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Patulous Eustachian tube appears to be caused by a concave defect in the anterolateral wall of the tubal valve of the Eustachian tube. This study aimed to compare the clinical features of patulous Eustachian tube patients with or without a defect in the anterolateral wall of the tubal valve.
Sixty-six patients with a patulous Eustachian tube completed a questionnaire, which was evaluated alongside endoscopic findings of the tympanic membrane, nasal cavity and Eustachian tube orifice.
Females were more frequently diagnosed with a patulous Eustachian tube, but the valve defect was more common in males (p = 0.007). The ratio of patulous Eustachian tube patients with or without defects in the anterolateral wall of the tubal valve was 1.6:1. Weight loss in the previous six months and being refractory to conservative management were significantly associated with the defect (p = 0.035 and 0.037, respectively). Symptom severity was significantly higher in patients with the defect.
Patulous Eustachian tube patients without a defect in the anterolateral wall of the tubal valve can be non-surgically treated more often than those with the defect. Identification of the defect could assist in making treatment decisions for patulous Eustachian tube patients.
The prevalence of internet game use among children and adolescents has been increased in the recent years.
Internet addiction has been found to cause various psychiatric symptoms and psychological problems. Internet addiction has been found to cause various psychiatric symptoms and psychological problems.
The aim of this study was to examine the association between problematic internet game use and psychiatric symptoms in a sample of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic, Ulsan University Hospital.
We analyzed data from 447 subjects who first visit the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic of the Ulsan University Hospital. The level of Internet addiction was categorized as either high-risk (≥108; group 3), potential risk (95 to 107; group 2), or no risk (≤94, group 1) based on the total score. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 and one-way ANOVA and multiple logistic regression method were used.
Thirteen adolescents met the criteria for high risk group of internet game addiction. in the high risk group, 10 were male and 3 were female adolescents. There was an mean difference among group 3 (high risk)< 1 (no risk),2 (potential risk) in AHI ; whereas group 3 (high risk)>1 (no risk), 2 (potential risk) in BDI, BAI, inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity and K-ARS score. with multiple logistic regression analysis, K-scale was significantly related with male sex, BDI, ARShyperactivity/ impulsivity score.
We conclude that having male sex, happiness and depressive symptoms is associated with the risk of developing internet use disorders.
It has not been well established whether dietary folate intake reduces the risk of diabetes development. We aimed to clarify the prospective association between dietary folate intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk among 7333 Korean adults aged 40 years or older who were included in the Multi-Rural Communities Cohort. Dietary folate intake was estimated from all 106 food items listed on a FFQ, not including folate intake from supplements. Two different measurements of dietary folate intake were used: the baseline consumption and the average consumption from baseline until just before the end of follow-up. The association between folate intake and T2D risk was determined through a modified Poisson regression model with a robust error estimator controlling for potential confounders. For 29 745 person years, 319 cases of diabetes were ascertained. In multivariable analyses, dietary folate intake was inversely associated with risk of T2D for women, not for men. For women, the incidence rate ratio of diabetes in the third tertile compared with the first tertile was 0·57 (95 % CI 0·38–0·87, Pfor trend=0·0085) in the baseline consumption model and 0·64 (95 % CI 0·43–0·95, Pfor trend=0·0244) in the average consumption model. These inverse associations was found in both normal fasting blood glucose group and impaired fasting glucose group among women. Among non-users of multinutrients and vitamin supplements, the significant inverse association remained. Thus, higher dietary intake of folate is prospectively associated with lower risk of diabetes for women.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether significant difference exists on radiation dose delivered to organs at risks in megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) verification using three predefined scanning modes, namely fine (2 mm), normal (4 mm) and coarse (6 mm). This will provide information for the imaging protocol of tomotherapy for the left breast.
Materials and methods
Organ doses were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) placed within a female Rando phantom for MVCT imaging. Kruskal–Wallis test was conducted with p<0·05 to evaluate the significant difference between the three MVCT scanning modes.
Statistically significant difference existed in organ absorbed dose between different scan mode selections (p<0·001). Relative to the normal scan selection (4 mm), the absorbed dose to the organs of interests can be scaled down by 0·7 and scaled up by 2·1 for coarse (6 mm) and fine scans (2 mm) respectively.
Optimisation of imaging protocols is of paramount importance to keep the radiation exposure ‘as low as reasonably achievable’. The recommendation of undergoing daily coarse mode for MVCT verification in breast tomotherapy not only mitigates the radiation exposure to normal tissues, but also trims the scan-acquisition time.
