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The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an electronically steered low-frequency (<300 MHz) radio interferometer, with a ‘slew’ time less than 8 s. Low-frequency (∼100 MHz) radio telescopes are ideally suited for rapid response follow-up of transients due to their large field of view, the inverted spectrum of coherent emission, and the fact that the dispersion delay between a 1 GHz and 100 MHz pulse is on the order of 1–10 min for dispersion measures of 100–2000 pc/cm3. The MWA has previously been used to provide fast follow-up for transient events including gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), fast radio bursts (FRBs), and gravitational waves, using systems that respond to gamma-ray coordinates network packet-based notifications. We describe a system for automatically triggering MWA observations of such events, based on Virtual Observatory Event standard triggers, which is more flexible, capable, and accurate than previous systems. The system can respond to external multi-messenger triggers, which makes it well-suited to searching for prompt coherent radio emission from GRBs, the study of FRBs and gravitational waves, single pulse studies of pulsars, and rapid follow-up of high-energy superflares from flare stars. The new triggering system has the capability to trigger observations in both the regular correlator mode (limited to ≥0.5 s integrations) and using the Voltage Capture System (VCS, 0.1 ms integration) of the MWA and represents a new mode of operation for the MWA. The upgraded standard correlator triggering capability has been in use since MWA observing semester 2018B (July–Dec 2018), and the VCS and buffered mode triggers will become available for observing in a future semester.
Field trials were conducted near Pontotoc, Mississippi; Chase, Louisiana; and Clinton, North Carolina, in 2017 and 2018 to determine the effect of pendimethalin rate and timing application on sweetpotato crop tolerance, yield, and storage root quality. Treatments consisted of five pendimethalin rates (266, 532, 1,065, 1,597, and 2,130 g ai ha−1) by two application timings (0 to 1 or 10 to 14 d after transplanting). Additionally, a nontreated check was included for comparison. Crop injury (stunting) was minimal (≤4%) through 6 wk after transplanting (WAP) and no injury was observed from 8 to 14 WAP, regardless of application timing or rate. The nontreated check yielded 6.6, 17.6, 5.5, and 32.1 × 103 kg ha−1 of canner, no. 1, jumbo, and total grades, respectively. Neither pendimethalin application timing nor rate influenced jumbo, no. 1, marketable, or total sweetpotato yield. Overall, these results indicate that pendimethalin will be a valuable addition to the toolkit of sweetpotato growers.
The evolution of glaciers and ice sheets depends on processes in the subglacial environment. Shear seismicity along the ice–bed interface provides a window into these processes. Such seismicity requires a rapid loss of strength that is typically ascribed to rate-weakening friction, i.e., decreasing friction with sliding or sliding rate. Many friction experiments have investigated glacial materials at the temperate conditions typical of fast flowing glacier beds. To our knowledge, however, these studies have all found rate-strengthening friction. Here, we investigate the possibility that rate-weakening rock-on-rock friction between sediments frozen to the bottom of the glacier and the underlying water-saturated sediments or bedrock may be responsible for subglacial shear seismicity along temperate glacier beds. We test this ‘entrainment-seismicity hypothesis’ using targeted laboratory experiments and simple models of glacier sliding, seismicity and sediment entrainment. These models suggest that sediment entrainment may be a necessary but not sufficient condition for the occurrence of basal shear seismicity. We propose that stagnation at the Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica may be caused by the growth of a frozen fringe of entrained sediment in the ice stream margins. Our results suggest that basal shear seismicity may indicate geomorphic activity.
Children with CHD and acquired heart disease have unique, high-risk physiology. They may have a higher risk of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events, as compared with children with non-cardiac disease.
Materials and methods
We sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in children with cardiac disease compared to children with non-cardiac disease. A retrospective analysis of tracheal intubations from 38 international paediatric ICUs was performed using the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) quality improvement registry. The primary outcome was the occurrence of any tracheal-intubation-associated event. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events, multiple intubation attempts, and oxygen desaturation.
