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Coated copper sulphate (CCS) could be used as a Cu supplement in cows. To investigate the influences of copper sulphate (CS) and CCS on milk performance, nutrient digestion and rumen fermentation, fifty Holstein dairy cows were arranged in a randomised block design to five groups: control, CS addition (7·5 mg Cu/kg DM from CS) or CCS addition (5, 7·5 and 10 mg Cu/kg DM from CCS, respectively). When comparing Cu source at equal inclusion rates (7·5 mg/kg DM), cows receiving CCS addition had higher yields of fat-corrected milk, milk fat and protein; digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral-detergent fibre (NDF); ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration; activities of carboxymethyl cellulase, cellobiase, pectinase and α-amylase; populations of Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes; and liver Cu content than cows receiving CS addition. Increasing CCS addition, DM intake was unchanged, yields of milk, milk fat and protein; feed efficiency; digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and acid-detergent fibre; ruminal total VFA concentration; acetate:propionate ratio; activity of cellulolytic enzyme; populations of total bacteria, protozoa and dominant cellulolytic bacteria; and concentrations of Cu in serum and liver increased linearly, but ruminal propionate percentage, ammonia-N concentration, α-amylase activity and populations of Prevotella ruminicola and Ruminobacter amylophilus decreased linearly. The results indicated that supplement of CS could be substituted with CCS and addition of CCS improved milk performance and nutrient digestion in dairy cows.
Mental health disorders and their treatments produce significant costs and benefits in both healthcare and non-healthcare sectors. The latter are often referred to as intersectoral costs and benefits (ICBs). Little is known about healthcare-related ICBs in the criminal justice sector and how to include these in health economics research.
The triple aim of this study is (i) to identify healthcare-related ICBs in the criminal justice sector, (ii) to validate the list of healthcare-related ICBs in the criminal justice sector on a European level by sector-specific experts, and (iii) to classify the identified ICBs.
A scientific literature search in PubMed and an additional grey literature search, carried out in six European countries, were used to retrieve ICBs. In order to validate the international applicability of the ICBs, a survey was conducted with an international group of experts from the criminal justice sector. The list of criminal justice ICBs was categorized according to the PECUNIA conceptual framework.
The full-text analysis of forty-five peer-reviewed journal articles and eleven grey literature sources resulted in a draft list of items. Input from the expert survey resulted in a final list of fourteen unique criminal justice ICBs, categorized according to the care atom.
This study laid further foundations for the inclusion of important societal costs of mental health-related interventions within the criminal justice sector. More research is needed to facilitate the further and increased inclusion of ICBs in health economics research.
We present the elements required to construct two devices used in an undergraduate plasma physics laboratory. The materials and construction costs of the sources, the vacuum systems and probe drives and electrical circuits are presented in detail in the text and the first appendix. We also provide the software for probe motion and data acquisition as well as the electrical schematics for key components. Experiments which have been performed are listed and two (resonance cones and whistler waves) are described in greater detail. The machines are flexible and original research is possible.