People living with HIV (PLWH) experience greater psychological distress than the general population. Evidence from high-incomes countries suggests that psychological interventions for PLWH can improve mental health symptoms, quality of life, and HIV care engagement. However, little is known about the effectiveness of mental health interventions for PLWH in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the large majority of PLWH reside. This systematized review aims to synthesize findings from mental health intervention trials with PLWH in LMICs to inform the delivery of mental health services in these settings. A systematic search strategy was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed published papers of intervention trials addressing negative psychological states or disorders (e.g. depression, anxiety) among PLWH in LMIC settings. Search results were assessed against pre-established inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data from papers meeting criteria were extracted for synthesis. Twenty-six papers, published between 2000 and 2014, describing 22 unique interventions were identified. Trials were implemented in sub-Saharan Africa (n = 13), Asia (n = 7), and the Middle East (n = 2), and addressed mental health using a variety of approaches, including cognitive-behavioral (n = 18), family-level (n = 2), and pharmacological (n = 2) treatments. Four randomized controlled trials reported significant intervention effects in mental health outcomes, and 11 preliminary studies demonstrated promising findings. Among the limited mental health intervention trials with PLWH in LMICs, few demonstrated efficacy. Mental health interventions for PLWH in LMICs must be further developed and adapted for resource-limited settings to improve effectiveness.
Specific roles of individual CDPKs vary, but in general they mediate essential biological functions necessary for parasite survival. A comparative analysis of the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of Neospora caninum, Eimeria tenella and Babesia bovis calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) together with those of Plasmodium falciparum, Cryptosporidium parvum and Toxoplasma gondii was performed by screening against 333 bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs). Structural modelling and experimental data revealed that residues other than the gatekeeper influence compound–protein interactions resulting in distinct sensitivity profiles. We subsequently defined potential amino-acid structural influences within the ATP-binding cavity for each orthologue necessary for consideration in the development of broad-spectrum apicomplexan CDPK inhibitors. Although the BKI library was developed for specific inhibition of glycine gatekeeper CDPKs combined with low inhibition of threonine gatekeeper human SRC kinase, some library compounds exhibit activity against serine- or threonine-containing CDPKs. Divergent BKI sensitivity of CDPK homologues could be explained on the basis of differences in the size and orientation of the hydrophobic pocket and specific variation at other amino-acid positions within the ATP-binding cavity. In particular, BbCDPK4 and PfCDPK1 are sensitive to a larger fraction of compounds than EtCDPK1 despite the presence of a threonine gatekeeper in all three CDPKs.
In February 2012, an outbreak of gastroenteritis was reported in school A; a successive outbreak was reported at school B. A retrospective cohort study conducted in school A showed that seasoned green seaweed with radishes (relative risk 7·9, 95% confidence interval 1·1–56·2) was significantly associated with illness. Similarly, a case-control study of students at school B showed that cases were 5·1 (95% confidence interval 1·1–24·8) times more likely to have eaten seasoned green seaweed with pears. Multiple norovirus genotypes were detected in samples from students in schools A and B. Norovirus GII.6 isolated from schools A and B were phylogenetically indistinguishable. Green seaweed was supplied by company X, and norovirus GII.4 was isolated from samples of green seaweed. Green seaweed was assumed to be linked to these outbreaks. To our knowledge, this is the first reported norovirus outbreak associated with green seaweed.
Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) frequently display co-morbid mental disorders. These disorders include ‘internalizing’ disorders (such as major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders) and ‘externalizing’ disorders (such as substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder). It is hypothesized that these disorders may arise from latent ‘internalizing’ and ‘externalizing’ liability factors. Factor analytic studies suggest that internalizing and externalizing factors both contribute to BPD, but the extent to which such contributions are familial is unknown.
Participants were 368 probands (132 with BPD; 134 without BPD; and 102 with major depressive disorder) and 885 siblings and parents of probands. Participants were administered the Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders, the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV.
On confirmatory factor analysis of within-person associations of disorders, BPD loaded moderately on internalizing (factor loading 0.53, s.e. = 0.10, p < 0.001) and externalizing latent variables (0.48, s.e. = 0.10, p < 0.001). Within-family associations were assessed using structural equation models of familial and non-familial factors for BPD, internalizing disorders, and externalizing disorders. In a Cholesky decomposition model, 84% (s.e. = 17%, p < 0.001) of the association of BPD with internalizing and externalizing factors was accounted for by familial contributions.
Familial internalizing and externalizing liability factors are both associated with, and therefore may mutually contribute to, BPD. These familial contributions account largely for the pattern of co-morbidity between BPD and internalizing and externalizing disorders.
