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Standards for organic pig production recommend that growing pigs are maintained on pasture. There is currently no information on the nutritional implications of such a system, since grazing intakes have not been recorded in pigs of this production stage. This study used n-alkane methodology previously validated in sows (Wilson et al., 1999) to measure the herbage intakes of individual pigs under such conditions.
Due to their extremely small luminosity compared to the stars they orbit, planets outside our own Solar System are extraordinarily difficult to detect directly in optical light. Careful photometric monitoring of distant stars, however, can reveal the presence of exoplanets via the microlensing or eclipsing effects they induce. The international PLANET collaboration is performing such monitoring using a cadre of semi-dedicated telescopes around the world. Their results constrain the number of gas giants orbiting 1–7 AU from the most typical stars in the Galaxy. Upgrades in the program are opening regions of “exoplanet discovery space” – toward smaller masses and larger orbital radii – that are inaccessible to the Doppler velocity technique.
Results of further calculations are presented to explore the non-linear, Zeeman overlap effect as the cause for the circular polarization of astrophysical masers. Emphasis is placed on the regime in which the Zeeman splitting is small and on the variation of the polarization with maser saturation.
The dates listed were obtained using a stainless steel counter with an active volume of 1.3 L and a background of 16.3 cpm at an absolute filling pressure of 152 cm Hg. The present proportional counter in use is made of O.F.H.C. copper, and has an active volume of 1.25 L and a background of 5.2 cpm, at an absolute counter filling pressure of 152 cm Hg. CO2 is used as the counting gas and the counter is filled to a pressure of between 76 cm and 228 cm of Hg (depending on the sample size) at a temperature of 23 ± 0.3°C. The counter is shielded, starting from the top, by 5 cm of lead and 26 cm of iron, and is surrounded by an array of 22 Geiger tubes, and then finally by 2.5 cm of mercury. The thickness of the sides and base is greater than 10 cm of iron. As yet no neutron shielding is used and this probably accounts for the large fluctuations of background with barometric pressure (0.32 cpm per 1 cm Hg change in the pressure).
When children have marked problems with motor coordination, they often have problems with attention and impulse control. Here, we map the neuroanatomic substrate of motor coordination in childhood and ask whether this substrate differs in the presence of concurrent symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Participants were 226 children. All completed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5)-based assessment of ADHD symptoms and standardized tests of motor coordination skills assessing aiming/catching, manual dexterity and balance. Symptoms of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) were determined using parental questionnaires. Using 3 Tesla magnetic resonance data, four latent neuroanatomic variables (for the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia and thalamus) were extracted and mapped onto each motor coordination skill using partial least squares pathway modeling.
The motor coordination skill of aiming/catching was significantly linked to latent variables for both the cerebral cortex (t = 4.31, p < 0.0001) and the cerebellum (t = 2.31, p = 0.02). This effect was driven by the premotor/motor cortical regions and the superior cerebellar lobules. These links were not moderated by the severity of symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. In categorical analyses, the DCD group showed atypical reduction in the volumes of these regions. However, the group with DCD alone did not differ significantly from those with DCD and co-morbid ADHD.
The superior cerebellar lobules and the premotor/motor cortex emerged as pivotal neural substrates of motor coordination in children. The dimensions of these motor coordination regions did not differ significantly between those who had DCD, with or without co-morbid ADHD.
Calculations are summarized for the spectral and spatial distribution of maser radiation that emerges from a turbulent Keplerian disk when viewed nearly edge-on. A close comparison is made with the refined observational data about the masing accretion disk around the presumed massive black hole at the nucleus of the galaxy NGC 4258.
We review the current status and future prospects of the PLANET collaboration, an international team of astronomers performing high-precision photometric monitoring of microlensing events. Our photometric precision and sampling is characterised and the suitability of the database for variable star studies is discussed. Preliminary results on K-giant stability are presented.
Surface phenomena on interstellar dust grains, which are relevant for molecule formation, are summarized. For various molecular species in the interstellar gas, the dependence of abundance on gas density and the degree of shielding of starlight is predicted. These predictions seem to fit with recent observations on carbon-monoxide, but there seems to be a discrepancy for formaldehyde.
