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Theoretical calculations and experimental observations show MoTe2 is a type II Weyl semimetal, along with many members of transition metal dichalcogenides family. We have grown highly crystalline large-area MoTe2 thin films on Si/SiO2 substrates by chemical vapor deposition. Very uniform, continuous, and smooth films were obtained as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses. Measurements of the temperature dependence of longitudinal resistivity and current–voltage characteristics at different temperature are discussed. Unsaturated, positive quadratic magnetoresistance of the as-grown thin films has been observed from 10 to 200 K. Hall resistivity measurements confirm the majority charge carriers are hole.
Trauma exposure is associated with development of depression and anxiety; yet, some individuals are resilient to these trauma-associated effects. Differentiating mechanisms underlying development of negative affect and resilience following trauma is critical for developing effective interventions. One pathway through which trauma could exert its effects on negative affect is reward-learning networks. In this study, we examined relationships among lifetime trauma, reward-learning network function, and emotional states in young adults.
One hundred eleven young adults self-reported trauma and emotional states and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a monetary reward task. Trauma-associated neural activation and functional connectivity were analyzed during reward prediction error (RPE). Relationships between trauma-associated neural functioning and affective and anxiety symptoms were examined.
Number of traumatic events was associated with greater ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) activation, and lower vACC connectivity with the right insula, frontopolar, inferior parietal, and temporoparietal regions, during RPE. Lower trauma-associated vACC connectivity with frontoparietal regions implicated in regulatory and decision-making processes was associated with heightened affective and anxiety symptoms; lower vACC connectivity with insular regions implicated in interoception was associated with lower affective and anxiety symptoms.
In a young adult sample, two pathways linked the impact of trauma on reward-learning networks with higher v. lower negative affective and anxiety symptoms. The disconnection between vACC and regions implicated in decision-making and self-referential processes may reflect aberrant regulatory but appropriate self-focused mechanisms, respectively, conferring risk for v. resilience against negative affective and anxiety symptoms.
Alcohol use is commonly initiated during adolescence, with earlier onset known to increase the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Altered function in neural reward circuitry is thought to increase the risk for AUD. To test the hypothesis that adolescent alcohol misuse primes the brain for alcohol-related psychopathology in early adulthood, we examined whether adolescent alcohol consumption rates predicted reward responsivity in the ventral striatum (VS), and in turn, AUD symptoms in adulthood.
A total of 139 low income, racially diverse urban males reported on their alcohol use at ages 11, 12, 15, and 17; completed self-reports of personality, psychiatric interviews, and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan at age 20; and completed a psychiatric interview at age 22. We measured adolescent alcohol use trajectories using latent growth curve modeling and measured neural responses to monetary reward using a VS region of interest. We tested indirect effects of adolescent alcohol use on AUD symptoms at age 22 via VS reward-related reactivity at age 20.
Greater acceleration in adolescent alcohol use predicted increased VS response during reward anticipation at age 20. VS reactivity to reward anticipation at age 20 predicted AUD symptoms at age 22, over and above concurrent symptoms. Accelerated adolescent alcohol use predicted AUD symptoms in early adulthood via greater VS reactivity to reward anticipation.
Prospective findings support a pathway through which adolescent alcohol use increases the risk for AUD in early adulthood by impacting reward-related neural functioning. These results highlight increased VS reward-related reactivity as a biomarker for AUD vulnerability.
This article presents the results of a program of radiocarbon dating and Bayesian modeling from the precontact Yup'ik site of Nunalleq (GDN-248) in subarctic southwestern Alaska. Nunalleq is deeply stratified, presenting a robust relative chronological framework of well-defined individual house floors abundant in ecofacts suitable for radiocarbon dating. Capitalizing on this potential, we present the results of one of the first applications of Bayesian statistical modeling of radiocarbon data from an archaeological site in the North American Arctic. Using these methods, we demonstrate that it is possible to generate robust, high-resolution chronological models from Arctic archaeology. Radiocarbon dates, procured prior to the program of dating and modeling presented here, suggested an approximately three-century duration of occupation at the site. The results of Bayesian modeling nuance this interpretation. While it is possible that there may have been activity for almost three centuries (beginning in the late fourteenth century), occupation of the dwelling complex, which dominates the site, was more likely to have endured for no more than a century. The results presented here suggest that the occupation of Nunalleq likely encompassed three generations beginning cal AD 1570–1630 before being curtailed by conflict around cal AD 1645–1675.
