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As evidence for the second process of the Embracing factor, the target article characterizes being moved as a mixed emotion linked to sadness through metonymy. We question these characterizations and argue that emotions should not be equated with their vernacular labels.
A modified critical point model dielectric function for graphene is derived here and used to analyze spectroscopic ellipsometry data obtained over a wide spectral range from 3 to 9 eV. Critical point and exciton resonance energies are extracted and discussed. Our findings indicate that epitaxial graphene on SiC to exhibits equivalent exciton behavior to that of suspended graphene. We further apply our model dielectric function to evaluate dielectric function data for highly oriented pyrolytic graphite reported in the literature. Excellent agreement is found between the critical point model developed here and the literature data even for the low energy spectral range up to 1 eV.
We report on mid-infrared (600 – 4000 cm-1), refection-type optical-Hall effect measurements on epitaxial graphene grown on C-face silicon carbide and present Landau-level transition features detected at 1.5 K as a function of magnetic field up to 8 Tesla. The Landau-level transitions are detected in reflection configuration at oblique incidence for wavenumbers below, across and above the silicon carbide reststrahlen range. Small Landau-level transition features are enhanced across the silicon carbide reststrahlen range due to surface-guided wave coupling with the electronic Landau-level transitions in the graphene layer. We analyze the spectral and magnetic-field dependencies of the coupled resonances, and compare our findings with previously reported Landau-level transitions measured in transmission configuration [4,5,6]. Additional features resemble transitions previously assigned to bilayer inclusion , as well as graphite . We discuss a model description to account for the electromagnetic polarizability of the graphene layers, and which is sufficient for quantitative model calculation of the optical-Hall effect data.
Oblique-angle deposition is used to fabricate indium tin oxide (ITO) optical coatings with a porous, columnar nanostructure. Nanostructured ITO layers with a reduced refractive index are then incorporated into antireflection coating (ARC) structures with a step-graded refractive index design, enabling increased transmittance into an underlying semiconductor over a wide range of wavelengths of interest for photovoltaic applications. Low-refractive index nanostructured ITO coatings can also be combined with metal films to form an omnidirectional reflector (ODR) structure capable of achieving high internal reflectivity over a broad spectrum of wavelengths and a wide range of angles. Such conductive high-performance ODR structures on the back surface of a thin-film solar cell can potentially increase both the current and voltage output by scattering unabsorbed and emitted photons back into the active region of the device.
To harness the full spectrum of solar energy, optical reflections at the surface of a solar photovoltaic cell must be reduced as much as possible over the relevant solar spectral range and over a wide range of incident angles. The development of antireflection coatings embodying omni-directionality over a wide range of wavelengths is challenging. Recently, nanoporous films, fabricated by oblique-angle deposition and having tailored- and very low-refractive index properties, have been demonstrated. Tailorability of the refractive index and the ability to realize films with a very low-refractive index are properties critical in the performance of broadband, omnidirectional antireflection coatings. As such, nanoporous materials are ideally suited for developing near-perfect antireflection coatings. Here, we discuss multilayer antireflection coatings with near-perfect transmittance over the spectral range of 400−2000 nm and over widely varying angles of acceptance, 0−90°. The calculated solar optical-to-electrical efficiency enhancement that can be attained with nanoporous multilayer coatings over single-layer quarter-wave films is 18%, making these coatings highly attractive for solar cell applications.
The composition of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin-film solar cell absorbers was varied to induce the.formation of secondary impurity phases. For their identification, the samples have been investigated by Cu L3 and S L2,3 soft x-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopy. We find that Cu L3 XAS is especially sensitive to the presence of copper sulfides as well as copper oxides and/or changes in the electron configuration, suggesting a basis for future studies of the surface, defect, and interface characterization of similar samples. Additionally, it is shown that the S L2,3 absorption data can be used as a very sensitive probe of the variations in the prevalence of S-Zn bonds in the near-surface region of the investigated samples.
