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Phased Array Feed (PAF) technology is the next major advancement in radio astronomy in terms of combining high sensitivity and large field of view. The Focal L-band Array for the Green Bank Telescope (FLAG) is one of the most sensitive PAFs developed so far. It consists of 19 dual-polarization elements mounted on a prime focus dewar resulting in seven beams on the sky. Its unprecedented system temperature of ~17 K will lead to a 3 fold increase in pulsar survey speeds as compared to contemporary single pixel feeds. Early science observations were conducted in a recently concluded commissioning phase of the FLAG where we clearly demonstrated its science capabilities. We observed a selection of normal and millisecond pulsars and detected giant pulses from PSR B1937+21.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
Under- and over-nutrition during gestation may influence fetal hypothalamic development resulting in individuals predisposed to adverse health effects. This study examined fetuses from obese and control ewes to determine whether dam obesity alters hypothalamic expression of fetal appetite regulatory genes. A second objective was to contrast the expression of appetite regulatory genes in ewes that become the most obese to those that remained in moderate body condition on the same energy-rich diet. Multiparous, western white-faced ewes were weighed and individually fed 100% (control) or 150% (obese) of National Research Council requirements from day 60 before mating until day 75 of gestation. At day 75 of gestation, fetuses were collected and weighed. Hypothalamic tissue from fetal lambs and dams was collected and frozen for mRNA extraction. Dam obesity (P ⩾ 0.16), fetal sex (P ⩾ 0.44) or their interaction (P ⩾ 0.42) did not affect the relative expression of fetal hypothalamic regulators of appetite, including neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein, pro-opiomelanocortin, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and receptors for leptin. Maternal obesity at day 75 of gestation in ewes did not affect developmental mechanisms responsible for the expression of fetal appetite regulatory genes and would not be expected to predispose offspring to adult-onset obesity through disrupted appetite regulation at this developmental time point. In the ewe, appetite regulatory genes did not differ (P > 0.20) with ewe adiposity; however, expression of estrogen receptor α, but not β (P = 0.37), in the medial basal hypothalamus was greater (P = 0.04) in obese than in control ewes.
We ask if Earth-like planets (terrestrial mass and habitable-zone orbit) can be detected in multi-planet systems, using astrometric and radial velocity observations. We report here the preliminary results of double-blind calculations designed to answer this question.
Vagal cardioinhibition is exerted through a reduction not only in the heart rate but also in the rate of propagation of the cardiac action potential and in myocardial contractility. In several species, such effects can be produced independently by selective activation of ganglia in identified 'fat pads'. In this study we investigate differential control of heart rate and atrioventricular conduction by two ganglionic clusters in the rat, a species increasingly important in studies of cardiovascular control. Epicardial sites producing low-threshold changes in P-P and P-R interval of the ECG in an arterially perfused preparation were explored with concentric bipolar stimulating electrodes. Stimulation sites centred on two principal ganglia, the sinoatrial (SA) ganglion at the junction of the right superior vena cava and right atrium, and the atrioventricular (AV) ganglion at the junction of the inferior pulmonary veins and left atrium. Stimulation of the SA ganglion decreased heart rate in all preparations, with little or no effect on AV conduction in one-third. Stimulation of the AV ganglion consistently slowed conduction without eliciting a comparable bradycardia. Responses survived blockade of ganglionic transmission by trimetaphan, with an enhanced chronotropic selectivity to SA ganglion stimulation, suggesting that co-excitation of preganglionic elements en passant may have contributed to the earlier mixed responses. Effective stimulation sites were precisely circumscribed and corresponded to principal ganglionic clusters confirmed histologically. We conclude that cardiac vagal ganglia in the rat show a topographical functional organisation and are amenable to investigation using the arterially perfused preparation. Experimental Physiology (2003) 88.3, 315-327.
Amelogenin proteins are assumed to control the calcification of dental enamel with a nanoscale precision that facilitates the formation of fibrous apatite crystals organized in a remarkable microstucture. In this study, recombinant full-length human amelogenin induced protein-guided mineralization and the formation of an enamel-like composite material at specific physical-chemical conditions as observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Amelogenin bound specifically to fluoroapatite crystals (FAP) of a glass-ceramic substrate at Ca2+ and PO43- concentrations similar to in-vivo conditions and at pH 8. Layers up to 400 nm high, containing elongated crystals, formed on the (001)-planes of FAP within 24h in supersaturated solutions. In contrast, (hk0)-faces grew by only 10-30 nm, but showed nanospheres aligned parallel to the c-axis of FAP. At pHs different from 8, proteins bound non-specifically to substrate and layers on FAP reached only 5-15 nm thickness. Micro-Raman spectroscopy and AFM revealed the formation of a composite material that resembled a structure and composition comparable to human enamel. These observations suggest that certain conditions are required to activate amelogenin to control and promote crystal growth of apatite along the c-axis and to synthesize an enamel-like material.
Motivated by the high level of strength and toughness of spider silk and its multifunctional nature, this paper reports on the engineering properties of individual fibers from Nephila Clavipes spider drag line under uniaxial tension, transverse compression and torsional deformation. The tensile properties were compared to the Argiope Aurentia spider silk and show different ultimate strength but similar traits of the unusual combination of strength and toughness characterized by a sigmoidal stress-strain curve. A high level of torsional stability is demonstrated. comparing favorably to other aramid fibers (including Kevlar fibers).
Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during a word fluency task was compared in twenty-five male, right-handed, medicated schizophrenic patients and twenty-five age-matched male, right-handed healthy volunteers, using 99mtechnetium-HMPAO multidetector single-photon emission tomography. Increased rCBF in caudate and thalamus was found in patients, probably secondary to neuroleptic medication. Patients showed decreased rCBF in left frontal cortical regions and increased rCBF in left posterior cortical regions, compared to controls. Patterns of left-sided frontal rCBF dominance in controls were reversed in patients, as were normal patterns of right-sided parietal rCBF dominance. Negative symptom score correlated inversely with mesial frontal rCBF, particularly on the left.
The effect of heating YBa2Cu3Ox in vacuum to 600 °C has been studied using photoelectron spectroscopy and diamagnetic susceptibility measurements. Evidence of two chemically distinct copper and barium species is found in single phase samples at room temperature cleaned by gentle heating at 450 °C. Such annealing also increases the volume diamagnetic susceptibility of the samples which suggests that the preferred stoichiometry of growth does not lead to an optimum superconducting phase. Samples cleaned by vacuum scraping or ion bombardment reveal more amorphous XPS structure and are less indicative of bulk properties.
LEED and Auger electron spectroscopy have been used to studied the interface formation of bismuth on InSb(110). For the first time, well defined superstructures were observed at room temperature on metal/semimetal-III-V semiconductors. A (1×2) phase, at 0.5 ML bismuth coverage, and a (1×3) phase, at 0.4 ML bismuth coverage, appear with different thermal heat cycling. The dynamical origin of these phases is thought to be a repulsive interaction between overlayer chains due to the detailed geometry of the overlayer chain structure and to the overlayer induced strain field within the substrate.
Surface and bulk electronic structure of the ordered NiAl alloy were measured using angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The measured bulk d-bands (Ni like) were observed to be narrower than theoretically calculated d band widths which are 20 to 40% wider (depending upon what is used as a measure of the width). At least two surface states were observed on both the (110) and (111) surfaces. The nature of these surface states and their relationship to the bulk band structure is discussed. Dispersion of bulk phonons was measured by neutron scattering and fitted with a fourth nearest neighbor Born-von Karman model. Dipole active surface phonons on the (110) and (111) surfaces were observed by inelastic electron scattering and the frequencies also calculated assuming a truncated bulk surface. The calculated surface modes present a qualitative picture of the atomic displacement at each surface and also show that the surface phonon energy and intensity depends upon the structure of the surface.
Carbon monoxide chemisorption on the (111) and (110) surfaces of a single-crystal NiAI alloy has been studied using several surface sensitive techniques, including work function change measurements, ultra-violet photoelectron, thermal desorption and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Results from these experiments indicate that the reactivity of these NiAI surfaces toward CO is distinctly different and that although the CO/NiAI (111) surface behaves more like CO adsorbed on pure nickel surfaces, the CO/NiAI (110) surface is neither like CO adsorbed on pure nickel nor aluminum surfaces. The local CO bonding sites, as probed with photoemission and electron energy loss spectroscopy, are similar on both NiAI surfaces.
Residues of methomyl in rape plants and seed were determined after its application for bertha armyworm control. In one experiment application of 3 oz of methomyl per acre left 17 p.p.m. residue on the rape plants immediately after application. This level rapidly declined to 1.5, 1.0, 0.4, and 0.2 p.p.m. 1, 2, 5, and 9 days later, respectively, and no residue was detected (less than 0.02 p.p.m.) in seed harvested 22 days after application of the toxicant. Rape plant samples collected from several farms immediately after the application of 3 to 4 oz of methomyl per acre had 2.5 to 16 p.p.m. residues, indicating inefficient application of the insecticide in some cases. Analysis of rape seed samples collected from 36 farms showed little residue in three samples (0.02 to 0.03 p.p.m.) and none in 33, indicating that the use of methomyl for bertha armyworm control is not likely to contaminate rape seed with undesirable levels of residues.
A comparison was made of the effects of direct and of indirect ultra-high-temperature (UHT) processing of milk, under standardized operating conditions giving equal sporicidal effects, on some of the more labile water-soluble vitamins and on vitamin A and carotene. The effects of processing per se were negligibly small, and the method of processing was important only in so far as the presence of residual oxygen in the sterilized milk has been found to cause losses of folic acid and ascorbic acid during storage subsequent to sterilization. The incorporation of a de-aerator vessel, to reduce the oxygen level in the indirectly heated milk and so eliminate the adverse effects of oxygen during storage, had no effect on the vitamin loss occurring during heat treatment. It is concluded that milk produced by indirect heating plant incorporating a de-aerator should be similar in vitamin content to milk produced on a direct heating plant, both immediately after processing and after storage.
(1) From new radial velocities of 67 H II regions in M 31, rotational velocities and a mass model of M 31 are derived, and compared with the rotation curve and Schmidt mass model of our galaxy. (2) It is shown that in M 31 the distribution of H II regions as identified by Baade agrees with the distribution of neutral hydrogen determined from 21-cm observations. Also, the rotation curve derived from the H II velocities outside of the nucleus is similar to the rotation curve derived from 21-cm H I observations.