Glacial extent and mass balance are sensitive climate proxies providing solid information on past climatic conditions. However, series of annual mass-balance measurements of more than 60 years are scarce. To our knowledge, this is the first time the latewood density data (MXD) of the Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) have been used to reconstruct the summer mass balance (Bs) of an Alpine glacier. The MXD-based Bs well correlates with a Bs reconstruction based on the May to September temperature. Winter precipitation has been used as an independent proxy to infer the winter mass balance and to obtain an annual mass-balance (Bn) estimate dating back to the glaciological year 1811/12. The reconstructed MXD/precipitation-based Bn well correlates with the data both of the Careser and of other Alpine glaciers measured by the glaciological method. A number of critical issues should be considered in both proxies, including non-linear response of glacial mass balance to temperature, bedrock topography, ice thinning and fragmentation, MXD acquisition and standardization methods, and finally the ‘divergence problem’ responsible for the recently reduced sensitivity of the dendrochronological data. Nevertheless, our results highlight the possibility of performing MXD-based dendroglaciological reconstructions using this stable and reliable proxy.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Specific Aim 1 To examine sex distribution of psoas cross sectional area (CSA) on CT imaging in a cohort of trauma patients age 55 and older. We will use three methods of assessing psoas CSA: psoas CSA averaged between left and right, average psoas CSA adjusted for height, and average psoas CSA adjusted for body surface area (psoas index). Specific Aim 2 Use multivariable logistic regression prediction modeling to compare the 3 methods of CT psoas muscle measurement widely used in the literature in their ability to predict a composite of in-hospital morbidity and mortality in trauma patients ages 55 and older. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The Maine Medical Center Trauma Registry is maintained by the Trauma Surgery Service at Maine Medical Center in Portland, Maine, the only Level-1 trauma center in the state. After receiving approval from the Institutional Review Board of Maine Medical Center for this retrospective cohort study, we queried the Maine Medical Center Trauma Registry for all adults 55 years and older who underwent evaluation by the Trauma Service between January 1, 2015 and January 1, 2019. In the case of multiple admissions within the study time period, only a patient’s index admission was used. MaineHealth IMPACS imaging software was used to measure bilateral psoas CSA on each patient CT. The Maine Medical Center electronic medical record was queried for additional clinical information including the ICD codes associated with each patient encounter. Data analysis was performed using R statistical software (R project, Vienna, Austria). Data is reported as median + IQR for CSA measurements. The agreement between the three methods of quantifying psoas CSA was evaluated using Pearson correlation (R package “stats”). Inter-rater reliability of psoas muscle measurements was evaluated using intra-class correlation (R package “irr”). Prediction models for the composite outcome of in-hospital morbidity and mortality were constructed using multivariable logistic regression. Bootstrapping was used for internal validation and shrinkage to avoid overfitting. Models including psoas CSA were compared to a baseline model without psoas CSA to evaluated incremental added predictive ability. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This cohort provides a basis for examining the population distribution of psoas CSA in adults 55 years and older. IN addition to a high level of agreement between the three methods of measuring psoas CSA (Spearman coefficient > 0.9), there was also high level of inter rater reliability in psoas muscle assessment (intraclass correlation 0.9). We anticipate that psoas CSA adjusted for body surface area will add the most incremental predictive ability to a model predicting in-hospital morbidity and mortality. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Given the heterogeneity of health status amongst elderly trauma patients, a major challenge lies in the rapid objective identification of those elderly trauma patients who are frail. Due to the limitations in current frailty measures, there has been a surge of interest in surrogate markers of frailty, such as muscle mass, as predictive factors of poor outcomes after trauma.Several studies have found that sarcopenia is associated with post injury morbidity and mortality. Estimates of the prevalence of sarcopenia among trauma patients vary across studies due to differences in definition and sample characteristics. In order to appropriately categorize patients as sarcopenic, the population distribution of psoas CSA on CT must be established. The psoas measurement that best correlates with outcomes has yet to be determined, and it is unclear which measurement should be implemented in usual practice. Our main objective is to improve the outcomes of sarcopenic patients hospitalized with trauma by implementing in the future patient-centered interventions which will account for sarcopenia.
Mental health problems can lead to costs and benefits in other sectors (e.g. in the education sector) in addition to the healthcare sector. These related costs and benefits are known as intersectoral costs and benefits (ICBs). Although some ICBs within the education sector have been identified previously, little is known about their extensiveness and transferability, which is crucial for their inclusion in health economics research.
The aim of this study was to identify ICBs in the education sector, to validate the list of ICBs in a broader European context, and to categorize the ICBs using mental health as a case study.
Previously identified ICBs in the education sector were used as a basis for this study. Additional ICBs were extracted from peer-reviewed literature in PubMed and grey literature from six European countries. A comprehensive list of unique items was developed based on the identified ICBs. The list was validated by surveying an international group of educational experts. The survey results were used to finalize the list, which was categorized according to the care atom.
Additional ICBs in the education sector were retrieved from ninety-six sources. Fourteen experts from six European countries assessed the list for completeness, clarity, and relevance. The final list contained twenty-four ICBs categorized into input, throughput, and output.
By providing a comprehensive list of ICBs in the education sector, this study laid further foundations for the inclusion of important societal costs in health economics research in the broader European context.
