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In the 2015 review paper ‘Petawatt Class Lasers Worldwide’ a comprehensive overview of the current status of high-power facilities of
was presented. This was largely based on facility specifications, with some description of their uses, for instance in fundamental ultra-high-intensity interactions, secondary source generation, and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). With the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics being awarded to Professors Donna Strickland and Gerard Mourou for the development of the technique of chirped pulse amplification (CPA), which made these lasers possible, we celebrate by providing a comprehensive update of the current status of ultra-high-power lasers and demonstrate how the technology has developed. We are now in the era of multi-petawatt facilities coming online, with 100 PW lasers being proposed and even under construction. In addition to this there is a pull towards development of industrial and multi-disciplinary applications, which demands much higher repetition rates, delivering high-average powers with higher efficiencies and the use of alternative wavelengths: mid-IR facilities. So apart from a comprehensive update of the current global status, we want to look at what technologies are to be deployed to get to these new regimes, and some of the critical issues facing their development.
Notoedric mange, caused by obligately parasitic sarcoptiform Notoedres mites, is associated with potentially fatal dermatitis with secondary systemic disease in small mammals, felids and procyonids among others, as well as an occasional zoonosis. We describe clinical spectra in non-chiropteran hosts, review risk factors and summarize ecological and epidemiological studies. The genus is disproportionately represented on rodents. Disease in felids and procyonids ranges from very mild to death. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the mites is highly inadequate, with focal hot spots known for Notoedres cati in domestic cats and bobcats. Predisposing genetic and immunological factors are not known, except that co-infection with other parasites and anticoagulant rodenticide toxicoses may contribute to severe disease. Treatment of individual animals is typically successful with macrocytic lactones such as selamectin, but herd or wildlife population treatment has not been undertaken. Transmission requires close contact and typically is within a host species. Notoedric mange can kill half all individuals in a population and regulate host population below non-diseased density for decades, consistent with frequency-dependent transmission or spillover from other hosts. Epidemics are increasingly identified in various hosts, suggesting global change in suitable environmental conditions or increased reporting bias.
During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.
Although the association between cannabis use and violence has been reported in the literature, the precise nature of this relationship, especially the directionality of the association, is unclear.
Young males from the Cambridge Study of Delinquent Development (n = 411) were followed up between the ages of 8 and 56 years to prospectively investigate the association between cannabis use and violence. A multi-wave (eight assessments, T1–T8) follow-up design was employed that allowed temporal sequencing of the variables of interest and the analysis of violent outcome measures obtained from two sources: (i) criminal records (violent conviction); and (ii) self-reports. A combination of analytic approaches allowing inferences as to the directionality of associations was employed, including multivariate logistic regression analysis, fixed-effects analysis and cross-lagged modelling.
Multivariable logistic regression revealed that compared with never-users, continued exposure to cannabis (use at age 18, 32 and 48 years) was associated with a higher risk of subsequent violent behaviour, as indexed by convictions [odds ratio (OR) 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.19–23.59] or self-reports (OR 8.9, 95% CI 2.37–46.21). This effect persisted after controlling for other putative risk factors for violence. In predicting violence, fixed-effects analysis and cross-lagged modelling further indicated that this effect could not be explained by other unobserved time-invariant factors. Furthermore, these analyses uncovered a bi-directional relationship between cannabis use and violence.
Together, these results provide strong indication that cannabis use predicts subsequent violent offending, suggesting a possible causal effect, and provide empirical evidence that may have implications for public policy.
Tick-borne diseases are a major impediment to improved productivity of livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. Improved control of these diseases would be assisted by detailed epidemiological data. Here we used longitudinal, serological data to determine the patterns of exposure to Theileria parva, Theileria mutans, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale from 548 indigenous calves in western Kenya. The percentage of calves seropositive for the first three parasites declined from initial high levels due to maternal antibody until week 16, after which the percentage increased until the end of the study. In contrast, the percentage of calves seropositive for T. mutans increased from week 6 and reached a maximal level at week 16. Overall 423 (77%) calves seroconverted to T. parva, 451 (82%) to T. mutans, 195 (36%) to B. bigemina and 275 (50%) to A. marginale. Theileria parva antibody levels were sustained following infection, in contrast to those of the other three haemoparasites. Three times as many calves seroconverted to T. mutans before seroconverting to T. parva. No T. parva antibody response was detected in 25 calves that died of T. parva infection, suggesting that most deaths due to T. parva are the result of acute disease from primary exposure.
