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Increased mass losses from the Greenland ice sheet and inferred contributions to sea-level rise have heightened the need for hydrologic observations of meltwater exiting the ice sheet. We explore whether temporal variations in ice-sheet surface hydrology can be linked to the development of a downstream sediment plume in Kangerlussuaq Fjord by comparing: (1) plume area and suspended sediment concentration from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery and field data; (2) ice-sheet melt extent from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) passive microwave data; and (3) supraglacial lake drainage events from MODIS. Results confirm that the origin of the sediment plume is meltwater release from the ice sheet. Interannual variations in plume area reflect interannual variations in surface melting. Plumes appear almost immediately with seasonal surface-melt onset, provided the estuary is free of landfast sea ice. A seasonal hysteresis between melt extent and plume area suggests late-season exhaustion in sediment supply. Analysis of plume sensitivity to supraglacial events is less conclusive, with 69% of melt pulses and 38% of lake drainage events triggering an increase in plume area. We conclude that remote sensing of sediment plume behavior offers a novel tool for detecting the presence, timing and interannual variability of meltwater release from the ice sheet.
High quality Ga-face and N-face AlGaN/GaN based heterostructures have been grown by plasma induced molecular beam epitaxy. By using Ga-face material we are able to fabricate conventional heterojunction field effect transistors. Because the N-face material confines electrons at a different heterojunction, the resulting transistors are called inverted. The Ga-face structures use a high temperature AlN nucleation layer to establish the polarity. Structures from these materials, relying only on polarization induced interface charge effects to create the two-dimensional electron gases, are used to confirm the polarity of the material as well as test the electrical properties of the layers. The resulting sheet concentrations of the two dimensional electron gases agree very well with the piezoelectric theory for this materials system. Hall mobilities of the two-dimensional gases for the N-face structures are as high as 1150 cm2/Vs and 3440 cm2/Vs for 300 K and 77 K respectively, while the Ga–face structures yield room temperature mobilities of 1190 cm2/Vs. Both structures were then fabricated into transistors and characterized. The inverted transistors, which were fabricated from the N-face material, yielded a maximum transconductance of 130 mS/mm and a current density of 905 mA/mm. Microwave measurements gave an ft of 7 GHz and an fmax of 12 GHz for a gate length of 1 µm. The normal transistors, fabricated from the Ga-face material, produced a maximum transconductance of 247 mS/mm and a current density of 938 mA/mm. Microwave measurements gave an ft of 50 GHz and an fmax of 97 GHz for a gate length of 0.25 µm. This shows that using plasma induced molecular beam epitaxy N-face and Ga(Al)-face AlGaN/GaN heterostructures can be grown with structural and electrical properties very suitable for high power field effect transistors.
Short-gate MODFET's of AlGaN/GaN on Sapphire have been fabricated and characterized with gate lengths in the .12 - .25 μm range. Values of ft = 50 GHz and fmax = 100 GHz have been obtained. Analyzing the performance, the average electron transit velocity is shown to be 1.25 × 107 cm/s and in some cases well under that value. This compares with theoretical predictions of ~ 2.0 × 107 cm/s. The electron scattering effects of dislocations, which are charged, are modeled to explain the lower mobility. Ion bombardment or dry etching is used for mesa isolation. Ti/Al/Ti/Au sintered for 100 seconds at 800 °C is used to yield ohmic contacts of .5 - 1.0 Ω-mm. Pt/Au Schottky gates are used. A high breakdown voltage, exceeding 100 V even for short gate MODFET's, shows that ten times higher load resistance values are possible, compared with GaAs MODFET's. Normalized output power levels well over 10 W/ mm are thus projected for GaN MODFET's on SiC substrates, where the thermal conductivity is about 5W/cm-°C. with future integrated traveling-wave, power-combining circuits, output power > 100 W at 10 GHz is predicted.
Initial results on 0.25 μm gate MODFET's have yielded ft=21.4 GHz and fmax=77.5 GHz. These devices have characteristics that agree with the gradual channel model dominated by the electron mobility. The AlGaN/GaN structure, grown on sapphire substrates, are polycrystalline, and thus yield low mobility (<100cm2/Vs) at low electron sheet density. Using a simple model, design optimization predicts electron sheet density values of 7.3 × 1012 cm−2 in thin, 3 nm quantum wells for single-sided doping with 5 nm spacer for use in future high frequency Al0.4Ga0.6N/In0.25Ga0.75N/GaN MODFET's with gate lengths of 0.10 μm. Double sided doping with 5 nm spacers would yield a sheet density of 1.4 × 1013cm−2 in such 3 nm quantum wells.