East-west glacial striations and grooves were discovered on the summit ridge of Observation Hill, which parallel the present direction of shelf ice movement to the east and south-east of the Hut Point peninsula. This evidence suggests that Observation Hill may have been glaciated by a thickened McMurdo lobe of the adjacent Ross Ice Shelf, moving west, as it does today.
Identifying youth who may engage in future substance use could facilitate early identification of substance use disorder vulnerability. We aimed to identify biomarkers that predicted future substance use in psychiatrically un-well youth.
LASSO regression for variable selection was used to predict substance use 24.3 months after neuroimaging assessment in 73 behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth aged 13.9 (s.d. = 2.0) years, 30 female, from three clinical sites in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) study. Predictor variables included neural activity during a reward task, cortical thickness, and clinical and demographic variables.
Future substance use was associated with higher left middle prefrontal cortex activity, lower left ventral anterior insula activity, thicker caudal anterior cingulate cortex, higher depression and lower mania scores, not using antipsychotic medication, more parental stress, older age. This combination of variables explained 60.4% of the variance in future substance use, and accurately classified 83.6%.
These variables explained a large proportion of the variance, were useful classifiers of future substance use, and showed the value of combining multiple domains to provide a comprehensive understanding of substance use development. This may be a step toward identifying neural measures that can identify future substance use disorder risk, and act as targets for therapeutic interventions.
We summarise the first year of operation of the Medium Deep Survey - a key project of the HST. Two fields in the LMC are discussed and some preliminary scientific results presented. We also comment on image deconvolution for the extragalactic fields observed as part of the Medium Deep Survey.
With HST and WFPC2, galaxies in the Medium Deep Survey can be reliably classified to magnitudes I814 ≲ 22.0 in the F814W band, at a mean redshift . The main result is the relatively high proportion (~40%) of objects which are in some way irregular or anomalous, and which are of relevance in understanding the origin of the familiar excess population of faint galaxies. These diverse objects include compact galaxies, apparently interacting pairs, galaxies with superluminous starforming regions and diffuse low surface brightness galaxies of various forms. The ‘irregulars’ and ‘peculiar’ galaxies contribute most of the excess counts in the I-band at our limiting magnitude, and may explain the ‘faint blue galaxy’ problem.
The short period and small amplitude of pulsation for the 1d.95 Cepheid SU Cas make it an excellent candidate for pulsation in a purely excited mode, and, as summarized by Gieren (1982), there is some evidence from recent radius determinations for this variable which suggests that it is indeed an overtone pulsator.
Estimates of the prevalence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) among
military personnel and combat veterans rely almost exclusively on
retrospective self-reports; however, reliability of these reports has
received little attention.
To examine the consistency of reporting of mTBI over time and identify
factors associated with inconsistent reporting.
A longitudinal cohort of 948 US National Guard Soldiers deployed to Iraq
completed self-report questionnaire screening for mTBI and psychological
symptoms while in-theatre 1 month before returning home (time 1,
T1) and 1 year later (time 2, T2).
Most respondents (n = 811, 85.5%) were consistent in
their reporting of mTBI across time. Among those who were inconsistent in
their reports (n = 137, 14.5%), the majority denied mTBI
at T1 and affirmed mTBI at T2 (n = 123, 89.8%). Respondents rarely
endorsed mTBI in-theatre and later denied mTBI (n = 14,
10.2% of those with inconsistent reports). Post-deployment post-traumatic
stress symptoms and non-specific physical complaints were significantly
associated with inconsistent report of mTBI.
Military service members' self-reports of mTBI are generally consistent
over time; however, inconsistency in retrospective self-reporting of mTBI
status is associated with current posttraumatic stress symptoms and
non-specific physical health complaints.