Contact tracing of persons with meningococcal disease who have travelled on aeroplanes or other multi-passenger transport is not consistent between countries. We searched the literature for clusters of meningococcal disease linked by transient contact on the same plane, train, bus or boat. We found reports of two clusters in children on the same school bus and one in passengers on the same plane. Cases within each of these three clusters were due to strains that were genetically indistinguishable. In the aeroplane cluster the only link between the two cases was through a single travel episode. The onset of illness (2 and 5 days after the flight) is consistent with infection from an unidentified carrier around the time of air travel. In contrast to the established risk of transmission from a case of tuberculosis, it is likely that the risk from a case of meningococcal disease to someone who is not identified as a close contact is exceedingly low. This should be considered in making international recommendations for passenger contact tracing after a case of meningococcal disease on a plane or other multi-passenger transport.
This study investigated whether ‘unwanted pregnancy’ (i.e. a negative or ambivalent attitude towards the pregnancy/reproduction) is associated with schizophrenia-spectrum and affective disorders in the offspring in adulthood, and if so, whether other pregnancy, perinatal, childhood or genetic-risk factors account for this association.
In a prospective study beginning during pregnancy, unwanted pregnancy (in combination with other early life risk factors) was studied in relation to adult mental disorders in 75 genetic high-risk (HR) and 91 normal-risk (NR) offspring, defined through maternal psychosis history. Early life risk factors were studied through personal interviews, observations and medical records, and offspring mental disorders were independently diagnosed through follow-up examination at about 22 years of age.
Unwanted pregnancy by itself was significantly related to adult offspring schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in both the total sample and the HR subgroup, but the effect was found to be limited to the HR group and occurred in interaction with genetic risk. Other co-temporaneous pregnancy stressors and later perinatal complications, malformations and early childhood environmental stressors could not explain this relationship. Unwanted pregnancy also interacted with genetic-risk status in relating to affective disorders in the offspring.
Unwanted pregnancy, when occurring together with genetic risk for psychosis, was found to be related to both adult schizophrenia-spectrum and affective mental disorders in the offspring. Although the effect of unwanted pregnancy could be mediated by other yet-unidentified factors, unwanted pregnancy might be a functional, discrete environmental psychosocial factor with its own deleterious impact on offspring mental development, when co-occurring with genetic risk.
Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) with AlxGa1−xN/AlyGa1−yN multiple quantum well (MQW) active regions, doped in the barriers with different Si doping level, show a sharp near band-edge emission (UV luminescence). Besides the near band-edge emission, some samples also show parasitic emissions with a broad peak centered at about 520 nm (green luminescence). The EL intensities of the UV emission line and the green emission line are studied. The UV luminescence peak intensity increases superlinearly with the injection current, following a power law with an exponent of about 2.0. In contrast, the green luminescence peak intensity increases linearly with the injection current, with an exponent of about 1.0. A theoretical model is proposed to explain the relationship between the peak intensities and the injection current. The results obtained from the model are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The model provides a method to evaluate the dominant recombination process by measuring the exponent of the power-law dependence.
Nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants provide unique optical and material properties for the enhancement of light extraction efficiency in light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We report on the uniform dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles with average diameter of 40 nm in epoxy, and the demonstration of a refractive index (n)of 1.68 at 400 nm wavelength, higher than that of pure epoxy (n = 1.53). It is found that proper chemical surfactants and nanoparticle preparation are critical to eliminate agglomeration of nanoparticles. Theoretical analysis of optical scattering in nanoparticle-loaded encapsulation materials reveals that although the size and loading factor of nanoparticles greatly influence scattering, specular transparency of the encapsulant film occurs if the thicknesses of the films are kept below the optical scattering length. Furthermore, the encapsulants benefit from an optimized scattering coefficient as demonstrated by three-dimensional ray-tracing simulations showing light extraction efficiency enhancements greater than 50%.
A novel type of low-resistance ohmic contacts is demonstrated utilizing polarization-induced electric fields in thin p-type InGaN layers on p-type GaN. An increase of the hole tunneling probability through the barrier and a concomitant significant decrease of the specific contact resistance can be attributed to a reduction of the tunneling barrier width in the InGaN capping layers due to the polarization-induced electric fields. The specific contact resistance of Ni (10 nm) / Au (30 nm) contacts deposited on the InGaN capping layers was determined by the transmission line method. Specific contact resistances of 1.2 × 10-2 Ω cm2 and 6 × 10-3 & cm2 were obtained for capping layer thicknesses of 20 nm and 2 nm, respectively.
