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Analysis of an exhaustive data base of Namurian ammonoid shell characters indicates that the morphology of the Goniatitida can be explained in terms of functional constraints, resulting particularly from hydrostatic and hydrodynamic properties. Modes of life ranging from benthic to pelagic are inferred on this basis for various goniatitid morphotypes; all morphologic features and facies associations are normally compatible with these inferences. Neutral buoyancy is shown to have been likely for all goniatitids. By contrast, the prolecanitids (Order Agoniatitida) exhibit a number of hydrostatic and morphologic anomalies; these anomalies are not explicable using the same principles and remain problematic. This is noteworthy, in that prolecanitids survived the Permian/Triassic extinctions and gave rise to the diverse ceratitic radiation in the Triassic.
The applicability of these results to ammonoids outside the Namurian is assessed, and, in particular, morphologic parallels with Mesozoic ammonites are discussed.
Morphologic analysis of 281 species of ammonoids from Great Britain, the North American mid-continent, and the South Urals, at eight successive levels within the Namurian Series (ca. 18 Myr duration), using bivariate plots and principal-components analysis, permits definition of morphologic diversity and identification of morphotypic patterns in time and space. Namurian ammonoids exhibit the same general range of shell geometry that characterizes ammonoids as a whole; there were few post-Namurian innovations in the basic geometry of planispiral ammonoids. Within this overall range of geometry, there are eight preferred morphotypes: two were phylogenetically monopolized by long-ranging forms; three were generalized and reoccur in successive horizons; two others were homeomorphically utilized at different times by different lineages; and one represents morphologic innovation followed by radiation. Such patterns seem to represent combined effects of function, phylogeny, and ecology. Synchronous variations in isolated successions suggest global controls such as eustatic sea-level fluctuations, whereas provincial differences in diversity may be attributable to paleogeographic and ecologic factors. We predict that the Namurian record of ammonoid morphologic diversity and change will be found to be distinctive and differentiable from earlier and later intervals.
Despite exhaustive investigation of present-day Nautilus, the phylogenetic relationships of the five or six recognized species within this genus remain unclear. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data plus a suite of morphological characters are used to investigate phylogenetic relationships. Systematic analysis of the morphological variation fails to characterize described species as independent lineages. However, DNA sequence analysis indicates that there are three geographically distinct clades consisting of western Pacific, eastern Australian/Papua-New Guinean, and western Australian/Indonesian forms. The morphologically and genetically distinct species Nautilus scrobiculatus falls outside the three geographically recognized assemblages. Members of the genus Nautilus also exhibit low levels of sequence divergence. All these data suggest that Nautilus is currently undergoing diversification, which may have begun only several million years ago. These data also suggest that some of the morphological features used to define Nautilus species may simply represent fixed variations in isolated populations within the same species.
PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope) is a proposed 2.5-m optical/infrared telescope to be located at Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. The atmospheric conditions at Dome C deliver a high sensitivity, high photometric precision, wide-field, high spatial resolution, and high-cadence imaging capability to the PILOT telescope. These capabilities enable a unique scientific potential for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents a series of projects dealing with the nearby Universe that have been identified as key science drivers for the PILOT facility. Several projects are proposed that examine stellar populations in nearby galaxies and stellar clusters in order to gain insight into the formation and evolution processes of galaxies and stars. A series of projects will investigate the molecular phase of the Galaxy and explore the ecology of star formation, and investigate the formation processes of stellar and planetary systems. Three projects in the field of exoplanet science are proposed: a search for free-floating low-mass planets and dwarfs, a program of follow-up observations of gravitational microlensing events, and a study of infrared light-curves for previously discovered exoplanets. Three projects are also proposed in the field of planetary and space science: optical and near-infrared studies aimed at characterising planetary atmospheres, a study of coronal mass ejections from the Sun, and a monitoring program searching for small-scale Low Earth Orbit satellite debris items.
PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope) is a proposed 2.5-m optical/infrared telescope to be located at Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. Conditions at Dome C are known to be exceptional for astronomy. The seeing (above ∼30 m height), coherence time, and isoplanatic angle are all twice as good as at typical mid-latitude sites, while the water-vapour column, and the atmosphere and telescope thermal emission are all an order of magnitude better. These conditions enable a unique scientific capability for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents an overview of the optical and instrumentation suite for PILOT and its expected performance, a summary of the key science goals and observational approach for the facility, a discussion of the synergies between the science goals for PILOT and other telescopes, and a discussion of the future of Antarctic astronomy. Paper II and Paper III present details of the science projects divided, respectively, between the distant Universe (i.e. studies of first light, and the assembly and evolution of structure) and the nearby Universe (i.e. studies of Local Group galaxies, the Milky Way, and the Solar System).
