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We compared systematic and random survey techniques to estimate breeding population sizes of burrow-nesting petrel species on Marion Island. White-chinned (Procellaria aequinoctialis) and blue (Halobaena caerulea) petrel population sizes were estimated in systematic surveys (which attempt to count every colony) in 2009 and 2012, respectively. In 2015, we counted burrows of white-chinned, blue and great-winged (Pterodroma macroptera) petrels within 52 randomized strip transects (25 m wide, total 144 km). Burrow densities were extrapolated by Geographic Information System-derived habitat attributes (geology, vegetation, slope, elevation, aspect) to generate island-wide burrow estimates. Great-winged petrel burrows were found singly or in small groups at low densities (2 burrows ha−1); white-chinned petrel burrows were in loose clusters at moderate densities (3 burrows ha−1); and blue petrel burrows were in tight clusters at high densities (13 burrows ha−1). The random survey estimated 58% more white-chinned petrels but 42% fewer blue petrels than the systematic surveys. The results suggest that random transects are best suited for species that are widely distributed at low densities, but become increasingly poor for estimating population sizes of species with clustered distributions. Repeated fixed transects provide a robust way to monitor changes in colony density and area, but might fail to detect the formation/disappearance of new colonies.
An X-ray emission spectrographic method of analysis is presented for the determination, of rare earth elements in fractions obtained from bastnaesite ore. The method includes the determination of yttrium, thorium, lanthanum., and the rare earth elements in various complex mixtures. The analysis technique is based upon comparing the samples to synthetic standards approximating the composition of the samples. Working curves are plotted on an absolute intensity basis, with, no correction for background. Examples of working curves and the analyses of typical rare earth concentrates are included. The selection of spectral lines for the various sample matrices is discussed. A special technique is used for samples in which rapid hydration and carbonation occurred.
By analyzing synthetic samples of known composition, the accuracy of the method was determined. The error of analysis was about 3 per cent of the amount present in the range from 5 to 100 per cent and about 7 per cent in the 0.2 to 5 per cent range. A maximum of about 40 samples per day may be analyzed for 7 elements each. The advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed.
Now in its eighth edition, this is the textbook for current and future global leaders wanting to lead competently and sustainably in their business practices. Fully updated, the authors build on their forty years of teaching, researching and working with managers worldwide to bring students the latest developments in global business practice. Now including end-of-chapter reflection questions to guide topic comprehension, and directed further resources to assist individual research, this edition also sees the return of Ivey Business School and IMD cases in the book. This edition also includes a new conception of mindful global leadership as the integrating framework for execution of global strategy, highlighting the importance of a holistic approach to working across cultures and distance. Combining a wealth of theoretical knowledge with real-world examples from diverse cultures, countries and industry sectors, the practical guidance and well-chosen examples throughout the book bring key concepts to life.