Factor-analytic studies have found that depressive, bipolar, post-traumatic, obsessive–compulsive, and anxiety disorders – jointly referred to as the emotional disorders – form an internalizing spectrum that includes distress and fear subfactors. However, placement of some disorders is uncertain. Also, prior research analysed dichotomous interview-based diagnoses or dimensional self-report measures. We investigated this structure using a third-generation measure – the Interview for Mood and Anxiety Symptoms (IMAS) – that combines strengths of a clinical interview with dimensional assessment.
The interview was administered to 385 students and 288 psychiatric out-patients. Participants were reinterviewed 2 months later.
Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified three factors: distress (depression, generalized anxiety, post-traumatic stress, irritability, and panic syndrome); fear (social anxiety, agoraphobia, specific phobia, and obsessive–compulsive); and bipolar (mania and obsessive–compulsive). The structure was consistent over time and across samples, except that panic and agoraphobia had higher factor loadings in patients. Longitudinal analyses revealed high temporal stability of the factors (test–retest r = 0.72 to 0.87), but also substantial disorder-specific stability.
This investigation – which bridges diagnostic and self-report studies – found three subfactors of internalizing psychopathology. It provided support for a new subfactor, clarified the placement of obsessive–compulsive and bipolar disorders, and demonstrated that this model generalizes across populations. The accumulating research suggests the need to recognize formally the close links among the emotional disorders, as well as empirical clusters within this spectrum. The IMAS demonstrated strong psychometric properties and can be useful for various research and clinical applications by providing dimensional, interview-based assessment of the emotional disorders.
The most important contribution to the subject of Urartian archaeology is the publication in 1950 of a preliminary report on the excavations at Karmir-Blur. This (Karmir Blur, I) is a short work of 97 pages accompanied by 16 half-tone illustrations and 64 text figures by B. B. Piotrovsky (Akademii Nauk Armyanskoy S.S.R.., Erivan, 1950). Its importance lies in the fact, first, that it is the first controlled excavation of any importance which has taken place in Urartian territory, and second, in the nature of the material discovered and described. The care with which the excavation was evidently conducted further adds to its importance. As copies of this work outside the “Iron Curtain” must be exceedingly rare, we have thought fit to present a detailed and illustrated summary for the benefit of Western students. The book, too, may be condensed with some profit, as it repeats itself in different chapters yet lacks enough cross-references.
The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) is carrying out a survey as part of an international collaboration to image the northe, at a common resolution, in emission from all major constituents of the interstellar medium; the neutral atomic gas, the molecular gas, the ionised gas, dust and relativistic plasma. For many of these constituents the angular resolution of the images (1 arcmin) will be more than a factor of 10 better than any previous studies. The aim is to produce a publicly-available database of high resolution, high-dynamic range images of the Galaxy for multi-phase studies of the physical states and processes in the interstellar medium. We will sketch the main scientific motivations as well as describe some preliminary results from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey/Releve Canadien du Plan Galactique (CGPS/RCPG).
The 2008 UK government White Paper, published as part of the Managing Radioactive Waste Safety programme, identified benefits to disposing of all of the UK's higher activity wastes at the same site. That is, a single geological disposal facility (GDF) could be constructed that consists of a module for low- and intermediate-level waste, and a module for high-level waste and spent fuel.
A safety case for a co-located GDF will have to consider the extent to which evolving thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical and gas (THMCG) conditions in and around one module may affect conditions in the other module, including the extent to which barrier performance and radionuclide migration behaviour could be altered. Several research projects have been undertaken on behalf of Radioactive Waste Management Directorate aimed at understanding and evaluating the THMCG interactions that might occur during the disposal facility operational and post-closure phases.
This paper describes research on THMCG interactions between disposal modules based on illustrative GDF designs for different host rock environments. Interactions were evaluated using simple analytical solutions and detailed three-dimensional models. The analyses demonstrated that interactions can be controlled by design constraints.
Herpes virus infections can cause cognitive impairment during and after acute encephalitis. Although chronic, latent/persistent infection is considered to be relatively benign, some studies have documented cognitive impairment in exposed persons that is untraceable to encephalitis. These studies were conducted among schizophrenia (SZ) patients or older community dwellers, among whom it is difficult to control for the effects of co-morbid illness and medications. To determine whether the associations can be generalized to other groups, we examined a large sample of younger control individuals, SZ patients and their non-psychotic relatives (n=1852).
