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This innovative approach to teaching the finite element method blends theoretical, textbook-based learning with practical application using online and video resources. This hybrid teaching package features computational software such as MATLAB®, and tutorials presenting software applications such as PTC Creo Parametric, ANSYS APDL, ANSYS Workbench and SolidWorks, complete with detailed annotations and instructions so students can confidently develop hands-on experience. Suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate level classes, students will transition seamlessly between mathematical models and practical commercial software problems, empowering them to advance from basic differential equations to industry-standard modelling and analysis. Complete with over 120 end-of chapter problems and over 200 illustrations, this accessible reference will equip students with the tools they need to succeed in the workplace.
A study of low-speed streaks (LSSs) embedded in the near-wall region of a turbulent boundary layer is performed using selective visualization and analysis of time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry (tomo-PIV). First, a three-dimensional velocity field database is acquired using time-resolved tomo-PIV for an early turbulent boundary layer. Second, detailed time-line flow patterns are obtained from the low-order reconstructed database using ‘tomographic visualizations’ by Lagrangian tracking. These time-line patterns compare remarkably well with previously observed patterns using hydrogen bubble flow visualization, and allow local identification of LSSs within the database. Third, the flow behaviour in proximity to selected LSSs is examined at varying wall distances (
$10 < y^+ < 100$
) and assessed using time-line and material surface evolution, to reveal the flow structure and evolution of a streak, and the flow structure evolving from streak development. It is observed that three-dimensional wave behaviour of the detected LSSs appears to develop into associated near-wall vortex flow structures, in a process somewhat similar to transitional boundary layer behaviour. Fourth, the presence of Lagrangian coherent structures is assessed in proximity to the LSSs using a Lagrangian-averaged vorticity deviation process. It is observed that quasi-streamwise vortices, adjacent to the sides of the streak-associated three-dimensional wave, precipitate an interaction with the streak. Finally, a hypothesis based on the behaviour of soliton-like coherent structures is made which explains the process of LSS formation, bursting behaviour and the generation of hairpin vortices. Comparison with other models is also discussed.
Investigation of treatments that effectively treat adults with post-traumatic stress disorder from childhood experiences (Ch-PTSD) and are well tolerated by patients is needed to improve outcomes for this population.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two trauma-focused treatments, imagery rescripting (ImRs) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR), for treating Ch-PTSD.
We conducted an international, multicentre, randomised clinical trial, recruiting adults with Ch-PTSD from childhood trauma before 16 years of age. Participants were randomised to treatment condition and assessed by blind raters at multiple time points. Participants received up to 12 90-min sessions of either ImRs or EMDR, biweekly.
A total of 155 participants were included in the final intent-to-treat analysis. Drop-out rates were low, at 7.7%. A generalised linear mixed model of repeated measures showed that observer-rated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms significantly decreased for both ImRs (d = 1.72) and EMDR (d = 1.73) at the 8-week post-treatment assessment. Similar results were seen with secondary outcome measures and self-reported PTSD symptoms. There were no significant differences between the two treatments on any standardised measure at post-treatment and follow-up.
ImRs and EMDR treatments were found to be effective in treating PTSD symptoms arising from childhood trauma, and in reducing other symptoms such as depression, dissociation and trauma-related cognitions. The low drop-out rates suggest that the treatments were well tolerated by participants. The results from this study provide evidence for the use of trauma-focused treatments for Ch-PTSD.
Several decades of basic research support the neural basis of multiple memory systems. These systems are highly relevant to all health behaviors, since behaviors are learned from experience and require some form of memory process to retain learning and affect subsequent action. Research on the neuroscience of appetitive behaviors has rigorously studied motivational processes involved in behaviors such as drug use, diet, and sex. However, very little of this otherwise stellar research has attempted to integrate its findings with multiple memory system views that acknowledge the wide range of memory effects uncovered in several highly relevant basic research areas. Further, good explanatory theories of multiple memory systems studied mostly in addiction and in animal research have not yet been integrated with the vast knowledge base from human cognitive science. Moreover, most research on the epidemiology, prevention, or treatment of problems in appetitive behavior has not taken into account these basic research findings and has instead focused on theories and methods derived primarily from survey research. Yet, basic research areas from neuroscience and cognitive science are highly relevant to all areas of study of appetitive behavior, and the prevailing focus in prevention science on concepts derived from survey research may be channeled mostly by the training of investigators and disciplinary history. This chapter provides one example of how these disparate literatures from basic research might be integrated to advance our understanding of this class of behavior and derive new possibilities for intervention. It highlights examples of key findings supporting the need for a greater translational effort but also highlights large gaps in knowledge. Future research filling these gaps and others in the void between compelling research domains could substantially change and advance the study of addictions and all appetitive or habit-forming behaviors.