Imprinting control regions (ICRs) play a fundamental role in establishing and maintaining the non-random monoallelic expression of certain genes, via common regulatory elements such as non-coding RNAs and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of DNA. We recently surveyed DNA methylation levels within four ICRs (H19-ICR, IGF2-DMR, KvDMR, and NESPAS-ICR) in whole-blood genomic DNA from 128 monozygotic (MZ) and 128 dizygotic (DZ) human twin pairs. Our analyses revealed high individual variation and intra-domain covariation in methylation levels across CpGs and emphasized the interaction between epigenetic variation and the underlying genetic sequence in a parent-of-origin fashion. Here, we extend our analysis to conduct two genome-wide screenings of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) underlying either intra-domain covariation or parent-of-origin-dependent association with methylation status at individual CpG sites located within ICRs. Although genome-wide significance was not surpassed due to sample size limitations, the most significantly associated SNPs found through multiple-trait genome-wide association (MQFAM) included the previously described rs10732516, which is located in the vicinity of the H19-ICR. Similarly, we identified an association between rs965808 and methylation status within the NESPAS-ICR. This SNP is positioned within an intronic region of the overlapping genes GNAS and GNAS-AS1, which are imprinted genes regulated by the NESPAS-ICR. Sixteen other SNPs located in regions apart from the analyzed regions displayed suggestive association with intra-domain methylation. Additionally, we identified 13 SNPs displaying parent-of-origin association with individual methylation sites through family-based association testing. In this exploratory study, we show the value and feasibility of using alternative GWAS approaches in the study of the interaction between epigenetic state and genetic sequence within imprinting regulatory domains. Despite the relatively small sample size, we identified a number of SNPs displaying suggestive association either in a domain-wide or in a parent-of-origin fashion. Nevertheless, these associations will require future experimental validation or replication in larger and independent samples.
Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been thoroughly investigated as potential anode materials in Li-ion battery owing to their exceptional properties such as the higher surface area to mass ratio, electrical conductivity and mechanical toughness. However, one of the major limitations of nano carbon materials is lower mass loading density. To address this issue, we have developed a novel anode system composed of CNFs directly grown on 3D Cu mesh current collector (hereafter mentioned as 3D CNFs) using a thermal catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Compared to CNF-based anodes on 2D Cu current collector, active The active material loading amount of the 3D CNFs has been found to be 400 % higher while comparing with 2D CNF. Owing to an increase of the active surface area, 3D CNFs demonstrated enhanced electrochemical performance of Li-ion battery in terms of charge capacity (50% improvement), rate capability and cycling life. Interfacial contact between the CNFs and Cu could play a crucial role in promoting the electrochemical properties. The intermediate TiC thin layer, formed at high temperature 750°C, could function as an efficient electric conducting pathway and a strong bonding bridge between the CNFs and Cu. In order to improve the pristine 3D CNF redox reactions, the amorphous Si (a-Si)/3D CNF has been sputter deposited to produce Si wrapped 3D CNF hybrid anode material. It has been found that the electrochemical properties of the a-Si/3D CNF yields superior specific capacity (Cdis 549 mAhg-1, LiC4.1) and cycling stability than that of pristine 3D CNF (461 mAhg-1, LiC4.8).
Carbon nanotubes patterns of micron-level resolution have been achieved using inkjet printing of DNA and SDS assisted CNT dispersions. DNA/CNT film has a significantly higher resistance compared to SDS/CNT film. Taking advantage of the porous nature of printed SDS/CNT film after SDS removal, indium can be electroplated to fill the CNT network and form a CNT/In composite. The CNT/In composite was used as interconnect material. Reworkability and RF performance of In-plated CNT bump structures are studied and the results are presented.
The main subject of this paper is to examine and to evaluate the capacitive behaviour of activated carbon electrodes electrochemically decorated by quinone-type functional groups. For this purpose, different electrolytes, i.e. hydroquinone, catechol and resorcinol at the concentration of 0.38 mol L-1, dissolved in 1 mol L-1 H2SO4, 1 mol L-1 Li2SO4 and 6 mol L-1 KOH were used. These electrolytes could generate electroactive groups (able to undergo reversible redox reactions) on the surface of electrode material. Apart from typical adsorption of the mentioned dihydroxybenzenes, so called grafting could occur and might cause generation of quinone|hydroquinone functionals on carbon surface. As an effect of functional reversible redox reaction, additional capacitance value, called pseudocapacitance, could be achieved. Hence, besides typical charge originating from charging/discharging of the electrical double layer on the electrode/electrolyte interface, additional capacitance comes also from faradaic reactions. Activated carbons are the most promising electrode materials for this purpose; apart from great physicochemical properties, they are characterized by well-developed specific surface area over 2000 m2 g-1 which results in high capacitance values.