This chapter should be read as an ideological (self-) critique of the role and function of critical legal scholarship in the rise of the “social” after 1960, first, at national level, later, at EU level. Critical legal scholars have all too often understood critical legal theory as practice of theory, in which law is there to help to protect the weaker parties in society and to compensate for the imbalance of power. The decline of the welfare state and the “neoliberal move” in the EU teaches us that law can be politicised not only to promote the “social” in the name of justice but also to de-construct the “social” in the name of economic efficiency. The revival of the political economy provides for an opportunity to re-think the role of law in the secular compromise between capitalism and democracy.
The word ‘symmetry’ expresses in everyday language the correspondence in form, size, and arrangement of parts on opposite sides of a plane, line, or point. Such a concept of correspondence is the main idea of most definitions of this term in the various humanities disciplines discussed in this volume of European Review. But if we go back to the Greek origins of this term, we discover that the understanding of symmetry was completely different, that it signified mathematical commensurability of all important elements of a three-dimensional figure. This article discusses the termʼs initial meaning and its importance for the design and appreciation of beautiful architectonic and human bodies. It goes on to provide an outline of the main phases of the step-by-step development from the original concept towards its modern meaning established in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
To investigate the difference of visual pattern memory among first-episode treatment-naive patients with deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia.
199 first-episode treatment-naive patients with schizophrenia, and 148 controls were recruited. Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS) was used to categorize the patients into deficit or nondeficit subtype. Pattern Recognition Memory (PRM) was used to test the immediate and delayed mode of visual pattern memory. Positive and Negative Symptom Scale PANSS was used to assess the degree of patients symptoms.
The PRM immediate mode and delayed mode percent correct was significant lower and time latency was significant longer in two subtypes of patients. There were no significant difference in the performance of immediate mode of PRM between deficit and nondeficit patients[(86.49 ± 15.34) vs. (87.28 ± 16.00), P=0.960]. But the impairment was more severe in patients with deficit schizophrenia [percent correct (63.10 ± 19.17) vs. (70.69 ± 15.34), P< 0.001 time latency 5086.80 ± 7528.54 vs. 3527.40 ± 3649.08 P=0.024] in the delayed mode. and PRM has no significant correlation with the negative symptoms of deficit schizophrenia.
There were significant difference in the performance of immediate and delayed mode of PRM between patients and controls. The difference between first-episode treatment-naïve deficit schizophrenia and nondeficit schizophrenia was only in delayed mode of PRM, and has no correlation with the primary negative symptoms. The deficit schizophrenia is a subtype of schizophrenia with unique impairment of cognitive functions.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
To evaluate the upper airway morphology changes associated with ageing in adult Chinese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.
A total of 124 male patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnoea by overnight polysomnography, who underwent upper airway computed tomography, were enrolled. The linear dimensions, cross-sectional area and volume of the upper airway region and the surrounding bony frame were measured. The association between ageing and upper airway morphology was analysed.
Soft palate length, minimum cross-sectional area of the retroglossal region, lateral dimensions at the minimum cross-sectional area of the retropalatal and retroglossal regions, nasopharyngeal volume, and average cross-sectional area of the nasopharyngeal region were found to significantly increase with ageing in all patients, while the upper airway shape flattened with ageing. The volume of the retropalatal region increased with ageing among the patients with a body mass index of less than 24 kg/m2. The volume of parapharyngeal fat pad increased with ageing among patients with a body mass index greater than 28 kg/m2.
A number of dimensional, cross-sectional and volumetric parameters of the pharynx increased with age, indicating that non-anatomical factors may play a more important role in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnoea in aged patients.