The events surrounding the prodemocracy movement in Hong Kong from 2013 to 2015 represent the latest chapter in a long and torturous struggle for democracy that can be dated back to the early 1980s when Britain and China held their negotiations over the city’s future (So, 1998). The Occupy Central Movement (OCM), initiated by three prodemocracy activists, exhorted supporters to block major roads and exercise civil disobedience in the struggle for full democracy. It soon provoked the Chinese Communist Party-state (“party-state”) to initiate a campaign to counter OCM. Executed mainly through their unofficial agents and sponsored organizations in Hong Kong, its scale of operation was almost unprecedented, at least since the social riot in 1967 (which was largely the spillover of the Cultural Revolution).
Biogas digesters convert waste matter into a natural gas-like fuel and a nutrient-rich digestate by-product. This digestate has the potential to be used as a soil amendment to benefit crop production with or without biochar, a purported nutrient sponge. In a greenhouse study of several crop species, the effects of digestate fertilization on crop growth, photosynthetic efficiency, vegetable production and chemical nutrient levels were tested. Results indicate that increasing potency of the applied digestate fosters higher growth and fruit production rates of several studied plants but to a lesser degree than a conventional fertilizer. More potent digestate application increases antioxidant capacity, total phenolics content and ascorbic acid levels in kale compared to the control chemical fertilizer test groups but has confounding results on legume nutrient levels. Additionally, the combined application of biochar and biogas digestate added to compost and used as potting media positively impacts crop germination. This work has relevance to agrarian communities that could benefit from recycling livestock and food waste into fuel and a renewable fertilizer.
For CHD patients undergoing corrective surgery utilising cardiopulmonary bypass, post-operative inhaled nitric oxide has been administered to alleviate pulmonary hypertension. We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses to determine the effect of inhaled nitric oxide on haemodynamics, gas exchange, and hospitalisation characteristics in children immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass.
Materials and methods:
A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify full-text manuscripts in English. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane databases were queried. Once manuscripts were identified for inclusion, a list of all the endpoints in each manuscript was created. Endpoints with data present from two or more studies were then kept for pooled analyses. All endpoints included were continuous variables and so mean and standard deviation were utilised as the effect data for comparison.
A total of eight studies were deemed appropriate for inclusion. There were significant differences with decreases in mean pulmonary artery pressure of −6.82 mmHg, left atrial pressure of −1.16 mmHg, arteriovenous oxygen difference of −1.63, arterial carbon dioxide concentration of −2.41 mmHg, mechanical ventilation duration of −8.56 hours, and length of cardiac ICU stay duration of −0.91 days. All significant variables achieved p < 0.001.
Inhaled nitric oxide in children immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass decreases mean pulmonary artery pressure significantly and decreases the arterial carbon dioxide concentration significantly without significantly altering other haemodynamic parameters. This results in a statistically shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and cardiac ICU length of stay without altering overall hospital length of stay.
“C-K theory”, a theory of reasoning in design, offers a formal modelling language with the power to describe the unfolding of creativity and the generation of new innovative objects as integral parts of design practice. However, the theory has limited ability to analyze and describe the particulars of design practice when the target area is service. To address this question, the purpose of this paper is to refine the “C-K theory” by embedding service relevant constructs and exploring strategies for enhancing the creative engagement resulting in the innovative service concepts.
Previous research has suggested an association between depression and subsequent acute stroke incidence, but few studies have examined any effect modification by sociodemographic factors. In addition, no studies have investigated this association among primary care recipients with hypertension.