Methanol-water (4:1, v/v) crude extracts (50 mg mL−1) of 25 Jamaican medicinal plants were screened in vitro for anthelmintic activity using infective third-stage larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. The most effective extract was further chemically scrutinized to isolate and identify the source of the bioactivity, and the efficacy of this compound was compared with ivermectin. Eosin exclusion (0·1 mg mL−1) served as the indicator of mortality in all bioassays. A crude extract of Eryngium foetidum (Apiaceae) was significantly (Probit Analysis, P<0·05) more potent than the other plant extracts, taking 18·9 h to kill 50% (LT50) of the larvae. Further, the petrol extract of E. foetidum was significantly more effective (Probit Analysis, P<0·05) at killing the larvae (LT50, 4·7 h) than either its methanol–water or dichloromethane extract. The latter two effected less than 1% larval mortality after 120 h. With bioassay-driven column chromatography of the petrol extract, trans-2-dodecenal (eryngial) was identified and chemically isolated as the main anthelmintic compound in E. foetidum. There was a significant difference between the 24 h LD50 values (mm) of trans-2-dodecenal (0·461) and ivermectin (2·251) but there was none between the 48 h LD50 values (mm): trans-2-dodecenal (0·411) and ivermectin (0·499) in vitro.
Systemic corticosteroids are a mainstay of treatment for many pediatric medical conditions. Although their impact on the central nervous system has been well-studied in animal models and adults, less is known about such effects in pediatric populations. The current study investigated acute effects of corticosteroids on memory, executive functions, emotion, and behavior in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Patients 8–17 years with IBD (Crohn's disease, CD; ulcerative colitis, UC) on high-dose prednisone (n = 33) and IBD patients in remission off steroids (n = 33) completed standardized neuropsychological tests and behavior rating scales. In the IBD sample as a whole, few steroid effects were found for laboratory cognitive measures, but steroid-treated patients were rated as exhibiting more problems with emotional, and to a lesser extent with cognitive function in daily life. Steroid effects, assessed by laboratory measures and questionnaires, were more prevalent in CD than UC patients; UC patients on steroids sometimes performed better than controls. Sleep disruption also predicted some outcomes, diminishing somewhat the magnitude of the steroid effects. Corticosteroid therapy can have acute effects on cognition, emotion, and behavior in chronically ill children; the clinical and long-term significance of these effects require further investigation. (JINS, 2012, 19, 1–14)
Human campylobacteriosis exhibits a distinctive seasonality in temperate regions. This paper aims to identify the origins of this seasonality. Clinical isolates [typed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)] and epidemiological data were collected from Scotland. Young rural children were found to have an increased burden of disease in the late spring due to strains of non-chicken origin (e.g. ruminant and wild bird strains from environmental sources). In contrast the adult population had an extended summer peak associated with chicken strains. Travel abroad and UK mainland travel were associated with up to 17% and 18% of cases, respectively. International strains were associated with chicken, had a higher diversity than indigenous strains and a different spectrum of MLST types representative of these countries. Integrating empirical epidemiology and molecular subtyping can successfully elucidate the seasonal components of human campylobacteriosis. The findings will enable public health officials to focus strategies to reduce the disease burden.
