staffing models. Adjusted for nurse staffing intensity and other potential confounders, risk ratios associated with less-than-24/7 RN coverage supplemented with licensed practical nurse night-shift staffing were 1.17, 95% CI [0.91, 1.50] and 1.00, 95% CI [0.72, 1.39]; and with less-than-24/7 RN coverage supplemented with care aide night-shift staffing, risk ratios were 1.46, 95% CI [1.11, 1.91] and 1.11, 95% CI [0.78, 1.58], for inpatient hospital admissions and Emergency Department visits respectively. Findings suggest that acute services utilization may be negatively influenced by the absence of 24/7 RN coverage.