A total of 8851 intubations were reported between July, 2012 and March, 2016. Cardiac patients were younger, more likely to have haemodynamic instability, and less likely to have respiratory failure as an indication. The overall frequency of tracheal-intubation-associated events was not different (cardiac: 17% versus non-cardiac: 16%, p=0.13), nor was the rate of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events (cardiac: 7% versus non-cardiac: 6%, p=0.11). Tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest occurred more often in cardiac patients (2.80 versus 1.28%; p<0.001), even after adjusting for patient and provider differences (adjusted odds ratio 1.79; p=0.03). Multiple intubation attempts occurred less often in cardiac patients (p=0.04), and oxygen desaturations occurred more often, even after excluding patients with cyanotic heart disease.
The overall incidence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in cardiac patients was not different from that in non-cardiac patients. However, the presence of a cardiac diagnosis was associated with a higher occurrence of both tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest and oxygen desaturation.
Palmer amaranth and waterhemp have become increasingly troublesome weeds throughout the United States. Both species are highly adaptable and emerge continuously throughout the summer months, presenting the need for a residual PRE application in soybean. To improve season-long control of Amaranthus spp., 19 PRE treatments were evaluated on glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in 2013 and 2014 at locations in Arkansas, Indiana, Nebraska, Illinois, and Tennessee; and on glyphosate-resistant waterhemp at locations in Illinois, Missouri, and Nebraska. The two Amaranthus species were analyzed separately; data for each species were pooled across site-years, and site-year was included as a random variable in the analyses. The dissipation of weed control throughout the course of the experiments was compared among treatments with the use of regression analysis where percent weed control was described as a function of time (the number of weeks after treatment [WAT]). At the mean (i.e., average) WAT (4.3 and 3.2 WAT for Palmer amaranth and waterhemp, respectively) isoxaflutole + S-metolachlor + metribuzin had the highest predicted control of Palmer amaranth (98%) and waterhemp (99%). Isoxaflutole + S-metolachlor + metribuzin, S-metolachlor + mesotrione, and flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone had a predicted control ≥ 97% and similar model parameter estimates, indicating control declined at similar rates for these treatments. Dicamba and 2,4-D provided some, short-lived residual control of Amaranthus spp. When dicamba was added to metribuzin or S-metolachlor, control increased compared to dicamba alone. Flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone, a currently labeled PRE, performed similarly to treatments containing isoxaflutole or mesotrione. Additional sites of action will provide soybean growers more opportunities to control these weeds and reduce the potential for herbicide resistance.
Herbicide-resistant Amaranthus spp. continue to cause management difficulties in soybean. New soybean technologies under development, including resistance to various combinations of glyphosate, glufosinate, dicamba, 2,4-D, isoxaflutole, and mesotrione, will make possible the use of additional herbicide sites of action in soybean than is currently available. When this research was conducted, these soybean traits were still regulated and testing herbicide programs with the appropriate soybean genetics in a single experiment was not feasible. Therefore, the effectiveness of various herbicide programs (PRE herbicides followed by POST herbicides) was evaluated in bare-ground experiments on glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth and glyphosate-resistant waterhemp (both tall and common) at locations in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Nebraska, and Tennessee. Twenty-five herbicide programs were evaluated; 5 of which were PRE herbicides only, 10 were PRE herbicides followed by POST herbicides 3 to 4 wks after (WA) the PRE application (EPOST), and 10 were PRE herbicides followed by POST herbicides 6 to 7 WA the PRE application (LPOST). Programs with EPOST herbicides provided 94% or greater control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp at 3 to 4 WA the EPOST. Overall, programs with LPOST herbicides resulted in a period of weed emergence in which weeds would typically compete with a crop. Weeds were not completely controlled with the LPOST herbicides because weed sizes were larger (≥ 15 cm) compared with their sizes at the EPOST application (≤ 7 cm). Most programs with LPOST herbicides provided 80 to 95% control at 3 to 4 WA applied LPOST. Based on an orthogonal contrast, using a synthetic-auxin herbicide LPOST improves control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp over programs not containing a synthetic-auxin LPOST. These results show herbicides that can be used in soybean and that contain auxinic- or HPPD-resistant traits will provide growers with an opportunity for better control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth and waterhemp over a wide range of geographies and environments.