We examined the anonymized records of all public general outpatient visits by patients aged 45+ during January 2007–December 2010 in Hong Kong to extract primary care patients with hypertension for analysis. We took the last consultation date as the baseline and followed them up for 4 years (until 2011–2014) to observe any subsequent acute hospitalization due to stroke. Mixed-effects Cox models (random intercept across 74 included clinics) were implemented to examine the association between depression (ICPC diagnosis or anti-depressant prescription) at baseline and the hazard of acute stroke (ICD-9: 430–437.9). Effect modification by age, sex, and recipient status of social security assistance was examined in extended models with respective interaction terms specified.
In total, 396 858 eligible patients were included, with 9099 (2.3%) having depression, and 10 851 (2.7%) eventually hospitalized for stroke. From the adjusted analysis, baseline depression was associated with a 17% increased hazard of acute stroke hospitalization [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.32]. This association was suggested to be even stronger among men than among women (hazard ratio = 1.29, 95% CI 1.00–1.67).
Depression is more strongly associated with acute stroke incidence among male than female primary care patients with hypertension. More integrated services are warranted to address their needs.
Patulous Eustachian tube appears to be caused by a concave defect in the anterolateral wall of the tubal valve of the Eustachian tube. This study aimed to compare the clinical features of patulous Eustachian tube patients with or without a defect in the anterolateral wall of the tubal valve.
Sixty-six patients with a patulous Eustachian tube completed a questionnaire, which was evaluated alongside endoscopic findings of the tympanic membrane, nasal cavity and Eustachian tube orifice.
Females were more frequently diagnosed with a patulous Eustachian tube, but the valve defect was more common in males (p = 0.007). The ratio of patulous Eustachian tube patients with or without defects in the anterolateral wall of the tubal valve was 1.6:1. Weight loss in the previous six months and being refractory to conservative management were significantly associated with the defect (p = 0.035 and 0.037, respectively). Symptom severity was significantly higher in patients with the defect.
Patulous Eustachian tube patients without a defect in the anterolateral wall of the tubal valve can be non-surgically treated more often than those with the defect. Identification of the defect could assist in making treatment decisions for patulous Eustachian tube patients.
To inform the efficient allocation of testing resources, we evaluated the characteristics of those tested for COVID-19 to determine predictors of a positive test. Recent travel and exposure to a confirmed case were both highly predictive of positive testing. Symptom-based screening strategies alone may be inadequate to control the ongoing pandemic.
Experimental work has revealed causal links between physical cleansing and various psychological variables. Empirically, how robust are they? Theoretically, how do they operate? Major prevailing accounts focus on morality or disgust, capturing a subset of cleansing effects, but cannot easily handle cleansing effects in non-moral, non-disgusting contexts. Building on grounded views on cognitive processes and known properties of mental procedures, we propose grounded procedures of separation as a proximate mechanism underlying cleansing effects. This account differs from prevailing accounts in terms of explanatory kind, interpretive parsimony, and predictive scope. Its unique and falsifiable predictions have received empirical support: Cleansing attenuates or eliminates otherwise observed influences of prior events (1) across domains and (2) across valences. (3) Cleansing manipulations produce stronger effects the more strongly they engage sensorimotor capacities. (4) Reversing the causal arrow, motivation for cleansing is triggered more readily by negative than positive entities. (5) Conceptually similar effects extend to other physical actions of separation. On the flipside, grounded procedures of connection are also observed. Together, separation and connection organize prior findings relevant to multiple perspectives (e.g., conceptual metaphor, sympathetic magic) and open up new questions. Their predictions are more generalizable than the specific mappings in conceptual metaphors, but more fine-grained than the broad assumptions of grounded cognition. This intermediate level of analysis sheds light on the interplay between mental and physical processes.
