To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We have observed the G23 field of the Galaxy AndMass Assembly (GAMA) survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in its commissioning phase to validate the performance of the telescope and to characterise the detected galaxy populations. This observation covers ~48 deg2 with synthesised beam of 32.7 arcsec by 17.8 arcsec at 936MHz, and ~39 deg2 with synthesised beam of 15.8 arcsec by 12.0 arcsec at 1320MHz. At both frequencies, the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) noise is ~0.1 mJy/beam. We combine these radio observations with the GAMA galaxy data, which includes spectroscopy of galaxies that are i-band selected with a magnitude limit of 19.2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared (IR) photometry is used to determine which galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In properties including source counts, mass distributions, and IR versus radio luminosity relation, the ASKAP-detected radio sources behave as expected. Radio galaxies have higher stellar mass and luminosity in IR, optical, and UV than other galaxies. We apply optical and IR AGN diagnostics and find that they disagree for ~30% of the galaxies in our sample. We suggest possible causes for the disagreement. Some cases can be explained by optical extinction of the AGN, but for more than half of the cases we do not find a clear explanation. Radio sources aremore likely (~6%) to have an AGN than radio quiet galaxies (~1%), but the majority of AGN are not detected in radio at this sensitivity.
The two major approaches to studying macroevolution in deep time are the fossil record and reconstructed relationships among extant taxa from molecular data. Results based on one approach sometimes conflict with those based on the other, with inconsistencies often attributed to inherent flaws of one (or the other) data source. Any contradiction between the molecular and fossil records represents a failure of our ability to understand the imperfections of our data, as both are limited reflections of the same evolutionary history. We therefore need to develop conceptual and mathematical models that jointly explain our observations in both records. Fortunately, the different limitations of each record provide an opportunity to test or calibrate the other, and new methodological developments leverage both records simultaneously. However, we must reckon with the distinct relationships between sampling and time in the fossil record and molecular phylogenies. These differences impact our recognition of baselines and the analytical incorporation of age estimate uncertainty.
To investigate the feasibility of a national audit of epistaxis management led and delivered by a multi-region trainee collaborative using a web-based interface to capture patient data.
Six trainee collaboratives across England nominated one site each and worked together to carry out this pilot. An encrypted data capture tool was adapted and installed within the infrastructure of a university secure server. Site-lead feedback was assessed through questionnaires.
Sixty-three patients with epistaxis were admitted over a two-week period. Site leads reported an average of 5 minutes to complete questionnaires and described the tool as easy to use. Data quality was high, with little missing data. Site-lead feedback showed high satisfaction ratings for the project (mean, 4.83 out of 5).
This pilot showed that trainee collaboratives can work together to deliver an audit using an encrypted data capture tool cost-effectively, whilst maintaining the highest levels of data quality.
In 2011, 14 Midwest trial locations evaluated tolerance of an AAD-1 and glyphosate-resistant corn hybrid to a 2,4-D choline+glyphosate premix formulation applied single and sequential POST at V4 and/or V7 corn with and without a PRE application of 2,4-D dimethylamine (DMA). Herbicides were applied at 1X and 2X maximum use rates with 1X rates of 1120 g ae ha−1 for glyphosate and 2,4-D DMA and 1065+1120 g ae ha−1 for the 2,4-D choline+glyphosate premix, respectively. Crop response was greatest 2 d after 2X rate applications, resulting in 4 to 10% visible injury to corn across application timings. No brace root injury or effect on corn grain yield were observed.
Local ice strains and in situ ice stresses were simultaneously measured on the Coordinated Eastern Arctic Experiment (CEAREX). The experiment took place in the fall of 1988 and was centered about an ice-strengthened ship moored to a multi-year floe in the pack ice northeast of Spitsbergen. During the period of data collection, which extended from early October to late November, the ship and the ice surrounding it drifted from 82°40′N, 32°32′E to 78°54′N, 31°27′E.
As soon as ice temperatures were low enough to permit installation, stress sensors were placed at four sites, two sites on each of two adjacent multi-year floes. Principal stress components and the principal stress direction were determined at each sensor. At the same time, microwave transponders, capable of measuring ice deformation to accuracies better than 1 m, were positioned within 1 km of the stress sensors and provided an approximation of the local strain field.
What makes this joint dataset particularly interesting is that it includes some large ridging events and a particularly large event which terminated the experiment when the multi-year floes in the local area were broken into small fragments. A wide range of ice stresses was measured during the period. The largest compressive stresses, about 250 kPa, were measured by the near-surface sensors. Although sensors in different locations responded differently to ice movement, the large events were common to all shallow sensors.