The cumulative effect of co-infections between pathogen pairs on the haematological response of East African Short-horn Zebu calves is described. Using a longitudinal study design a stratified clustered random sample of newborn calves were recruited into the Infectious Diseases of East African Livestock (IDEAL) study and monitored at 5-weekly intervals until 51 weeks of age. At each visit samples were collected and analysed to determine the infection status of each calf as well as their haematological response. The haematological parameters investigated included packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell count (WBC) and platelet count (Plt). The pathogens of interest included tick-borne protozoa and rickettsias, trypanosomes and intestinal parasites. Generalized additive mixed-effect models were used to model the infectious status of pathogens against each haematological parameter, including significant interactions between pathogens. These models were further used to predict the cumulative effect of co-infecting pathogen pairs on each haematological parameter. The most significant decrease in PCV was found with co-infections of trypanosomes and strongyles. Strongyle infections also resulted in a significant decrease in WBC at a high infectious load. Trypanosomes were the major cause of thrombocytopenia. Platelet counts were also affected by interactions between tick-borne pathogens. Interactions between concomitant pathogens were found to complicate the prognosis and clinical presentation of infected calves and should be taken into consideration in any study that investigates disease under field conditions.
The co-occurrence of different pathogen species and their simultaneous infection of hosts are common, and may affect host health outcomes. Co-infecting pathogens may interact synergistically (harming the host more) or antagonistically (harming the host less) compared with single infections. Here we have tested associations of infections and their co-infections with variation in growth rate using a subset of 455 animals of the Infectious Diseases of East Africa Livestock (IDEAL) cohort study surviving to one year. Data on live body weight, infections with helminth parasites and haemoparasites were collected every 5 weeks during the first year of life. Growth of zebu cattle during the first year of life was best described by a linear growth function. A large variation in daily weight gain with a range of 0·03–0·34 kg, and a mean of 0·135 kg (0·124, 0·146; 95% CI) was observed. After controlling for other significant covariates in mixed effects statistical models, the results revealed synergistic interactions (lower growth rates) with Theileria parva and Anaplasma marginale co-infections, and antagonistic interactions (relatively higher growth rates) with T. parva and Theileria mutans co-infections, compared with infections with T. parva only. Additionally, helminth infections can have a strong negative effect on the growth rates but this is burden-dependent, accounting for up to 30% decrease in growth rate in heavily infected animals. These findings present evidence of pathogen–pathogen interactions affecting host growth, and we discuss possible mechanisms that may explain observed directions of interactions as well as possible modifications to disease control strategies when co-infections are present.
One hundred and nineteen volunteers were divided into five groups, and each volunteer inoculated subcutaneously with an aqueous subunit B/Hong Kong/73 vaccine containing 40, 20, 10, or 5 μg of HA or saline alone in a 0·5 ml volume. The incidence of reactions was recorded 24 h after inoculation. One month following immunization the serum HI antibody to B/Hong Kong/73 virus was measured; each volunteer was inoculated intranasally with live, attenuated influenza B (RB77) virus; and the incidence of infection by the challenge virus was determined by HI antibody response.