Room temperature and low temperature photoluminescence studies of AlxGa1−xN/GaN superlattices reveal a red shift of the dominant transition band relative to the bulk GaN bandgap. The shift is attributed to the quantum-confined Stark effect resulting from polarization fields in the superlattices. A theoretical model for the band-to-band transition energies based on perturbation theory and a variational approach is developed. Comparison of the experimental data with this model yields a polarization field of 4.6 × 105 V/cm for room temperature Al0.1Ga0.9N/GaN and 4.5 × 105 V/cm for room temperature Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN. At low temperatures the model yields 5.3 × 105 V/cm for Al0.1Ga0.9N/GaN and 6.3 × 105 V/cm for Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN. The emission bands exhibit a blue shift at high excitation densities indicating screening of internal polarization fields by photo-generated free carriers.
In the process of developing thin film electro-optical waveguides we investigated the influence of different substrates on the optical and structural properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films. These films are grown by on-axis pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on MgO(100), MgAl2O4(100), SrTiO3(100) and MgO buffered A12O3(1102) substrates. The waveguide losses and the refractive indices were measured with a prism coupling setup. The optical data are correlated to the results of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry/ion channeling (RBS/C). X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). BaTiO3 films on MgO(100) substrates show planar waveguide losses of 3 dB/cm and ridge waveguide losses of 5 dB/cm at a wavelength of 633 nm.
Within our program to develop ferroelectric thin film optical waveguides, we have studied the growth of epitaxial waveguides BaTiO3 on r-plane sapphire substrates with a MgO buffer layer. The films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Their structural properties were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Rutherford backscattering (RBS) in random and channeling (RBS-c) configuration and atomic force microscopy (AFM). They displayed good crystalline quality, characterized by an RBS-c minimum yield of about 4–6%, a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the XRD rocking curve measurement of the BaTiO3(200) reflection of 0.32° and a rms roughness of 1.2 nm in a film of ∼ 1.0 μm thickness. The epitaxial relationship was found to be BaTiO3(100) // MgO(100) // A12O3(1102). The refractive index, the birefringence and the optical losses have been measured.
We report on fabrication and characterization of cleaved laser facets and photoelectrochemically wet etched laser facets in III-Nitrides grown by MOVPE on c-plane sapphire. The roughness of the cleaved facets in the InGaN/GaN double heterostructure (DH) laser cavities with a 1000-Å-thick active region is ≈25 rim, while that of the wet etched GaN facets is ≈100 nm. A theoretical model is developed for the maximum allowable laser facet roughness, which yields a value of 18 nrm for uncoated GaN and 22 rm for the uncoated DH. Optically pumped laser action at room temperature is demonstrated in the cleaved DH laser cavities. 2 Above the incident threshold pumping power of 1.3 MW/cm2, the differential quantum efficiency increases by a factor of 34, the emission linewidth decreases to 13.5 meV, and the output becomes highly TE polarized. Wet chemical etching a 1-mm-long laser cavity into the GaN homostructure is found to increase the differential quantum efficiency by a factor of 2.
The growth of thin films of LiNbO3 and Er:LiNbO3 on LiNbO3 single crystals produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was studied. Samples were characterized by RBS/Channeling Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction measurements, Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Film preparation is performed in a two-step process including deposition and in-situ-annealing. Buried Er doped layers of approx. 800 nm thickness were grown.
We present investigations of YBa2Cu3O7-x, thin films deposited on Silicon on Sapphire (SoS) substrates by pulsed laser deposition and dc sputtering. A compound buffer system consisting of YSZ and CeO2 is used for improved YBa2Cu3O7-x growth characteristics. The critical thickness of YBa2Cu3O7-x on CeO2/YSZ/SoS is determined to be 280 nm.
Photoinjection of electrons into silicon dioxide in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with 3.5 eV light is shown to create interface states with no apparent hole trapping precursor. The creation rate of these interface states depends strongly upon whether injection is from the gate metal or the silicon substrate, and on the forming gas annealing sequence used to passivate growth-induced interface states. A mechanism involving electron-induced release of hydrogen in the oxide is consistent with some aspects of the data.
Defects in crystalline silicon caused by a BF+2 ion implantation dose of 3x1015cm-2 have been studied using plan-view and cross-section TEM and SIMS. Dislocations form at annealing temperatures above 1000ºC and are pinned below the Si surface by fluorine bubbles ∼10 nm diameter at a density of ∼1011cm-2. This microstructure is essentially stable at 1150ºC from 4 to 400 minutes.