A two-dimensional particle simulation model of the sea-ice ridging process is developed. In this model, ridges are formed from an intact layer of newly frozen lead ice colliding with a thick multi-year floe. Blocks broken from the leading edge of the lead ice collect above and beneath the multi-year floe to form the characteristic ridge structure seen in the central Arctic. The total energy consumed in ridging ice, which is converted into the potential energy of the ridge structure and dissipated by the frictional and inelastic contacts between blocks of ice, is calculated explicitly. The results of preliminary numerical experiments using this model indicate that the amount of energy required to ridge ice may be much larger than previous estimates.
Experiments on the National Ignition Facility show that multi-dimensional effects currently dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a one-dimensional (1D) implosion platform where 1D means measured yield over the 1D clean calculation. A high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed using beryllium capsules enabling larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the implosion convergence can be controlled via the initial vapor pressure set by the target fielding temperature. The last method is double shell targets. For double shells, the smaller inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. However, double shell targets have a different set of trade-off versus advantages. Details for each of these approaches are described.
Reconstructing the tree of life involves more than identifying relationships among lineages; it also entails accurately estimating when lineages diverged. Paleontologists typically scale cladograms to time a posteriori by direct reference to first appearances of taxa in the stratigraphic record. Some approaches use probabilistic models of branching, extinction, and sampling processes to date samples of trees, such as the recently developed cal3 method, which stochastically draws divergence dates given a set of rates for those processes. However, these models require estimates of the rates of those processes, which may be hard to obtain, particularly for sampling. Here, we contrast the use of cal3 and other a posteriori time-scaling approaches by examining a previous study that documented a decelerating rate of morphological evolution in pterocephaliid trilobites. Although aspects of the data set make estimation of branching, extinction, and sampling rates difficult, we use a multifaceted approach to calculate and evaluate the rate estimates needed for applying cal3. In agreement with previous simulation studies, we find that the choice of phylogenetic dating method impacts downstream macroevolutionary conclusions. We also find contradictory evolutionary inferences between analyses on ancestor–descendant contrasts (based on ancestor trait reconstruction methods) and maximum-likelihood parameter estimates. Ancestral taxon inference in cal3 corroborates previously hypothesized ancestor–descendant sequences, but cal3 suggests greater support for budding cladogenesis than anagenesis. This case study demonstrates the potential and wide applicability of the cal3 method and the benefits afforded by choosing cal3 over simpler a posteriori time-scaling approaches.
Astronomy is rapidly approaching an impasse: very large datasets require remote or cloud-based parallel processing, yet many astronomers still try to download the data and develop serial code locally. Astronomers understand the need for change, but the hurdles remain high. We are developing a data archive designed from the ground up to simplify and encourage cloud-based parallel processing. While the volume of data we host remains modest by some standards, it is still large enough that download and processing times are measured in days and even weeks. We plan to implement a python based, notebook-like interface that automatically parallelises execution. Our goal is to provide an interface sufficiently familiar and user-friendly that it encourages the astronomer to run their analysis on our system in the cloud—astroinformatics as a service. We describe how our system addresses the approaching impasse in astronomy using the SAMI Galaxy Survey as an example.
To measure the trends in traditional marine food intake and serum vitamin D levels in Alaska Native women of childbearing age (20–29 years old) from the 1960s to the present.
We measured a biomarker of traditional food intake, the δ15N value, and vitamin D level, as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D3) concentration, in 100 serum samples from 20–29-year-old women archived in the Alaska Area Specimen Bank, selecting twenty-five per decade from the 1960s to the 1990s. We compared these with measurements of red-blood-cell δ15N values and serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations from 20–29-year-old women from the same region collected during the 2000s and 2010s in a Center for Alaska Native Health Research study.
The Yukon Kuskokwim Delta region of south-west Alaska.
Alaska Native women (n 319) aged 20–29 years at the time of specimen collection.
Intake of traditional marine foods, as measured by serum δ15N values, decreased significantly each decade from the 1960s through the 1990s, then remained constant from the 1990s through the present (F5,306=77·4, P<0·0001). Serum vitamin D concentrations also decreased from the 1960s to the present (F4,162=26·1, P<0·0001).
Consumption of traditional marine foods by young Alaska Native women dropped significantly between the 1960s and the 1990s and was associated with a significant decline in serum vitamin D concentrations. Studies are needed to evaluate the promotion of traditional marine foods and routine vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy for this population.