The results showed that the incidence of reactions to all doses of vaccine were relatively low, the severity mild, and the duration short. However, the incidence of reactions was highest for those given 40 μg HA and least for those given 5 μg HA. The serum HI antibody responses to vaccine showed a dose-response relationship. For volunteers given 40 μg HA, 22 (96%) showed a fourfold rise in antibody titre and all volunteers had antibody titres of > 40 following immunization: for volunteers given 5 μg HA the g.m.t. increased from 16·6 to 86·1; and for those given 10 and 20 μg HA the response was intermediate. Following challenge, the lowest incidence of infection was seen in volunteers given the highest dose of vaccine. However, all doses of vaccine induced some protection against challenge virus infection, and the incidence of infection was directly related to the serum antibody titre at the time of challenge. The 50% protection titre of serum HI antibody was estimated as 15 to 20.
The anti-haemagglutinin antibody response in adult human volunteers to inactivated whole virus or tween ether split influenza A/Victoria/75 (H3N2) and A/Scotland/74 (H3N2) virus vaccines was investigated using antibody adsorption and single-radial-haemolysis (SRH) techniques. The concentrations of haemagglutinin (HA), nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix (M) antigens measured by single radial diffusion (SRD) and rocket immunoelectrophoresis were similar for both the whole virus and split vaccines. Whole virus and split vaccines induced cross-reactive (CR) antibody in 87% of vaccinees. Strain specific (SS) antibody to A/Hong Kong/1/68 or the homologous virus was induced less frequently than CR antibody. Higher anti-haemagglutinin antibody titres were detected in persons receiving the split virus vaccines than in those receiving the whole virus vaccines. No antibody to the type-specific matrix protein was detectable, but 33% of volunteers developed an antibody rise to type-specific nucleoprotein antigen.
The specificity of the anti-haemagglutinin antibody response in human adults to natural infection with A/Port Chalmers/73 (H3N2) virus was similar to that induced by inactivated vaccines in that a high proportion of subjects developed CR anti-haemagglutinin antibody, which reacted with A/Hong Kong/68 virus and the homologous A/Port Chalmers/73 virus, and SS antibody for A/Hong Kong/68 virus but SS antibody for A/Port Chalmers/73 virus was infrequently stimulated by natural infection.
Groups of student volunteers were immunized with one of five different inactivated influenza virus vaccines. The concentration of virus in the various vaccines differed by both the international unitage test and by the concentration of haemagglutinin, as measured by the single radial diffusion test; the results of the two methods of standardization showed no correlation. The serum HI response to immunization was variable; volunteers given A/England/72 showed a 16·6-fold increase in homologous serum antibody titre whilst volunteers given A/Hong Kong/68 vaccine showed a 4·2-fold increase. The variable response of volunteers to immunization could not be explained by the varied concentration of virus in the vaccines, as measured by either test, the titres of serum HI antibody present before immunization, or a combination of these two factors.
The ability to infect volunteers with WRL 105 virus 4 weeks after immunization with heterologous, inactivated virus vaccine was directly related to the degree of cross-reactivity between the haemagglutinins of this vaccine virus and WRL 105 virus. Thus, the greatest number of infections by the challenge virus were seen in volunteers given A/Hong Kong/68 vaccine, less were observed in volunteers given A/England/72 vaccine, and least were found in groups given A/Port Chalmers/73 or A/Scotland/74 vaccine. However, compared with the incidence of infection in volunteers given B/Hong Kong/73 vaccine, all the heterologous influenza A vaccine gave some immunity to challenge infection.
Groups of volunteers were immunized subcutaneously with one of three inacti vated influenza virus A/USSR/77 (HlNl) vaccine preparations; a whole virus vaccine, a surface-antigen subunit adsorbed vaccine, or an aqueous surface-antigen subunit vaccine. The reactions to immunization were recorded, and the antibody response was measured 1 month later. A fourth group of volunteers were inoculated intranasally with live attentuated A/USSR/77 (H1N1) influenza virus; the reactions and antibody response of these volunteers were also measured. One month after immunization, the incidence of infection by challenge with homologous live attentuated virus was determined for all groups of volunteers. The results showed that all four vaccines used were relatively non-reactogenic, and that inactivated vaccines induced higher titres of serum antibody than the live attenuated vaccine. All the vaccines induced significant protection against challenge virus infection which was directly related to the level of serum HI antibody response.