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Recent years have seen an exponential increase in the variety of healthcare data captured across numerous sources. However, mechanisms to leverage these data sources to support scientific investigation have remained limited. In 2013 the Pediatric Heart Network (PHN), funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, developed the Integrated CARdiac Data and Outcomes (iCARD) Collaborative with the goals of leveraging available data sources to aid in efficiently planning and conducting PHN studies; supporting integration of PHN data with other sources to foster novel research otherwise not possible; and mentoring young investigators in these areas. This review describes lessons learned through the development of iCARD, initial efforts and scientific output, challenges, and future directions. This information can aid in the use and optimisation of data integration methodologies across other research networks and organisations.
SiO2 nanospheres have been produced via a high temperature evaporation process and they have been Ni or Ag plated using electroless plating solutions. These samples were examined by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Magnetic Resonance (MR). The initial SiO2 nanospheres were about 30 nm in diameter, and the Ni plating layer resulted in a 25nm thick metallic Ni coverage, while the Ag coverage was estimated to be in the 150 nm range. In the case of the Ni/SiO2 nanosphere composites, the MR signals show the presence of Ni+2 and Ni+3 paramagnetic centers, seen below 40K, and ferromagnetic metallic Ni, which is seen above 40K. The dried Ni plating solution (with no SiO2) shows only the presence of paramagnetic Ni+3. These results suggest that an interfacial reaction at the surface of the SiO2 nanospheres leads to the formation of ferromagnetic Ni, which deposits onto the spheres and forms a ferromagnetic Ni/SiO2 nanosphere composite. In the case of the Ag/SiO2 nanosphere composites, no MR signal is seen from the non-magnetic Ag, but strong paramagnetic behavior has been noted for Co+2, which originates from the plating solution.
Non-resonant microwave absorption is employed to probe YBCO/PrBCO superlattices and compare the response to that of a YBCO film. Near the transition temperatures, the response of the superlattice samples and the YBCO film have similar amplitudes and orientation dependencies. At lower temperatures, the response of the superlattices is much stronger than that of the YBCO film and, while both responses are hysteretic at low temperatures, the widths of the hysteresis have opposite orientation dependencies, which we attribute to the role of the PrBCO layers.
Tape casting technology has been developed for the production of ceramic composites using fine powders of alumina and zirconia with an average particle size in the range 0.25-0.3 μm. These powders require careful control of the dispersant/solids ratio in order to minimize the slip viscosity, and to prevent the rejection of excess dispersant during solvent evaporation. In this regard phosphate ester has been found to be an effective dispersant. The choice of solvent is also important, with a non-polar solvent exhibiting more forgiving behaviour. The use of such fine powders lowers the solids loading permitted in the tape casting slip to about 22 vol.%, with a resulting green density of less than 54% of theoretical. However, high sintered densities can be achieved in both single tapes and laminates. Constraints imposed on the tape during solvent evaporation lead to a difference in green density within the tapes, and strategies need to be developed to counteract this.
Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), temperature dependent Hall effect measurements and photoluminesence (PL) are used to examine the assumption that the residual donor in β-SiC films is nitrogen. At low temperatures the ESR has a three line isotropic spectrum which is characteristic of a central hyperfine interaction with nitrogen. The temperature dependence of the intensity of the nitrogen ESR signal correlates with the concentration of un-ionized donors measured by the Hall effect. Donor-Acceptor pair PL spectra are used to establish that the binding energy of the dominant donor in the films is the same as the nitrogen donor observed in Lely-grown samples. Neither PL nor ESR provide any evidence for the presence of a shallower donor.