We present a high precision frequency determination method for digitized NMR FID signals. The method employs high precision numerical integration rather than simple summation as in many other techniques. With no independent knowledge of the other parameters of a NMR FID signal (phase ф, amplitude A, and transverse relaxation time T2) this method can determine the signal frequency f0 with a precision of if the observation time T ≫ T2. The method is especially convenient when the detailed shape of the observed FT NMR spectrum is not well defined. When T2 is +∞ and the signal becomes pure sinusoidal, the precision of the method is which is one order more precise than the ±1 count error induced precision of a typical frequency counter. Analysis of this method shows that the integration reduces the noise by bandwidth narrowing as in a lock-in amplifier, and no extra signal filters are needed. For a pure sinusoidal signal we find from numerical simulations that the noise-induced error in this method reaches the Cramer-Rao Lower Band (CRLB) on frequency determination. For the damped sinusoidal case of most interest, the noise-induced error is found to be within a factor of 2 of CRLB when the measurement time T is 2 or 3 times larger than T2. We discuss possible improvements for the precision of this method.
As the dimensions of integrated circuits shrink towards the deep sub-micromeLer regime, silicon-on-insulator is regarded to be more favorable than silicon substrates. The biggest drawback of SOI is cost which will become more critical for next generation 300-nm silicon wafers. Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) provides a viable alternative for the fabrication of SOI wafers as the processing time is very short and independent of wafer size. Pill is being employed to synthesize two types of SOI materials, SPIMOX (Separation by Plasma IMplantation of OXygen) and bonded SOL. In SPIMOX fabrication, both oxygen and water plasmas have been attempted and the results indicate that a discrete buried oxide layer can indeed be formed. In the case of wafer bonding, PIII is utilized for smart-cutting, a process in which implanted hydrogen or helium causes the bonded wafer to crack along the plane thereby making one side of the wafer recyclable. This article reviews the work done and current status of SOI fabrication by PIII.
Previous studies have suggested that Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum) has antioxidant effects and possibly beneficial effects on blood pressure, plasma lipids and glucose, but these have not been confirmed in subjects with mild hypertension or hyperlipidaemia. The objective of the present study was to assess the cardiovascular, metabolic, antioxidant and immunomodulatory responses to therapy with Lingzhi in patients with borderline elevations of blood pressure and/or cholesterol in a controlled cross-over trial. A total of twenty-six patients received 1·44 g Lingzhi daily or matching placebo for 12 weeks in a randomised, double-blind, cross-over study with placebo-controlled run-in and cross-over periods. Body weight, blood pressure, metabolic parameters, urine catecholamines and cortisol, antioxidant status and lymphocyte subsets were measured after each period. Lingzhi was well tolerated and data from twenty-three evaluable subjects showed no changes in BMI or blood pressure when treated with Lingzhi or placebo. Plasma insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance were lower after treatment with Lingzhi than after placebo. TAG decreased and HDL-cholesterol increased with Lingzhi but not with placebo in the first treatment period, but significant carry-over effects prevented complete analysis of these parameters. Urine catecholamines and cortisol, plasma antioxidant status and blood lymphocyte subsets showed no significant differences across treatments. Results indicate that Lingzhi might have mild antidiabetic effects and potentially improve the dyslipidaemia of diabetes, as shown previously in some animal studies. Further studies are desirable in patients with hyperglycaemia.
Background: The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB) offers information on the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and gives a profile of cognitive functioning. This study explores the effects of age, education and gender on participants' performance on eight subtests in the Chinese-Cantonese version of the CERAD-NAB.
Methods: The original English version of the CERAD-NAB was translated and content-validated into a Chinese-Cantonese version to suit the Hong Kong Chinese population. The battery was administered to 187 healthy volunteers aged 60 to 94 years. Participants were excluded if they had neurological, medical or psychiatric disorders (including dementia). Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relative contribution of the demographic variables to the scores on each subtest.
Results: The Cantonese version of CERAD-NAB was shown to have good content validity and excellent inter-rater reliability. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that performances on seven and four out of eight subtests in the CERAD-NAB were significantly influenced by education level and age, respectively. Age and education had significant effects on participants' performance on many tests. Gender also showed a significant effect on one subtest.
Conclusions: The preliminary data will serve as an initial phase for clinical interpretation of the CERAD-NAB for Cantonese-speaking Chinese elders.
The cathodic kinetic processes on a highly oriented LSCO thin film electrode supported on YSZ(100) surface were studied with a 3-probe ac impedance method under varying bias potential and annealing temperatures. Three distinctive features observed in the impedance spectra were assigned to contributions from the ionic conduction of the YSZ electrolyte, the ionic transfer at the LSCO/YSZ interface, and the oxygen exchange on the LSCO electrode surface. The changes of the three features with respect to the annealing history and bias potential were measured. The impedance data were analyzed using an equivalent circuit model: (RelCel)(RinterfaceQinterface)(RsurfCsurf).
We have studied the kinetics of the chemical reaction between Mg and B by differential thermal analysis. There are two exothermal peaks observed at 500 and 650 °C. We speculate that the first exothermal peak is mainly related to the chemical reaction between Mg and oxygen, forming MgO. The second exothermal peak, which coincides with the melting point of Mg, clearly indicates the chemical reaction between Mg and B. The effect of synthesis conditions and defects on the transport property of MgB2 has been investigated. A correlation between the microstrain, the lattice parameters, and the Mg concentration were observed and are discussed.