Introduction: Assessment of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) competency has been reliant on practical, visual and written examinations performed 1-on-1 with an examiner. These tools attempt to assess competency through subjective ratings, checklists and multiple-choice questions that are labour intensive using surrogate measures. Eye-tracking has been used on a limited basis in various fields of medicine for training and assessment. This technology explores visual processing and holds great promise as a tool to monitor training progress towards the development of expertise. We hypothesize that eye-tracking may differentiate novices and experts as they progress to become competent in interpretation of POCUS images and provide an objective measure in assessment of competency. Methods: Medical students, residents and attending physicians working in an academic emergency department were recruited. Participants viewed a series of 16 ultrasound video clips in a POCUS protocol for Focused Assessment using Sonography in Trauma (FAST). The gaze pattern of the participants was recorded using a commercially available eye-tracking device. The primary outcome was the gaze parameters including total gaze time in the area of interest (AOI), average time to fixation on the AOI, number of fixations in the AOI and average duration of first fixation on the AOI. Secondary outcome was the accuracy on the interpretation of the FAST scan. Results: Four novices and eight experts completed this study. The total gaze time in the AOI (mean +/- SD) was 76.72 +/- 18.84s among experts vs 53.64 +/- 10.33s among novices (p = 0.048), average time to fixation on the AOI was 0.561 +/- 0.319s vs 1.048 +/- 0.280s (p = 0.027), number of fixations in the AOI was 158.9 +/- 29.0 vs 121.8 +/- 17.5 (p = 0.042) and average duration of first fixation was 0.444 +/- 0.119s vs 0.390 +/- 0.024s (p = 0.402). The accuracy of the answers was 79.7 +/- 14.1% vs 45.3 +/- 21.9% (p = 0.007). Conclusion: In this pilot study, eye tracking shows potential to differentiate between POCUS experts and novices by their gaze patterns. Gaze patterns captured by eye tracking may not necessarily translate to cognitive processing. However, it allows educators to visualise the thought processes of the learner by their gaze patterns and provide insight on how to guide them towards competency. Future studies are needed to further validate the metrics for competency in POCUS applications.
Cardiac surgery induces profound sympathetic nervous system and inflammatory responses. This so-called ‘stress response’ to surgery causes a multitude of adverse haemodynamic, metabolic, haematological, endocrine and immunological effects. In the setting of cardiac surgery, the attenuation of pain and sympathetic autonomic activity has many theoretical attractions. The introduction of high-dose opioid techniques into cardiac anaesthesia was based, in part, on the belief that they would inhibit the stress response. Failure to block the stress response completely, combined with equivocal evidence of clinical benefit and the need for prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation, made the technique unpopular. The demonstration that thoracic sympathetic blockade improves the blood flow in severely diseased coronary arteries, the emergence of less invasive cardiac surgical techniques and economic pressures have prompted renewed interest in regional anaesthetic techniques.
Prior tests of Hicks’ Induced Innovation Hypothesis (IIH) have been greatly hampered because the lack of supply-side data implicitly requires the untenable assumption that the marginal research cost is the same for different inputs. We document that, with appropriate model specification and panel data, a two-way fixed-effects estimator can account for much of the non-neutrality of the innovation function. Using a test procedure that is robust to a time-variant and non-neutral innovation function, we test the IIH in U.S. agriculture for the period 1960–2004. We use only readily available data for innovation demand and total public research expenditures.
Bupropion is a catecholamine reuptake inhibitor and also a potent noncompetitive ion channel site antagonist at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Bupropion is indicated for use in combination with behavioral modification programs for smoking cessation. There have been a few studies about the effect of bupropion on smoking cessation in schizophrenia. Therefore, we aimed investigated the change of the symptomatology after smoking cessation with bupropion in the patients with schizophrenia.
There were fifty-six patients with smoking in the psychiatric ward of Hapcheon Korea Hospital. among them, thirty-nine inpatients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia were recruited. for 4 weeks, treatment team persuaded the patients to enter the program of smoking cessation. with the exception, if the patients did not agree the program, the patients were able to be transferred to another ward that smoking was permitted. All patients agreed to the program. Postive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), Temperament and Character Inventory(TCI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory(STAI), Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence(FTND) were evaluated at the beginning of the study and 12 weeks of Bupropion treatment.
At 12 weeks after successful smoking cessation with bupropion, FTND scores were significantly decreased after smoking cessation. the scores of STAI and PANSS were not significantly changed. the subcale of TCI, Novelty Seeking showed decreasing tendency after smoking cessation, although there was no statistical significance(p=0.054).
These results suggest that bupropion is an effective antidepressant on smoking cessation and does not aggravate the psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Further investigation with larger number of subjects is needed.