Field studies were conducted in 2011 and 2012 at the Horticultural Crops Research Station near Clinton, NC, to determine ‘Covington' sweetpotato tolerance to S-metolachlor rate and application timing. Treatments were a factorial arrangement of four S-metolachlor rates (0, 1.1, 2.2, or 3.4 kg ai ha−1) and six application timings (0, 2, 5, 7, 9, or 14 d after transplanting [DAP]). Immediately following application, 1.9 cm of irrigation was applied to individual plots. Sweetpotato injury was minimal for all treatments (≤ 10%). No. 1 grade sweetpotato yield displayed a negative linear response to S-metolachlor rate, and decreased from 25,110 to 20,100 kg ha−1 as S-metolachlor rate increased from 0 to 3.4 kg ha−1. Conversely, no. 1 sweetpotato yield displayed a positive linear response to S-metolachlor application timing and increased from 19,670 to 27,090 kg ha−1 as timing progressed from 0 to 14 DAP. Total marketable sweetpotato yield displayed a quadratic response to both S-metolachlor application rate and timing. Total marketable yield decreased from 44,950 to 30,690 kg ha−1 as S-metolachlor rate increased from 0 to 3.4 kg ha−1. Total marketable yield increased from 37,800 to 45,780 kg ha−1 as application timing was delayed from 0 to 14 DAP. At 1.1 kg ha−1S-metolachlor, sweetpotato storage root length to width ratio displayed a quadratic relationship to application timing and increased from 1.87 to 2.23 for applications made 0 to 14 DAP. At 2.2 kg ha−1 of S-metolachlor, sweetpotato length to width ratio displayed a quadratic response to application timing, increased from 1.57 to 2.09 for 0 to 10 DAP, and decreased slightly from 2.09 to 2.03 for 10 to 14 DAP. Application timing did not influence length to width ratio of sweetpotato storage roots for those plots treated with S-metolachlor at either 0 or 3.4 kg ha−1.
To profile adults who eat less than the recommended servings of fruit and vegetables per day.
Australia-wide population telephone survey on a random sample of the Australian population, with results analysed by univariate and multivariate models.
One thousand one hundred and eight interviews, respondents’ (49·3 % males) mean age was 45·12 (sd 17·63) years.
Overall 54·8 % and 10·7 % were eating the recommended number of servings of fruit and vegetables. Variables included in the multivariate model indicating low fruit consumption included gender, age, employment, education and those who were less likely to consider the safety and quality of food as important. In regard to low vegetable consumption, people who were more likely to do the food shopping only ‘some of the time’ and have a high level of trust in groups of people such as immediate family, neighbours, doctors and different levels of government were included in the final model. They were also less likely to neither consider the safety and quality of food as important nor trust organisations/institutions such as the press, television and politicians. In the final model depicting both low fruit and low vegetable servings, sex, age and a low level of importance with regard to safety and quality of food were included.
To increase fruit and vegetable consumption, research into a broad range of determinants associated with behaviours should be coupled with a deeper understanding of the process associated with changing behaviours. While levels of trust are related to behaviour change, knowledge and attitudes about aspects associated with safety and quality of food are also of importance.