Using multivariate models, cognitive performance was evaluated in relation to exposures to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), controlling for familial and diagnostic status and sociodemographic variables, including occupation and educational status. Composite cognitive measures were derived from nine cognitive domains using principal components of heritability (PCH). Exposure was indexed by antibodies to viral antigens.
PCH1, the most heritable component of cognitive performance, declines with exposure to CMV or HSV-1 regardless of case/relative/control group status (p = 1.09 × 10−5 and 0.01 respectively), with stronger association with exposure to multiple herpes viruses (β = −0.25, p = 7.28 × 10−10). There were no significant interactions between exposure and group status.
Latent/persistent herpes virus infections can be associated with cognitive impairments regardless of other health status.
An analysis was undertaken to measure age-specific vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 2010/11 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) and monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine (PIV) administered in 2009/2010. The test-negative case-control study design was employed based on patients consulting primary care. Overall TIV effectiveness, adjusted for age and month, against confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm 2009 infection was 56% (95% CI 42–66); age-specific adjusted VE was 87% (95% CI 45–97) in <5-year-olds and 84% (95% CI 27–97) in 5- to 14-year-olds. Adjusted VE for PIV was only 28% (95% CI −6 to 51) overall and 72% (95% CI 15–91) in <5-year-olds. For confirmed influenza B infection, TIV effectiveness was 57% (95% CI 42–68) and in 5- to 14-year-olds 75% (95% CI 32–91). TIV provided moderate protection against the main circulating strains in 2010/2011, with higher protection in children. PIV administered during the previous season provided residual protection after 1 year, particularly in the <5 years age group.
This chapter will examine how religion/spirituality plays an important role as a resource used by most people in coping with the immediate, as well as longer-term, consequences of highly stressful or traumatic experiences. First, working definitions of the key concepts of resilience and religion/spirituality will be given. Distinctions are made between definitions for general communications and operational definitions suitable for clinical and research purposes. Spirituality is conceptualized as a dynamic process that is an integral and inseparable part of humanity. A current conceptual model of spirituality as being multidimensional in nature is presented, and core dimensions are described. Findings from a selective review of current studies on religion and/or spirituality and resilience are presented. Four key obstacles, or “spiritual red flags,” are identified, and a group therapy module for addressing them is presented. Finally, conclusions about our current knowledge, as well as recommendations for future clinical and research applications are made.
Spirituality is acknowledged as an important part of life by most individuals. Annual Gallup polls consistently show that more than 90% of the US population report a “belief in God,” and approximately 70% report affiliation with a faith community and attending religious services. In addition, religion or spirituality has been consistently linked to positive mental (Nooney & Woodrum, 2002) and physical (Powell et al., 2003) health functioning, as well as increased longevity (Oxman et al., 1995). When mental health services are sought, clergy are most frequently the first point of contact, with more than 40% seeking counseling from them rather than mental health providers (Weaver et al., 1997). In the immediate aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11 2001, more than 90% of those surveyed reported that they coped by “turning to religion,” second only to “talking with others,” which was endorsed by 98% (Schuster et al., 2001). However, despite the widely recognized positive aspects of religion or spirituality, there are large gaps in our scientific knowledge of the dynamic processes of spirituality that could explain these relationships.
Inconel, tantalum and a silver-palladium alloy were used to fabricate MgB2tapes. The tapes, made by the Powder In Tube (PIT) method, were heat-treated at 800°C and 900°C in 1 atmosphere of flowing argon. The microstructure and phase composition of the tapes were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD). Critical temperatures (Tc) and magnetization-applied magnetic field (M-H) curves were measured by SQUID magnetometry. It is found that between 800–900°C inconel and tantalum sheaths have no effect on the Tc,inductive of the material. However, under certain processing conditions, the silver-palladium sheath can decrease the Tcor destroy the superconductivity completely. The inconel sheathed tape was found to have better superconducting properties than the tantalum and silver-palladium sheathed tapes. Consistency checks have been applied to verify the validity of the Bean Model in obtaining the critical current density (Jc) from magnetization data. The inconel sheathed tape is estimated to have a magnetization Jc(5K, ∼0.5 T) of 1.4 × 105A/cm2.