Bulk ion implantations of AlxGa1-xAs (x = 0.6 or 0.85) were performed at 77 K with 1.5 MeV Kr+, 1 MeV Ar+ or 1.5 MeV++ ions, and the resulting damage state examined by using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry-channeling at 77 K and 293 K and transmission electron microscopy at 300 K. Amorphization of a portion of the A1xGa1-x As layer occurred at 77 K only for the 1.5 MeV Kr+ implantation, although the dose required to cause amorphization was higher for the higher Al content alloy. TRIM calculations[10–11] show that with this implantation the density of high energy density cascades varies as a function of depth through the layer and that these are superimposed on a high, uniform density of defects. Comparison of the ion channeling spectra at 77 K and 293 K shows that recovery occurs over a portion of the layer in the Al0.6Ga0.4As but is not detected in the A10.85Ga0.15As layer. In both alloys, the room temperature microstructure consists of an amorphous and a crystalline region. The amorphous region extends from the deeper AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs interface into the layer, and is separated from the crystalline material by a crystalline region containing planar defects. The difference between the alloys is in the extent of this latter region, which decreases in width with increasing Al content. These results will be used to examine current models for amorphization in the AlxGa1-xAs system.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Study of Normal Brain Development is a landmark study in which structural and metabolic brain development and behavior are followed longitudinally from birth to young adulthood in a population-based sample of healthy children. Cross-sectional findings from the neuropsychological test battery have been previously described (Waber et al., 2007). The present report details 4-year longitudinal neuropsychological outcomes for those children who were aged 6 to 18 years at baseline (N = 383), of whom 219 (57.2%) completed all 3 visits. Primary observations were (1) individual children displayed considerable variation in scores across visits on the same measures; (2) income-related differences were more prominent in the longitudinal than in the cross-sectional data; (3) no association between cognitive and behavioral measures and body mass index; and (4) several measures showed practice effects, despite the 2-year interval between visits. These data offer an unparalleled opportunity to observe normative performance and change over time on a set of standard and commonly used neuropsychological measures in a population-based sample of healthy children. They thus provide important background for the use and interpretation of these instruments in both research settings and clinical practice. (JINS, 2012, 18, 179–190)
The basic principles of inheritance were not established as a consequence of an immense accumulation of descriptive evidence. In this respect, the history of genetics differs from that of many other branches of biology. Before Mendel's conceptual tour de force and indeed, until his rules of diploid inheritance were rediscovered at the turn of the century, the phenomenon of heredity remained a mystery. A number of plant hybridists grappled with the apparently inscrutable properties of variation and even Darwin, the most incisive and comprehensive thinker among nineteenth-century biologists, remained baffled. Nevertheless, in the space of some 80 years, a staggering explosion in our understanding of heredity and in the development of analytical techniques has propelled the science of genetics into the middle of the biological stage where it plays a role rather analogous to that of atomic physics vis-à-vis the physical sciences.
This paper addresses issues in the theory of field-induced electron emission. First, it summarises our present understanding of the theory of Fowler-Nordheim (FN) plots, and shows the relationship between a recent precise (in standard FN theory) approach to the interpretation of the FN-plot intercept and older approximate approaches. Second, it comments on the interpretation of FN plots taken from semiconductor field emitters. Third, it summarises the main points of a recent hypothesis about the mechanism of field-induced emission from carbonbased films and other electrically nanostructured heterogeneous (ENH) materials. Weaknesses in previous hypotheses are noted. It is hypothesised that thin films of all ENH materials, when deposited on a conducting substrate, will emit electrons in appropriate circumstances. Such films emit electrons at low macroscopic fields because they contain conducting nanostructure inside them: this structure generates sufficient geometrical field enhancement near the film/vacuum interface that more-or-less normal Fowler-Nordheim emission can occur. In connection with experiments on amorphous carbon films carried out by a group in Fribourg, it is shown that nanostructure of the size measured by scanning probe techniques should be able to generate field enhancement of the size measured in field electron spectroscopy experiments. This result provides a quantitative corroboration of other work suggesting that emission from amorphous carbon films is primarily due to geometrical field enhancement by nanostructures inside the film. Some counter-arguments to the internal-field-enhancement hypothesis are considered and disposed of. Some advantages of ENH materials as broad-area field emission electron sources are noted; these include control of material design.
Substrate wafers used for fabrication of P/P+ epitaxial silicon wafers were preanneal heat treated at 650°C in nitrogen ambients prior to the epitaxial deposition process for various periods up to 300 minutes. Subsequently, epitaxial wafers were subjected to CMOS simulation heat treatments. Postepitaxial nucleation heat treatment at 750°C in nitrogen ambient was also done on some epitaxial wafers. The results shows that preanneal heat treatment can preserve precipitate nuclei from dissolution during the epitaxial deposition process and lead to a high bulk defect density. These results also indicate the effect of the thermal history and spatial location in the grown crystal on the bulk defect formation.