Data from 23 generations of mice selected for increased and reduced appetite were analysed by Restricted Maximum Likelihood fitting an animal model with litters as additional random effects. Traits considered were food intake between 4 and 6 weeks of age adjusted for 4-week body weight (AFI), the selection criterion, and body weight at 6 weeks (6WW). Selection was carried out within families. A high and a low selection line and a control were maintained in each of three replicates. Analyses were performed for each replicate separately taking subsets of the data spanning different numbers of generations. Overall estimates of heritabilities were 0·15 for AFI, which agreed well with realized heritability estimates, and 0·42 for 6WW. The litter variance, expressed as a proportion of the phenotypic variance, was 0·21 for both traits, yielding intraclass correlations of full-sibs of 0·29 and 0·42, respectively. Similar results were obtained for variances of each trait using univariate and multivariate analyses. From the latter, estimates of correlations between the two traits were 0·46 for additive genetic, −0·19 for litter and 0·31 for residual effects, resulting in a phenotypic correlation of 0·23. Analyses of data from generations 2–7, 8–13 and 14–23 separately showed a marked decrease in genetic variance and heritability in later generations for both traits. Heritabilities of AFI, for instance were 0·24, 0·10 and 0·07, respectively. These changes could not be attributed to the effects of inbreeding or of selection in an infinitesimal model and suggested that some change in variance due to change in gene frequency had occurred during the course of the experiment.
Two correlative approaches to the challenge of ecological niche modeling (genetic algorithm, maximum entropy) were used to estimate the potential global distribution of the invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens, based on associations between known occurrence records and a set of environmental predictor variables. The two models yielded similar estimates, largely corresponding to Equatorial climate classes with high levels of precipitation. The maximum entropy approach was somewhat more conservative in its evaluation of suitability, depending on thresholds for presence/absence that are selected, largely excluding areas with distinct dry seasons; the genetic algorithm models, in contrast, indicate that climate class as partly suitable. Predictive tests based on independent distributional data indicate that model predictions are quite robust. Field observations in Benin and Tanzania confirm relationships between seasonal occurrences of this species and humidity and temperature.
Cercariae of Diplostomum spathaceum penetrate the skin of fish, and then migrate along blood vessels and tissues towards the head and the eye-lens. We studied their orientation behaviour in tail fins of guppies and in chemical concentration gradients within agar-filled choice chambers. In fins, they entered veins and orientated cranially, independent of the blood flow and living cells. In choice chambers, they were attracted by a small molecular fraction of fish serum, D-glucose (at 1, 10, and 1000 μm), D-mannose, D-maltotriose and Cl-ions, whereas D-glucosamine repelled them (even at 1·0 nm). Amino acids were not attractive, but arginine in tetrapeptides attracted at concentrations as low as 1 μm and melatonin at 0·4–4·3 pm. We suggest a preliminary model for the behaviour of diplostomula in fish fins and attracting (+) or repelling (−) host cues: (1) migration towards deeper skin layers and avoidance of skin surface, cues: Cl-ions (+ and −), glucose (+), glucosamine (−), light radiation (−); (2) orientation in cranial direction, cue: Cl-ions (+); (3) localization of blood vessels, cues: glucose (+), arginine-residues (+); (4) localization of the retina, cue: melatonin (+). A comparison with the navigation mechanisms of tissue-migrating schistosomules and hookworm larvae reveals an enormous diversity of strategies.
The electrical performance of junctions in SiGe Strain Relaxed Buffers (SRB's) with a strained Si top layer is investigated. Most of the SRB's grown in this experiment use a thin C-doped SiGe layer, which allows to fabricate thin (∼250nm) SRB's with a high relaxation degree. The effects of Threading Dislocation Density (TDD) and C-rich layer depth on the electrical behaviour of n+/p and p+/n junctions are studied. The C atoms in the junction's Space Charge Region (SCR) give rise to defects and induce a noticeable increase in the leakage. The effect of the TDD on the leakage in n+/p junctions is linear over the complete voltage range applied, while for p+/n junctions, only a small effect on leakage is measured at V=1V reverse for TDD's below 1×107cm-2. For low reverse voltages, the current varies more linearly with TDD.