The yields of spring barley during a medium-term (7 years) compost and slurry addition experiment and the soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents, bacterial community structure, soil microbial biomass and soil respiration rates have been determined to assess the effects of repeated, and in some cases very large, organic amendments on soil and crop parameters. For compost, total additions were equivalent to up to 119 t C/ha and 1·7 t N/ha and for slurry they were 25 t C/ha and 0·35 t N/ha over 7 years, which represented very large additions compared to control soil C and N contents (69 t C/ha and 0·3 t N/ha in the 0–30 cm soil depth). There was an initial positive response to compost and slurry addition on barley yield, but over the experiment the yield differential between the amounts of compost addition declined, indicating that repeated addition of compost at a lower rate over several years had the same cumulative effect as a large single compost application. By the end of the experiment it was clear that the addition of compost and slurry increased soil C and N contents, especially towards the top of the soil profile, as well as soil respiration rates. However, the increases in soil C and N contents were not proportional to the amount of C and N added, suggesting either that: (i) a portion of the added C and N was more vulnerable to loss; (ii) that its addition rendered another C or N pool in the soil more susceptible to loss; or (iii) that the C inputs from additional crop productivity did not increase in line with the organic amendments. Soil microbial biomass was depressed at the highest rate of organic amendment, and whilst this may have been due to genuine toxic or inhibitory effects of large amounts of compost, it could also be due to the inaccuracy of the substrate-induced respiration approach used for determining soil biomass when there is a large supply of organic matter. At the highest compost addition, the bacterial community structure was significantly altered, suggesting that the amendments significantly altered soil community dynamics.
To investigate throat-related quality of life in peritonsillar abscess sufferers.
The adult tonsil outcome inventory questionnaire, which is a validated throat-related quality of life tool, was administered to individuals who had recently suffered a peritonsillar abscess and to control subjects.
The mean inventory score was significantly higher (reflecting poorer throat-related quality of life) in peritonsillar abscess sufferers (n = 55, mean score 25.8 out of 100) than in age- and gender-matched controls (n = 55, mean score 8.7) (p < 0.001). Neither gender nor interval between episode of peritonsillar abscess and inventory completion date were significantly correlated with the overall questionnaire scores. However, younger abscess sufferers reported greater symptom severity and throat-related quality of life impact than older abscess sufferers.
Peritonsillar abscess had a significant impact on throat-related quality of life. In many, peritonsillar abscess represented an acute episode on a background of chronic throat problems. For optimal management, notably the place and timing of tonsillectomy, this impact should be taken into account. The adult tonsil outcome inventory is an ideal tool for use in clinical practice.
A heuristic greedy algorithm is developed for efficiently tiling spatially dense redshift surveys. In its first application to the Galaxy and MassAssembly (GAMA) redshift survey we find it rapidly improves the spatial uniformity of our data, and naturally corrects for any spatial bias introduced by the 2dF multi-object spectrograph. We make conservative predictions for the final state of the GAMA redshift survey after our final allocation of time, and can be confident that even if worse than typical weather affects our observations, all of our main survey requirements will be met.
EMU is a wide-field radio continuum survey planned for the new Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The primary goal of EMU is to make a deep (rms ∼ 10 μJy/beam) radio continuum survey of the entire Southern sky at 1.3 GHz, extending as far North as +30° declination, with a resolution of 10 arcsec. EMU is expected to detect and catalogue about 70 million galaxies, including typical star-forming galaxies up to z ∼ 1, powerful starbursts to even greater redshifts, and active galactic nuclei to the edge of the visible Universe. It will undoubtedly discover new classes of object. This paper defines the science goals and parameters of the survey, and describes the development of techniques necessary to maximise the science return from EMU.
The industrial dyeing apparatus excavated in Pompeii have been preserved and remain in situ. To understand Pompeii’s economy, and its place in the Roman world, it is necessary to first understand the capabilities of a single industry. Before this study, the size of the dyeing industry was calculated by applying theory to a superficial measurement of the remains. This study was the first to realise that to understand an industry it was necessary to reconstruct and use the relevant parts.
The most comprehensive survey of the apparatus was undertaken. A full-scale physical replica was constructed from materials that physically and thermally matched the originals. This study was the first to define the dyeing cycle time, temperatures reached and fuel type and quantity required. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was used to model a virtual replica to show the effect of external influences on the materials during use. The lead metal data did not exist before this study. This was the first use of FEA to model an archaeological apparatus or artefact of more than one material. The dyeing industry had been far smaller than originally thought.
Archaeological virtual replications tend to be aesthetic. This study produced a rare physical replication. When this is combined with data from the original survey and physical replicas each apparatus is now ‘preserved by record’ and may be recreated. Some of the apparatus in Pompeii have been amended in an attempt to reconstruct and preserve them. This study has shown that the amendments are incorrect and potentially misleading.
Prior to this study the size of the industry was a controversial ‘unanswerable’ question. This study provided a solid foundation that answered the question and illustrated a new approach, through a method that provided a means of preserving the apparatus for the future.