The development of a self-aligned fabrication process for small emitter contact area (2×4 um2) GaN/AlGaN heterojunction bipolar transistors and GaN bipolar junction transistors is described. The process features dielectric-spacer sidewalls, low damage dry etching and selected-area regrowth of p-GaAs(C) on the base contact or n-GaN/AlGaN on the emitter contact. Series resistance effects are still found to influence the device performance.
We have measured the infrared (IR) reflectance and Raman spectra of electron doped and undoped Nd2CuO4 and Pr2CuO4. Utilizing the results from doped ceramics and undoped ab plane oriented single crystals, we observe and assign all the IR active phonons (3A2u + 4Eu) predicted by group theory. We have also observed the Raman active modes involving atom motion along the c axis. We compare our results to those found in the related hole superconductors based upon La2CuO4.
We have determined the crystal structures of five phases in the Bal-xKxBiO3 system for 0≤x≤0.5 and 10K≤T≤473K. Superconductivity occurs only in a cubic perovskite phase with the maximum Tc at the transition to an orthorhombic, Ibmm, phase. The commensurate structure of this orthorhombic phase, which involves only tilting of the Bi06 octahedra, provides no explanation for its non-metallic behavior. However, an incommensurate structural modulation, observed by electron diffraction, may provide a rationalization. Thus, the maximum Tc at the phase boundary may result from competition between superconductivity and a charge density wave. Further studies of the phase diagram at high temperatures, where controlled oxygen atmospheres are required, reveal an unusual reentrant formation of a potassium-containing impurity phase which explains the need for synthesis techniques that involve initially reacting in a reducing atmosphere, followed by oxygenation at lower temperature.
Long wavelength (l.3pm<X<l.551un) InGaAs/InP multiquantum well (MQW) PIN structures in which the quantum confined Stark effect can be observed, are of particular interest because of their potential for high modulation contrast ratios and high speed operation. The chemistry of trichloride VPE lends itself to the growth of high purity InGaAsP heterostructures which are essential for the realization of high performance optical modulators and switches. In this study, we investigate the application of multi-frit trichloride VPE for the highly uniform epitaxial growth of InGaAs/InP MQW structures on two-inch InP substrates for advanced photonic device applications. The growth of MQW structures with various well thicknesses was studied as was the effect of substrate orientation. The structures have been characterized by infrared absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and double crystal x-ray diffraction.
Pulsed KrF (248 nm) laser ablation has been used for in situ growth of smooth, high‐quality YBa2Cu3O7‐x epitaxial films of variable thickness on SrTiO3, KTaO3, LaGaO3, LaA1O3, cubic ZrO2, and MgO substrates, at temperatures of ∼60O‐730°C, without higher temperature post‐annealing. A rotating target pellet, fine focusing by a single cylindrical lens, laser‐beam scanning over the target, and laser energy densities ∼2.5‐3 J/cm2 can be combined to yield films of completely uniform composition and with ∼25% thickness variation over areas ∼8 cm2. The best films have Tc > 92 K and JC(H = 0, T = 77 K) > 2 MA/cm2. Film‐growth procedures are described, together with results of superconducting and normal‐state transport measurements.
Phase assemblages in two Sr-Bi-Pb-Ca-Cu-O glasses and their crystallization into glass-ceramics through a sequence of heat treatments are described. Samples were heat treated at various temperatures based on differential thermal analysis (DTA) analysis of the as-quenched glasses. X-ray powder diffraction was used to identify the compounds in each sample; and the different phases formed in these two samples were compared. Results of microstructural characterization of selected samples using scanning electron microscopy are discussed.
The microstructure of Y-Ba-Cu-O compound, sintered at 950°C for 16h, was examined by using transmission electron microscope(TEM). For the furnace cooling sample, two variants of–orthorhombic YBa2-Cu3O7−x (O-Y123) twins, grown on (110) and (110) planes, respectively, are crystallographically related to the matrix and produce a Widmanstatten morphology. The orientation relationship between the lath twin and the matrix is (001)T//(001) and T//M. The O-Y123 compound is unstable under tne electron irradition. Twin boundaries are identified as S-boundaries. The minor phases as Y2BaCuO5 (Y211) and BaCuO2 were also observed. For the air cooling sample, no superconductivity above 77K was found. The major phase is tetragonal Y123 (T-Y123), while small amount of 0-Y123 is also existent.
Thin films in the Bi‐Sr‐Ca‐Cu‐O system have been synthesized from liquid ethyl hexanoate precursors by spin pyrolysis. An extensive solid solution range was determined for the two Cu‐layer phase through the study of c‐axis oriented, single‐phase thin films fabricated on single‐crystal MgO (100). Extensive cation non‐stoichiometry was observed in all cases. The variation of important thin film properties with composition within the solid solution range have been described.
Utilising the results from the thin film study together with data relating to liquid formation in mixtures of bulk material a working model describing the formation of the two‐layer phase has been formulated. The two‐layer phase is formed as the result of precipitation from a fugitive liquid at temperatures exceeding 730 *C.