Adherence problems are an inherent issue with any bio-psycho-social-spiritual prescription for any disease or behvaioural entity. It is all the more important in a patient with severe mental illness like Schizophrenia with limited insight. In several countries various interventions have been studied to address adherence problems in psychosis. Such as compliance therapy, family and psycho educational interventions, telephonic prompting and also legislative measures like Community Treatment Orders (CTO) have to date shown inconsistent and only modest benefits. Incentives based interventions have been tested for both preventive measures and also for adherence problems in chronic diseases. The Institute of Mental Health, Singapore has implemented a Pilot Supervision Programme (PSP) that incentivise patient engagement through quarterly vouchers as well as minimising barriers to accessing service by waiving off certain treatment fees whilst also offering them intensive intervention for one year. Our Pilot Programme, that focused on high risk patients with diagnosis of severe mental illness needing involuntary admission with history of either prolonged or repeated admissions, has begun recruiting patients since October 2012. The comparison was done between pre and post intervention phase. Total of 58 patients (95% suffering from schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder) accepted into the treatment programme and of that nearly half of them have completed 6 months interventions. The results are promising with more than 50% improvemnt in length of stay, number of admissions and psychiatric emergency room visits, making significant impact on our high risk patients with severe mental illness.
There have been many changes in the treatment of bipolar disorder.
It is necessary to develop guidelines that can more aptly respond to cultural issues and specifics in different countries.
The Korean Medication Algorithm for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was firstly published in 2002, with updates in 2006 and 2010. This third update reviewed the experts' consensus of opinion on the pharmacological treatments of bipolar disorder.
The newly revised questionnaire composed of 55 key questions about clinical situations including 223 sub-items was sent to the experts.
Combination of mood stabilizer (MS) and atypical antipsychotic (AAP) was the first-line treatment option in acute mania. For the management of severe psychotic bipolar depression, combination of MS and AAP, combination of AAP and LTG, combination of MS, AAP and AD or LTG, combination of AAP and AD, and combination of AAP, AD and LTG was the first-line treatments. Combination of MS and AAP was the treatment of choice for management of mixed features. Combination of MS and AAP, MS or AAP monotherapy was the first-line options for management of maintenance phase after manic episode. For maintenance treatment after bipolar I depression, combination of MS and AAP, combination of MS and LTG, combination of AAP and LTG, MS or LTG monotherapy, and combination of MS, AAP and LTG were the first-line options.
Despite the limitations of expert consensus guideline, KMAP-BP 2014 may reflect the current patterns of clinical practice and recent researches.
This cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate the factors associated with bipolar disorder in pregnant female, including sociodemographic parameters, social support, social conflict, suicidal idea and sleep.
A total of 84 pregnant female were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on sociodemographic factors, obstetric history, depressive symptoms and bipolarity. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Bipolarity was assessed using the Korean version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (K-MDQ).
Nineteen participants (22.6%) had positive K-MDQ scores, suggesting the present of bipolarity. Positive EPDS group had twenty subjects (25%) who had depressive symptoms. The diathesis of bipolar disorder was associated with marital dissatisfaction, social conflict, depression and sleep. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the only poor sleep was a risk of bipolarity.
Pregnant female with bipolarity were more depressed and sleep problems than those without bipolarity. The results showed that the most important factor of influencing bipolarity was sleep.
The prevalence of internet game use among children and adolescents has been increased in the recent years.
Internet addiction has been found to cause various psychiatric symptoms and psychological problems. Internet addiction has been found to cause various psychiatric symptoms and psychological problems.
The aim of this study was to examine the association between problematic internet game use and psychiatric symptoms in a sample of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic, Ulsan University Hospital.
We analyzed data from 447 subjects who first visit the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic of the Ulsan University Hospital. The level of Internet addiction was categorized as either high-risk (≥108; group 3), potential risk (95 to 107; group 2), or no risk (≤94, group 1) based on the total score. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 and one-way ANOVA and multiple logistic regression method were used.
Thirteen adolescents met the criteria for high risk group of internet game addiction. in the high risk group, 10 were male and 3 were female adolescents. There was an mean difference among group 3 (high risk)< 1 (no risk),2 (potential risk) in AHI ; whereas group 3 (high risk)>1 (no risk), 2 (potential risk) in BDI, BAI, inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity and K-ARS score. with multiple logistic regression analysis, K-scale was significantly related with male sex, BDI, ARShyperactivity/ impulsivity score.
We conclude that having male sex, happiness and depressive symptoms is associated with the risk of developing internet use disorders.