This study evaluates variations in SiCl4 reactive ion etching (RIE) process parameters in order to optimize the fabrication of lateral quantum well arrays (QWA) used in III–V semiconductor laser and detector designs. Since fabrication involves MBE regrowth on SiCl4 etched surfaces, material quality of both the etched surface and GaAs regrowth are evaluated. The variation of RIE parameters involved power levels, DC bias and etch times (10 Watts, -30V, 8 min.; 25 Watts, -100V, 5 min.; 95 Watts,-340V, 2 min.) while material removal was held constant (400nm). Evaluation of the etched surfaces revealed that the lattice damage depth exceeded lOOnm for all power levels. The extent of disorder beneath the etched surface was less for the low power long etch time. Etching at higher power levels for shorter time periods resulted in smoother surfaces and enhanced electrical characteristics, which in turn yielded a higher quality GaAs regrowth region. For the RIE parameters examined in this study, the variation in defect densities seemed to have a lesser effect on device performance as compared to the extreme differences in surface morphologies. Thus, for the parameters evaluated in this work, we suggest that QWA fabrication is optimized via SiClif RIE at the high power level for a short time period.
The proposed design for PILOT is a general-purpose, wide-field (1°) 2.4 m, f/10 Ritchey-Chrétien telescope, with fast tip-tilt guiding, for 0.5-25 µm. The design allows both wide-field and diffraction-limited use at these wavelengths. The expected overall image quality, including median seeing, is 0.28-0.3'' FWHM from 0.8-2.4 µm. Point source sensitivities are estimated.
Cosmic shear offers a remarkably clean way to measure the equation of state of the Universe and its evolution. Resolution over a wide field is paramount, and Antarctica offers unique possibilities in this respect. There is an order of magnitude gain in speed over temperate sites, or a factor three in surface density. This means that PILOT outperforms much larger telescopes elsewhere, and can compete with the proposed DUNE space mission.
In this paper we review the progress towards the deployment of a
large "PILOT-like" telescope at Concordia Station, Dome C. PILOT is
a proposed 2.4 m optical/IR telescope that will cost in excess of EUR
10 m, and is thus representative of the scale of facility that will
transform Concordia into a significant international observatory. A
design study of PILOT, funded by the Australian government, is
currently underway. We describe the current status of this design
study, and discuss the implications that major international
projects such as PILOT hold for the future of Antarctic astronomy at
A parasitological survey in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, resulted in the recovery of mature specimens from 5 species of phyllobothriid tapeworms (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from 4 rajid skates: Echeneibothrium canadensis and E. dubium abyssorum specimens from Amblyraja radiata; E. vernetae and Pseudanthobothrium n.sp. from Leucoraja erinacea and L. ocellata; and P. hanseni from A. radiata and Malacoraja senta. Partial sequence data of a variable region (D2) from the large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU) were used here to determine the host distribution of immature specimens for 4 of these 5 species (E. d. abyssorum was not included in the analyses). Immature specimens from both Pseudanthobothrium spp. were identified in the same hosts as recorded previously for mature specimens, thus suggesting that there are mechanisms that prevent the attachment of the parasite in an ‘unsuitable’ host species. Immature E. canadensis specimens were recovered exclusively from A. radiata, whereas immature E. vernetae specimens were recovered from L. erinacea and A. radiata, despite the latter host species not harbouring mature E. vernetae specimens. Their presence in the latter host species may be explained by host restriction or resistance, which allows the attachment of the parasites in the ‘wrong’ host species, but not establishment or development.