Recently, we found that in ovo feeding of l-leucine (l-Leu) afforded thermotolerance, stimulated lipid metabolism and modified amino acid metabolism in male broiler chicks. However, the effects of in ovo feeding of l-Leu on thermoregulation and growth performance until marketing age of broilers are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of in ovo feeding of l-Leu on body weight (BW) gain under control thermoneutral temperature or chronic heat stress. We measured changes of body temperature and food intake, organ weight, as well as amino acid metabolism and plasma metabolites under acute and chronic heat stress in broilers. A total of 168 fertilized Chunky broiler eggs were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups in experiments. The eggs were in ovo fed with l-Leu (34.5 µmol/500 µl per egg) or sterile water (500 µl/egg) during incubation. After hatching, male broilers were selected and assigned seven to nine replicates (one bird/replicate) in each group for heat challenge experiments. Broilers (29- or 30-day-old) were exposed to acute heat stress (30 ± 1°C) for 120 min or a chronic heat cyclic and continued heat stress (over 30 ± 1°C; ages, 15 to 44 days). In ovo feeding of l-Leu caused a significant suppression of enhanced body temperature without affecting food intake, plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids, ketone bodies, glucose, lactic acid or thyroid hormones under acute heat stress. Daily body temperature was significantly increased by l-Leu in ovo feeding under chronic heat stress. Interestingly, in ovo feeding of l-Leu caused a significantly higher daily BW gain compared with that of the control group under chronic heat stress. Moreover, some essential amino acids, including Leu and isoleucine, were significantly increased in the liver and decreased in the plasma by l-Leu in ovo feeding under acute heat stress. These results suggested that l-Leu in ovo feeding afforded thermotolerance to broilers under acute heat stress mainly through changing amino acid metabolism until marketing age.
Patients with distributive shock who are unresponsive to traditional vasopressors are commonly considered to have severe distributive shock and are at high mortality risk. Here, we assess the cost-effectiveness of adding angiotensin II to the standard of care (SOC) for severe distributive shock in the US critical care setting from a US payer perspective.
Short-term mortality outcomes were based on 28-day survival rates from the ATHOS-3 study. Long-term outcomes were extrapolated to lifetime survival using individually estimated life expectancies for survivors. Resource use and adverse event costs were drawn from the published literature. Health outcomes evaluated were lives saved, life-years gained, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained using utility estimates for the US adult population weighted for sepsis mortality. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses assessed uncertainty around results. We analyzed patients with severe distributive shock from the ATHOS-3 clinical trial.
The addition of angiotensin II to the SOC saved .08 lives at Day 28 compared to SOC alone. The cost per life saved was estimated to be $108,884. The addition of angiotensin II to the SOC was projected to result in a gain of .96 life-years and .66 QALYs. This resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $12,843 per QALY. The probability of angiotensin II being cost-effective at a threshold of $50,000 per QALY was 86 percent.
For treatment of severe distributive shock, angiotensin II is cost-effective at acceptable thresholds.
be a compact Lie group with complexification
, and let
be a unitary
-module. We consider the real symplectic quotient
at level zero of the homogeneous quadratic moment map as well as the complex symplectic quotient, defined here as the complexification of
. We show that if
-large, a condition that holds generically, then the complex symplectic quotient has symplectic singularities and is graded Gorenstein. This implies in particular that the real symplectic quotient is graded Gorenstein. In case
is a torus or
, we show that these results hold without the hypothesis that
Guangxi, a province in southwestern China, has the second highest reported number of HIV/AIDS cases in China. This study aimed to develop an accurate and effective model to describe the tendency of HIV and to predict its incidence in Guangxi. HIV incidence data of Guangxi from 2005 to 2016 were obtained from the database of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network models, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models, generalised regression neural network (GRNN) models and exponential smoothing (ES) were used to fit the incidence data. Data from 2015 and 2016 were used to validate the most suitable models. The model performances were evaluated by evaluating metrics, including mean square error (MSE), root mean square error, mean absolute error and mean absolute percentage error. The LSTM model had the lowest MSE when the N value (time step) was 12. The most appropriate ARIMA models for incidence in 2015 and 2016 were ARIMA (1, 1, 2) (0, 1, 2)12 and ARIMA (2, 1, 0) (1, 1, 2)12, respectively. The accuracy of GRNN and ES models in forecasting HIV incidence in Guangxi was relatively poor. Four performance metrics of the LSTM model were all lower than the ARIMA, GRNN and ES models. The LSTM model was more effective than other time-series models and is important for the monitoring and control of local HIV epidemics.