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Flood and drought events cause significant freshwater inflow fluctuations in estuaries, potentially leading to physiological stress and altered abundances of pathogens such as Vibrio vulnificus and Perkinsus marinus in oysters. To assess the effects of freshwater pulses to oyster reefs in subtropical estuaries in Texas, this study accomplished two goals: 1) reconstructed a reef-specific history of freshwater pulses through shell stable isotope analysis, 2) quantified the abundance of V. vulnificus and P. marinus through culture-dependent and culture-independent microbiology analyses. Oysters from a natural and restored reef experienced similar fluctuations in shell isotopes, indicating similar ranges of past environmental conditions. V. vulnificus and P. marinus were detected throughout the study but the abundance of these microorganisms was not correlated with environmental parameters or one another. Importantly, the P. marinus infection intensity was always lower at the restored reef, which suggests that restored reefs may experience lower infection frequencies.
The 14C peak in AD 775 (M12) has been measured and confirmed globally in several studies since it was first measured in annual tree rings by Miyake et al. (2012). However, M12 data measurements in early- and latewood are limited. This paper presents the Δ14C values in early- and latewood from AD 762–776 Zelkova serrata tree rings from Bangu-dong, Ulsan, South Korea (35°33′N, 129°20′E). The results indicate no early rise in Δ14C values in the latewood of AD 774 in this sample located at mid-latitude. A comparison of the results of this and previous studies suggests latitude dependence (Büntgen et al. 2018); that is, the early rise of Δ14C in AD 774 was not observed at mid-latitudes in South Korea but was observed at high latitudes in Finland. The half-oxidation time of 14C was estimated from a detailed analysis of a small bomb peak in AD 1962. Based on the half-oxidation time, the Δ14C rise in the latewood, but not in the earlywood, of AD 774 in Finland, and the absence of a Δ14C rise in both the early- and latewood of AD 774 in South Korea, the 14C spike was estimated to have been produced from late April to mid-June in AD 774.
Forensic pathologists and clinicians are increasingly faced with challenges when it comes to geriatric cases, due to an aging population and increased comorbidities in the elderly. This text provides an up-to-date guide to all facets of geriatric forensic pathology, with contributions from experts from a variety of disciplines. Packed with color illustrations and case examples, chapters cover inflicted, self-inflicted, and accidental trauma, as well as natural conditions leading to unexpected death. In addition, specific chapters cover a wide range of difficult and topical areas, from elder abuse, dementias, and nutrition to pharmacology and toxicology issues, long-term care facilities, and scene investigation. Topics such as euthanasia are also explored to provide the reader with a rich, contemporary understanding of medicolegal issues. This is an invaluable resource not only for pathologists, but also for medical practitioners and lawyers dealing with geriatric cases. The book comes packaged with online access to the text and high-resolution images.
Evidence indicates that Antarctic minke whales (AMWs) in the Ross Sea affect the foraging behaviour, especially diet, of sympatric Adélie penguins (ADPEs) by, we hypothesize, influencing the availability of prey they have in common, mainly crystal krill. To further investigate this interaction, we undertook a study in McMurdo Sound during 2012–2013 and 2014–2015 using telemetry and biologging of whales and penguins, shore-based observations and quantification of the preyscape. The 3D distribution and density of prey were assessed using a remotely operated vehicle deployed along and to the interior of the fast-ice edge where AMWs and ADPEs focused their foraging. Acoustic surveys of prey and foraging behaviour of predators indicate that prey remained abundant under the fast ice, becoming successively available to air-breathing predators only as the fast ice retreated. Over both seasons, the ADPE diet included less krill and more Antarctic silverfish once AMWs became abundant, but the penguins' foraging behaviour (i.e. time spent foraging, dive depth, distance from colony) did not change. In addition, over time, krill abundance decreased in the upper water column near the ice edge, consistent with the hypothesis (and previously gathered information) that AMW and ADPE foraging contributed to an alteration of prey availability.