Middle Archaic earthen mound complexes in the lower Mississippi valley are remote antecedents of the famous but much younger Poverty Point earthworks. Watson Brake is the largest and most complex of these early mound sites. Very extensive coring and stratigraphic studies, aided by 25 radiocarbon dates and six luminescence dates, show that minor earthworks were begun here at ca. 3500 B.C. in association with an oval arrangement of burned rock middens at the edge of a stream terrace. The full extent of the first earthworks is not yet known. Substantial moundraising began ca. 3350 B.C. and continued in stages until some time after 3000 B.C. when the site was abandoned. All 11 mounds and their connecting ridges were occupied between building bursts. Soils formed on some of these temporary surfaces, while lithics, fire-cracked rock, and fired clay/loam objects became scattered throughout the mound fills. Faunal and floral remains from a basal midden indicate all-season occupation, supported by broad-spectrum foraging centered on nuts, fish, and deer. All the overlying fills are so acidic that organics have not survived. The area enclosed by the mounds was kept clean of debris, suggesting its use as ritual space. The reasons why such elaborate activities first occurred here remain elusive. However, some building bursts covary with very well-documented increases in El Niño/Southern Oscillation events. During such rapid increases in ENSO frequencies, rainfall becomes extremely erratic and unpredictable. It may be that early moundraising was a communal response to new stresses of droughts and flooding that created a suddenly more unpredictable food base.
To describe the incidence and pattern of traumatic spinal cord injury and cauda equina injury (SCI) in a geographically defined region of Canada.
The study period was April 1, 1997 to March 31, 2000. Data were gathered from three provincial sources: administrative data from the Alberta Ministry of Health and Wellness, records from the Alberta Trauma Registry, and death certificates from the Office of the Medical Examiner.
From all three data sources, 450 cases of SCI were identified. Of these, 71 (15.8%) died prior to hospitalization. The annual incidence rate was 52.5/million population (95% CI: 47.7, 57.4). For those who survived to hospital admission, the incidence rate was 44.3/million/year (95% CI: 39.8, 48.7). The incidence rates for males were consistently higher than for females for all age groups. Motor vehicle collisions accounted for 56.4% of injuries, followed by falls (19.1%). The highest incidence of motor vehicle-related SCI occurred to those between 15 and 29 years (60/million/year). Fall-related injuries primarily occurred to those older than 60 years (45/million/year). Rural residents were 2.5 times as likely to be injured as urban residents.
Prevention strategies for SCI should target males of all ages, adolescents and young adults of both sexes, rural residents, motor vehicle collisions, and fall prevention for those older than 60 years.
Reticuloceras (Swintoceras) n. subgen. unites an early group of the mid-Carboniferous goniatite family Reticulocertidae, in which reticulate sculpture is weakly developed or lacking and the typically reticuloceratid suture has slightly expanded ventral prongs. The type species, Reticuloceras (S.) spiraloides (Bisat and Hudson, 1943), is a rare, poorly known species from the British Namurian. Two additional species, R. (S.) wainwrighti (Quinn, 1966) and R. (S.) tiro (Gordon, 1969), are common in the basal type Morrowan Series, Lower Pennsylvanian, of Arkansas. Swintoceras occurs with two distinctive, late forms of the ammonoid, Hudsonoceras: Hd. ornatum (Foord and Crick, 1897) in Britain and Hd. moorei Quinn and Saunders, 1968, in Arkansas. The cooccurrence of these taxa correlates the basal Morrowan in its type region with the Namurian Reticuloceras nodosum (R1b) Zone of Britain and thereby also dates the close of the Mid-Carboniferous Eustatic Event in the North American Midcontinent.
Population growth and concentration factors for 65Zn and 137Cs have been measured for Achnanthes brevipes Agardh, Carteria sp. Diesing, Chlamydomonas sp. Ehrenberg, Dunaliella salina Teod., Nannochloris atotnus Butcher, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum Lewin subjected to factorial combinations of eight temperatures (6–40 °C) and ten salinities (3.5–44.0 p.p.t.). Regression coefficients were calculated for polynomial models describing response surfaces for growth and radionuclide concentration. Salinity was more important than temperature in describing population growth for Carteria, Dunaliella, Nannochloris and Phaeodactylum. No independent variable was consistently of primary importance in describing 137Cs concentration factors, while temperature accounted for more variation in 65Zn concentration factors than salinity or population growth in all algae except Dunaliella. Concentration factors for 65Zn were uniformly higher than 137Cs concentration factors.
The socketed iron axe from Maid's Moreton is the largest example of a group of at least 21 such axes found in the British Isles. They can be divided into two classes by the presence, or absence, of a loop on the side of the socket. The looped form is the commonest and of British origin; the unlooped axes can be compared to Continental examples. The dating evidence for these axes is inadequate but does suggest that they were in use throughout the whole of the pre-Roman Iron Age. The shaft hole axe is less common than the socketed axe in the pre-Roman Iron Age and appears to have been introduced late in the period.