In the manuscript the influence of the hydroxyl group location as well as electrolyte solution pH on the electrochemical performance of the electrode is discussed.
We present our preliminary results on a novel technique to electrophoretically sort singlewall carbon nanotubes into metallic and semiconducting tubes using a free-solution nonionic surfactant in a homemade electrophoretic vertical cell. The technique is used to sort purified commercial product SWCNTs, (Thomas Swan Elicarb) into metallic and semiconducting tubes. In contrast to onventional electrophoresis techniques, which takes more than 24 hours to obtain efficient separation, our approach takes ∼ 6 hours to achieve efficient separation, which reduces the separation time by four fold. Characterization of the sorted tubes with micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis shows very strong enrichment of both metallic and semiconducting tubes.
Well ordered arrays of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are of interest for a broad range of potential applications including energy storage and as catalyst supports. On some substrates such as copper and nickel, CNTs do not grow well or at all. We have previously shown that mesoporous silica thin films can be deposited onto metal substrates including copper and nickel, and that, after removal of the templating surfactant, the mesoporous silica film can be used as template for the electrodeposition of metals to give metal nanostructures.[Campbell et. al., Micro. Meso. Mater., 97, 114-121 (2006)] The size of the metal nanostructures makes them attractive as seeds for growth of CNTs. We have found that under appropriate conditions nickel deposited into mesoporous silica can act as catalyst for CNT growth on a number of different substrates including copper coated silicon wafers, and nickel foam. Using three different furnaces and different feed streams it was found that the growth is sensitive to carbon source; acetylene and ethylene both produced CNTs whereas attempts to produce CNTs using xylene have so far been unsuccessful.
Well ordered mesoporous silica thin films could potentially give arrays of nanorod seeds, leading to well ordered arrays of CNTs, SEM images of some of our samples show dense CNT arrays, but do not indicate significant ordering.
We report an increase in superconducting temperature of magnesium diboride (MgB2) by minute single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) inclusions. The SWCNTs concentration was varied from 0.1wt% to 1.0wt%. The temperature dependence resistivity of sintered MgB2- SWCNTs composites containing 0.1wt%, 0.5wt% and 1.0wt% were measured and compared with that of the pure MgB2. The superconducting critical temperature (Tc) of the MgB2 increased from 40 K to as high as 42.4 K for the MgB2 containing 0.5wt% of SWCNTs. The room temperature resistivity ratio (RRR) shows dependence on the sample composition. The temperature width (ΔT) decreases with increasing SWCNT content from 0.1wt% to 1.0wt%. The normal state resistivity data were fitted with the generalized Block-Grüneisen function obtaining a Debye temperature of ∼ 900K.
As produced, raw carbon nanotubes are not soluble in many solvents necessary for printing applications. Standard methods for circumventing this problem involve sidewall functionalization and surfactants. Sidewall functionalization invariably destroys the π-network that gives carbon nanotubes their useful electronic properties, while surfactants deposit an insulating layer onto the carbon nanotube surface that must be washed off to regain the desired properties. Non-covalent functionalization offers the possibility to achieve solubility without destroying the π-network, but published methods have resulted in relatively low concentrations or substandard electronic performance. We have developed a scalable method to non-covalently functionalize long (> 3 μm) carbon nanotubes with simple pyrene derivatives. This method produces highly dispersed solutions with concentrations as high as 2.5 g/l that can be used to produce conductive coatings with sheet resistance as low as 350 Ω/sq with 85% transmittance at 550 nm without post-deposition washing or doping treatments. The functionalized carbon nanotubes can be formulated into solutions that can be printed by ink-jet deposition, Aerosol-Jet® deposition, screen printing, and spray coating for printed electronics fabrication, and the solutions are stable for months without signs of bundling.
We present a Scanning Probe Microscopy study of doping and sensing properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based nanosensors. rGO devices are created by dielectrophoretic assembly of rGO platelets onto interdigitated electrode arrays, which are lithographically pre-patterned on top of SiO2/Si wafers. The availability of several types of oxygen functional groups allows rGO to interact with a wide range of organic dopants, including methanol, ethanol, acetone, and ammonia. We perform sensitive Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy (SKPM) measurements on patterned rGO electronic circuits and show that the local electrical potential and charge distribution are significantly changed when the device is exposed to organic dopants. We also demonstrate that SKPM experiments allow us to quantify the amount of charge transferred to the sensor during chemical doping, and to spatially resolve the active sites of the sensor where the doping process takes place.